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Presented to the Faculty oj Forestry 




LIBRARY 

Arthur J. Herridge 



1988 



.A.D.. 



PAPEKS AND REPORTS 



UPON 



FORESTRY, FOREST SCHOOLS, 

FOREST ADMINISTRATION AND MANAGEMENT 



IN 



EUROPE, AMERICA, AND THE BRITISH POSSESSIONS, 



AND OPON 

FORESTS AS PUBLIC PARKS AND SANITARY RESORTS 

COLLECTED BY 

MR. A. KIRKWOOD, 

(Chief Officer of the Lands Branch of the Department of Crown Lands) 'under the direction 

of the Commissioner of Crown Lands, 

TO ACCOMPANY THE REPORT OF THE ROYAL COMMISSION ON FOREST RESERVA 

VATION AND NATIONAL PARK. 



PRINTED B7 ORDER OF THE LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY. 



fcftCULTY OF FORESTRY 
UIWVEHS3TY OF 




APR 51989 



TORONTO : 

PRINTED BY WARWICK & SONS, 68 & 70 FRONT STREET WEST 

1893. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



PAGE. . 

Introduction 5 

The Utility of Forests 7 

Capital Employed 

Precipitations or Rainfall 9 

Evaporation 9 

Mechanical Effect of Forests 11 

Hygienic Effects of Forests , 12 

Deforestation in Russia . . - = 14 

A Plea for Planting : 16 

Trees for Shelter 17 

Forestry Bye-products 18 

Geographical Distribution of Forest trees of Canada 26 

Levels of the Ottawa, Mattawa, Lake Nipissing, etc 29 

Forest Protection and Tree Culture on Water Frontages 34 

Systematic Management of Forests 39 

Forestry in the Colonies and India 47 

Notes on Forest Management in Germany 62 

Forest Destruction, its Causes and Results 79 

United States Consular Reports on European Forestry 91 

Forestry in France 113 

Timber Resources and Timber Trade of Canada 154 

Recent and Existing Timber Regulations in Canada .- 191 

Ontario Fire Act and Fire-ranging System 206 

Rocky Mountains Park of Canada 212 

The Adirondacks and Adirondack Park, etc 220 

The Yellowstone National Park 249 

California Public Park 253 

Ancient Forest Laws 254 

Forest Lands of the United States . . . 262 



INTRODUCTION. 



" A great State was a desert, and the land 
Lay bare and lifeless under sun and storm, 
Treeless and shelterless. Spring came and went, 
And came, but brought no joy ; but, in its stead, 
The desolation of the ravening floods, 
That leaped like wolves or wild cats from the hills, 
And spread destruction over fruitful farms ; 
Devouring as they went the works of man, 
And sweeping seaward Nature's kindly soils, 
To choke the water-courses worse than waste. 

" The forest trees, that in the olden time 
The people's glory, and the poet's pride- 
Tempered the air and guarded well the earth, 
And, under spreading boughs, for ages kept 
Great reservoirs to hold the snow and rain, 
From which the moisture thro' the teeming year, 
Flowed equably but freely all were gone. 
Their precious bales exchanged for petty cash, 
The cash that melted and had left no sign ; 
The logger and the lumberman were dead ; 
The axe had rusted out for lack of use ; 
But all the endless evil they had done 
Was manifested in the desert waste. 

' ' Dead springs no longer sparkled in the sun ; 
Lost and forgotten brooks no longer laughed, 
Deserted mills mourned all their moveless wheel* 
The snow no longer covered, as with wool, 
Mountain and plain, but buried starving flocks 
In Arctic drifts ; in rivers and canals 
The vessels rotted idly in the mud, 
Until the spring flood buried all their bones ; 
Great cities that had thriven marv'lously, 
Before their source of thrift was swept away, 
Faded and perished, as a plant will die 
With water banished from its roots and leaves ; 
And men sat starving in their treeless waste, 
Beside their treeless farms and empty marts, 
And wondered at the ways of Providence ! " 



THE UTILITY OF FORESTS.* 



The effects of forests may be looked at from the point of view of the owner 
or from that of the State. The owner considers, in the first place, the benefits 
which he personally derives from his forests ; the State appreciates the effects 
which they have upon the country and the nation as a whole. 

The important direct effects of forests are due to the produce which they 
yield, the capital which they represent and the work which they provide. 

Wood is used as timber in construction, ship-building, machinery, agricul- 
ture, for tools, furniture, etc., and as fuel for domestic and industrial firing. The 
quantity of wood required in a country depends on various considerations. In 
modern times iron and other materials have, to a considerable extent, replaced 
timber, while coal, lignite and peat compete with firewood ; nevertheless, wood 
is still indispensable and likely to remain so. The more general introduction of 
substitutes for firewood has, however, drawn increased attention to the produc- 
tion of timber in preference to firewood. For instance, of the total produce of 
the Saxon State Forests, only 35 per cent, were classified for timber in 1850, but 
the proportion has risen to 75 percent, in 1880. At the same time, new demands 
for the consumption of wood have sprung up, such as the preparation of wood- 
pulp for the manufacture of paper. It is estimated that the annual consumption 
of wood in this industry in Germany alone amounts to upwards of 40,000,000 
cubic feet. 

FORESTS AS OBJECTS OF INDUSTRY. 

The capital employed in forestry consists principally of the soil and the 
growing stock of wood. When the working is of an intermittent nature, the 
amount of capital fluctuates from time to time ; when the working is so arranged 
that an equal annual return is secured, the capital remains of the same amount, 
and consists of the soil plus the permanently present growing stock. 

The soil is called the fixed, the growing stock the movable or shifting capi- 
tal of forestry. The proportion of the one to the other depends chiefly on the 
method of treatment. In forests treated as coppice woods the fixed may be 
greater than the movable capital ; but in high forests where the object is to pro- 
duce timber of some size, the shifting capital is generally of considerably greater 
value than the soil. An example will illustrate this : Assuming that an area of 
one hundred acres is treated as a Scotch pine timber forest, under a rotation of 
one hundred years, with the object of obtaining an annually equal return ; in that 
case one acre must be stocked with one year old seedlings, another with two year's 
old seedlings, another with three years' old trees, and so on to the last acre which 
would be stocked with trees one hundred years old. Every year the oldest wood 
one hundred years old is cut over and the area at once restocked. Immediately 
after the cutting ninety -nine acres remain stocked with trees ranging in age from 

* A Manual of Forestry : By William Schlich, Ph.D., Principal Professor of Forestry at the Royal 
Indian Engineering College, Cooper's Hill, England. Dr. Schlich spent upwards of twenty years in the 
Forest Department of the Government of India, and succeeded Sir Dietrich Brandis as Inspector-General. 
On his return from India he was appointed Professor of Forestry at Cooper's Hjll College. 



,,,,,. N ,.,,| i,, iiinrt v-nine years old, and this is called the normal growing stock. 
Without the presence in the forest of this series of age gradations it would be 
e fco ..l-i.-iin ;i regular annual yield of trees one hundred years old. 

Tin- siil, in'med table gives the capital invested in a forest worked upon the 
- ..I' a Mi-taim d annual yield. The data for the growing stock are taken 
from tin- Yield TaMe- fnr the Scotch Pine, by M. Weise, converted into English 
measures In Calculating the value of the growing stock it has been assumed 
(I,:,- ts would not yield any money return, and that timber, including all 

pieces of three indies diameter and upwards at the thin end, would yield two 
p.Miee p.'i- cul.ic loot under a rotation of thirty years, gradually rising to five 
p, IK', per ciiliic foot under a rotation of one hundred and twenty years. Soil 
adapted for the growth of Scotch pines is generally light, and the value of such 
land of the I. or best quality cannot, on an average, be estimated at more than 
-~> pel acre, while land of the III. or middling quality may be estimated at 12 
per acre, and land of the V, or lowest quality at 4, though land of the latter 
quality is not worth more than a few shillings per acre. 

CAPITAL INVESTED IN FORESTRY POUNDS STERLING PER ACRE. 



Length of rotation 
in years. 


I. Quality best. 


III. Quality middling. 


V. Quality lowest. 


d 
p 

cS 
A 


be . 

B.W 

* 

gt? 

o 


la 

EH 


T3 

cS 
hJ 


Growing 
stock. 


a 

-*a 

1 


-d 
a 

e9 

t-3 


SP . 

S-* 

r o 

P 

o -^ 

h <n 

O 


3 
S 


30 



25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 
25 



8 
17 
26 
35 
45 
56 
68 
80 
93 
106 



23 
42 
51 
60 
70 
81 
93 
105 
118 
131 



12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 
12 



2 
7 
12 
17 
22 
28 
35 
42 
50 
58 



14 
19 
24 
29 
34 
40 
47 
54 
62 
70 



4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 
4 



1 
3 
5 
8 
11 
15 
20 



5 
7 
9 
12 
16 
19 
24 


40 


50 


60 


70.. 


80 


90 


100. . 


no.... 


120 





(1). This table shows that the capital increases with the length of the rota- 
tion. 

(2). That the value of the growing stock is at first smaller than the value of 
the land, equal to it under a rotation of from forty to fifty years, and greater 
after that period. 

(3). That the capital invested in timber forests is considerably greater than 
that of the laud only. 



9 



PRECIPITATIONS OR RAINFALL. 

The question whether, and in how far, forests affect the rainfall is one which 
has been actively discussed for many years past, but so far no final decision has 
been possible. That forests can affect precipitations follows from the facts that 
forest air is relatively moister than air in the open and that the trees mechanical^ 
affect the movement of the air ; but, on the other hand, the rainfall depends 
chiefly on other much more powerful agencies, in comparison with which the 
effect of forests is small. Numerous comparative observations have been made, 
but only a certain portion has so far been published and unfortunately those 
which seem to indicate a decided effect of forests on the rainfall are not always 
very reliable. The great difficulty in comparing the results of observations at 
forest stations (that is to say stations situated inside a forest) with those of the 
ordinary meteorological stations consists in the fact that elevation above the sea 
affects the rainfall most powerfully because air cools on rising and precipitations 
become more frequent with elevation. 

Although further observations are necessary before a final conclusion can be 
arrived at, the following data may prove interesting : 

In the Prussian system the forest stations have shown the subjoined increase 
of rainfall over the average rainfall of the open country as taken from the 
ordinary meteorological stations : 

Excess of rainfall in forest station over that of open 
country, in per cent, of the latter rainfall- 

Between sea level and 328 feet elevation. . . . 1.25 per cent. 

328 and 556 " 14.2 

1,969 " 2,297 19. 

2,297 " 2,625 43. 

Although these figures may not represent the absolute facts of the case, they 
seem to indicate that in the plains forests have very little effect upon the rain- 
fall, if any at all, but that their influence becomes considerable with increasing 
elevation in mountainous countries. 

The results of seven years' observations made at two stations near Nancy 
show a decided increase of rainfall in the forest. The stations are situated 1,247 
feet above the sea, one in the middle of an extensive forest five miles to the west 
of Nancy, the other in an almost woodless country six miles to the north-east of 
Nancy. 

The results were as follows : 

Increase of rainfall in forest over that in the open in per 
cent, of the latter- 
February to April 7 per cent. 

May to July 13 

August to. October 23 

November to January 21 

Mean of year 16 

EVAPORATION. 

Owing to the lower temperature, the greater humidity of the air, and the 
quieter state of the atmosphere, evaporation must be considerably smaller in 



10 



sH than in th.- open. This has been conclusively proved by direct observa- 
nfl Tho>,. uia.lr in I'avariii and Prussia show the following results : 



Stations. 


nii.-mtity f water evaporated from a free surface of 
water, height in inches. 


Less in forest ex- 
pressed in per 
cent, of the 
total quantity 
evaporated in the 
open. 


In the open. 


In forest. 


Lesa in forest. 




23.53 
13.16 


8.61 
5.98 


-14.92 

-7.18 


-63 

-55 


1 iti 




Mi j ;in 


18.34 


7.29 


-11.05 


-60 





These data show that evaporation in the forest was only two-fifths of that 
in the open country. 

The effect of this action is that of the water which falls on the ground in a 
forest a considerably larger proportion is secured to the soil than in the open. 
That wntci is available to be taken up by the roots, while any balance goes to 
th.' -round water and helps to feed springs. Of considerable importance in this- 
ivspect is the covering of forest soil. Dr. Ebenmayer's observations on thia 
point, extending over five years, show the following results : 

Water evaporated from soil in the open 100 parts. 

Evaporation from forest soil, without leaf mould . . 47 " 

with full layer of leaf 
mould 22 " 

In other words, forest soil without leaf mould evaporated less than half the 
water in the open, while forest soil covered, with a good layer of humus evapo- 
rated even less than one-fourth of that evaporated in the open. 

The result of these peculiarities is that, at any rate up to a certain elevation,, 
the foiv-t soil retains, after allowing for evaporation, more water than open soil, 
although some 23 per cent, of the rainfall are intercepted by the crowns of the 
trees In order to illustrate this the following table, taken from Dr. Weber's 
calculations, is inserted, as it shows the balance of rainfall over evaporation 
according to elevation ; it is based upon Prussian observations : 



Altitude of stations 
in feet. 


Excess of rainfall over evaporation 
in inches. 


Percentage of rainfall which 
evaporated. 

4 


In the open. 


In forest. 


In the open. 


In forest. 


0- 328 


12.02 
12.69 
12.20 
36.96 
47.10 
56.77 


12.32 
13.84 
17.65 
30.79 
43.08 
46.34 


55 
53 
58 
22 
15 
19 


37 
30 
25 
13 
9 
11 


32S 056 


1)841,312 


1,9692,297 


2,540 


8,050 . . 





11 



This table shows that the balance of water retained by the soil increase ^ 
rapidly with altitude, and that the evaporation in mountain forests may be 
reduced to about 10 per cent of the rainfall. If it be remembered that the 
moisture is most effectually preserved in forests, it will easily be understood why 
the mountain forests have from time immemorial been looked upon as the 
preservers of moisture and feeders of springs. No doubt, a certain portion of the 
water is again taken out of the ground by the roots of the trees and evaporated 
through the leaves. The quantity thus consumed is not known at present, but it 
cannot be more than 12 inches, the total quantity available in plain forests, 
and probably it becomes less with elevation, so that a considerable balance 
remains available in hill forests for the feeding of springs. 

MECHANICAL EFFECT OF FORESTS. 

The mechanical effect of forests makes itself chiefly felt in regard to the 
distribution of the rain-water, the preservation of the soil on sloping ground, the 
binding of moving sand, the prevention of avalanches, and the moderation of air 
currents. 

(a) Feeding of springs and rivers. 

Most of the rain-water falling on a bare slope rushes down into the nearest 
water course in a comparatively short time, thus causing a rapid rise in the level 
of the stream. Only a comparatively small portion sinks into the ground, so as 
to become available for the feeding of springs. Of the rain falling over a forest, 
close on one-fourth is intercepted by the crowns of the trees, and the other three- 
fourths fall upon a layer of humus, which possesses a great capacity to absorb 
water and to retain it for a time. It has been shown, for instance, that mosses 
of the species Hypnum, which grow under the shade of conifers, can absorb up to 
five times their own weight of water, and peat mosses of the genus Sphagnum up 
to seven times, while the leaf -mould to be found in a middle-aged well-preserved 
beech wood can absorb and retain for a time a rainfall of five inches. Part of the 
water thus absorbed penetrates into the ground and becomes available for the 
feeding of springs, while the rest gradually finds its way into the nearest stream. 
In this manner well-preserved forests must have a decided effect upon the 
sustained feeding of springs, and the moderation of sudden floods in rivers. 
When, however, the humus has been saturated with water and rain continues, the 
effect of forests as regards inundations must cease, because the additional water 
follows the laws of gravity, and finds its way into the valleys. 

(6) Protection of the soil. 

Water rushing down a bare slope possesses a great mechanical power, by 
means of which it loosens the soil, and carries it down hill. In this way land- 
slips are often caused, ravines are formed, and fertile land situated at the foot of 
the ravine may be covered with silt and rendered valueless. Frequently the 
debris collects in rivers and forms obstructions, which are followed by a diversion 
of the bed and erosion of fertile lands. The rate at which this process proceeds 
depends on the geological origin and the formation of the surface; the less binding 
the soil and the looser the formation the greater will be the damage. If, on the 
other hand, such a slope is covered with a well-preserved forest the roots of the 



12 



trees ainl tin- layers <>!' Immus keep together, and protect the soil against the 
action of water, l>e>ides the crown intercepts and retains, at any rate for a time 
a cotiMderaMe portion , ,f the water. On the whole a series of obstacles are, 

posed to tin- movement of the water, which reduce its velocity and force, or at 

anv rate divide it into numerous small channels. The beneficial effect of tree 

tioti in this reaped ean be observed in most mountain ranges, and especially 

in the Alps iYom France to Austria. Wherever, in these parts, extensive defor- 

ations have taken place, the consequence has been the gradual formation of a 
series ,,f torrents, in all places where the surface did not consist of hard rock ; the 
</' bria brought down has covered more and more fertile land at the base of the 
torrents, and this evil lias grown to such an extent, that not only in France but 
also in the other Alpine countries great efforts are now made to re-afforest the 
denuded areas at a great outlay. When once the evil has been created immediate 
ali'ore.vtation is not possible; it must be preceded by the construction of dams, 
i likes, walls, etc., to steady the soil until the young forest growth has had time 
to establish itself, and once more to lay hold of the surface soil. Forests protect 
the soil not only in the hills, but also in low lands, wherever it consists of so- 
called moving or shifting sand along the sea coast, as well as in the interior of 
countries. The action in this case is due partly to their moderating the force of 
the air currents and partly by keeping the soil together through their roots, by 
the formation of huinus and the retention of moisture. In this way the Landes of 
France have from a dreary waste been converted into extensive forests inter- 
sected by cultivated fields. 

) Protection against air currents. 

Forests break or moderate the force of air currents, and in this way afford 
protection to lands lying beyond them against cold or dry winds. Woodlands 
afford also shelter to game and useful birds. Their importance in this respect 
should not be overlooked ; the presence of birds, which are the great enemies of 
injurious insects, depends often on that of woodlands. 



HYGIENIC EFFECTS OF FORESTS. 

Forests, in forming a substantial part of the vegetation of the earth, are an 
important agency for the production of oxygen obtained by the decomposition of 
carbon dioxide.^ Direct observations have also shown that forest air (like sea air) 
is much richer in ozone than the air of open countries, and especially of towns. 

forests, then, produce oxygen and ozone and protect human habitations 

injurious air currents, they may exercise a beneficial effect upon the 

s of adjoining lands. Instances are not wanting where forests are said 

have given protection against the germs of malaria, but there are others where 

ire said to have had the opposite effect. As far as India is concerned, in 

the medical authorities of military cantonments ordered forests to be 

au.l in others to be cut down. Whether certain species, such as 

alyptus, really possesses the quality of frying up soil, and thus remove 

swampiness, has yet to be proved. 

No general rule can be laid clown showing whether forests are required in a 
mtry or what percentage of the area should be so used. The forest question 



13 



must be determined on the special circumstances of each country. By way of 
illustration the areas at present under forest in a number of countries are shown 
in the following table: 



Countries. 


Area under 
forest, in 
acres. 


Percentage 
of total 
area of 
country 
under 
forest. 


Forest area 
per head 
of popula- 
tion, in 
acres. 


Distribution of forest area, 
according to ownership, in 
percentage of total 
forest area. 


State and 
crown 
forests. 


Forests of 
corpora- 
tions, en- 
dowments, 
etc. 


Private 

forests. 


Servia 


5,166,000 
527,427,000 
42,366,000 
24,161,000 
22,603,000 
34,350,000 
18,920,000 

20,512,000 
4,883,000 
14,235,000 
1,930,000 
21,345,000 
20,750,000 
2,026,000 
1,073,000 
554,000 
477,000 
1,166,000 
2,790,000 


48 
42 
42 
33 
29 
26 
25 

22 
22 
22 
119 
17 
16 
16 
15 
7 
6 
5 
4 


3.3 
6.1 
9.1 
1.1 

1.4 
.8 
9.9 

3.5 
.9 
.5 
.7 
1.3 
.6 
1.2 
.2 
.1 
.2 
.2 
.1 


60 
20 
6 
16 
33 
12 

4 

4 
82 
11 
80 


40 
80 
94 
52 
19 
3 

43 
67 

23 

* 


32 

48 
85 

53 
29 
IS 
66: 

20> 


R,ussia-in-Europe 


Sweden 


Austria proper 


Hungary 


Germany 


Norway 


Turkey, including Bulgaria, 
Bosnia and Herzegovina. . . . 

Routnanift 


Italv 


Switzerland 


Spain 


France 


Greece 


Belgium . . 


Holland 


Denmark . 


Portugal 


Great Britain and Ireland . 


Total for Europe 


766,824,000 


31 


2.5 








United States of N. America. . 
East India British 


380,000,000 


17 


7.6 








140,000,000 


25 


.6 


50 


50 








The percentage of forest area varies from 48 to 4, and the area per head of 
population from 9.9 to .1 acres. This shows that the general conditions in the 
various countries must make different demands in respect of afforestation. Servia 
Russia, Sweden and Norway may as yet have more forests than they require for 
their own population. On the other hand Great Britain and Ireland, Portugal 
Denmark, Holland, Belgium, and even France and Italy have a smaller forest 



14 



area tli.-m is necessary t<> supply them with a sufficient quantity of forest produce 

,1,.. sallll . time, they are aJl sea-bound countries, and consequently subject to 

nditions, which diller altogether from those found in continental countries; 

ImM of them are under the intluence of moist sea winds, and all are favorably 

Htuat.-d in respect .if importation by sea, 

Intimately connected with the area under forest in a country is the state of 
ownership-. Forest owners in Europe may be grouped into the following three 
<\ classes: 

Tin- State or the Crown. 
(!>) ('..!{ .orations, endowments, etc. 
(o) Private persons. 

\Vhnv forests are not required on account of their indirect effects, and where 
importation, from other countries is easy and assured, the government of a country 

,, 1 not, as a rule, trouble itself to maintain or acquire forests, but where the 

opposite conditions exist, that is to say, where forests are necessary to produce 
climatic and mechanical effects, and where the cost of transport over long dis- 
tances becomes prohibitive, a wise administration will take measures to assure 
the maintenance of a certain proportion of the country under forest. This can 
he done either by maintaining or constituting a certain area of State forests, or 
by exercising a certain amount of control over private forests. In most of those 
countries where corporation forests exist they are subject to the control of the 
te, though the degree to which such control is exercised may differ. Private 
forests are free from control in some European States, and subject to it in others. 
In all such cases the State is only justified in interfering when the welfare of the 
general community requires it. The extent to which interference may be carried 
depends on the special conditions of each country, and on the proportions of the 
forest area belonging to the State. Thus, of the Swiss forests only 4 per cent, 
belong to the State, while 67 per cent, belong to corporations, and 29 per cent, to 
private owners ; at the same time a large proportion of them are so-called pro- 
tection forests, and in consequence the Government exercises an extensive control 
over both corporation and private forests. Of the German forests, 33 per cent 
belong to the State, 19 per cent, to corporations, and 48 per cent, to private per- 
sons ; the corporation forests are under State control, making with the State 
forests 52 per cent. This beiag more than one-half of the area, the control over 
private forests has of late years been considerably reduced, and in some parts 
abolished altogether. It is worthy of notice that only 20 per cent, of the Swedish 
and 12 per cent, of the Norwegian forests belong to the State, while the bulk are 
private forests, over which little or no control is exercised by the State. Large 
quantities of timber are exported annually from these countries to Great Britain 
and other countries, and it may safely be expected that these supplies will con- 
siderably decrease in the course of time. 



DEFORESTATION IN RUSSIA. 

The following article appeared in a recent number of the Literary Digest. 
It was translated from Preussiche Jahrbucher for July. 

When treating of the Russian famine of 1891-92 in the April number of 
this magazine, we remarked that this was not to be regarded as a passing incident, 
but rather as the inauguration of a chronic condition of affairs traceable to 



15 



unsystematic farming, to the general withdrawal of capital from the land for invest- 
ment in manufacturing enterprise, under the aegis of a protective tariff, and to 
the general deforestation of the country, in great part to provide fuel for railroads 
and protected enterprises. The fatal consequences of this general deforestation 
are now generally appreciated, the shrunken state of the once noble rivers of 
the country, and growing aridity of the climate, affording evidence that can 
neither be overlooked or gainsaid. 

The regions of the mighty rivers, the Don, Volga, and the Dneiper, the great 
arteries of Russia, were formerly fringed with wide-spreading forests, along their 
whole upper and middle courses, which sheltered their sources and tributaries 
from evaporation throughout the year. These forests have now for the most part 
disappeared. Mile after mile the traveler sees nothing but low scrubs and 
melancholy stumps in unbroken succession ; the " Mother Volga " grows yearly 
shallower ; the steamers find scarcely seven or eight feet of water in mid-stream, 
and the ferries pursue their snake-liks course from bank to bank in search of the 
ever-shifting channel. The Don, with its tributaries is choked ; the sources of 
the Dneiper creep downward and its chief tributary, the once noble Worskla, 
with a flow of some 220 English miles, is now dry from source to mouth. 

The city of Poltawa lies on its banks, and it was at its mouth that the 
Swedish Army surrendered to Peter the Great. This stream, which fertilized a 
broad region, supporting a numerous population, exists no more not temporarily 
run dry, but with all its springs exhausted, so that in future it may be stricken 
from the map. Of the Bitjug, another river in the Don region, the upper course 
has wholly disappeared valley and bed are filled to the bank with sand and earth. 
As if by magic, wide, fertile lands are buried under the sands, and whole villages 
desolated. " There has been," says Wiestnik Jewropy, " an unparalleled revolu- 
tion of natural conditions, which threatens a great part of the country with 
the heat and aridity of the Central Asian steppes. The present condition of 
our black earth region is so serious, and its future so dangerous, that it cannot 
possibly escape the serious attention of the Government, the scientist and the 
husbandman, to whom the further development of the situation is perhaps a 
question of life and death." 

There is perfect unanimity in attributing the threatening catastrophe to the 
denudation of the forests. Innumerable factories sprang into existence, and, in 
the absence of any systematic provision for coal-supply, they were erected in the 
heart of the forest, and, after having consumed all the available fuel within easy 
distance, their plant was actually sometimes transferred to fresh fields. Thus 
originated the system of wholesale destruction, which was liberally furthered by 
the network of railways built to maintain their communication with the great 
marts of commerce and provide generally for the transport of produce. For the 
past forty years thousands of locomotives and factories have been run almost 
wholly with wood without a thought being given to any provision for reproduc- 
tion. The extension of the railways afforded an opportunity for extracting colossal 
fortunes from the " worthless " forests. These were the manufacturers' views 
also ; so the fate of the Russian forests was sealed. " The machines have 
devoured the woods." 

The recently passed law for the protection of the forests has come fifteen, 
twenty, or twenty-five years too late to avert the destruction of the agricultural 



region. 



And the Government and people of Russia had already been warned. Forty- 
two years ago that is, shortly after the famine of 1847-49 we find the following 
in a letter from the Charkowski Government to the Imperial Society of Econo- 



16 



mi, -'Hi. -iv an- now living people who remember when the present limitless 
expansi of - m<l -\vaste alonu' the banks of the Donez was covered with almost 
impenetrable forest, interspersed with lakes, which have since dried up, or are 
drvini; up. Our region is flat, deforested, and exposed to all winds. The 
f.i-al east wiii.l linds no i niprdiment, and brings ruin in its train. This wind will 
perhaps al no distant date prove fatal. The Grecian colonies went under pro- 
bal.lv t'r.ini lli.' same cause. Protect the forest ; so plant forests; protect them 
with rigorous laws. Tin- Volga and Don and all the rivers of southern Russia 
\\ill he silt.-d up and disappear unless the forests be protected." 

Moiv ratal even than the drying up of the streams is the cessation of the 
spring and summer rains. This is the immediate cause of last year's harvest 
failutv, and n it even depends the current year's harvest. There have been local 
rains. I mt not nearly enough. 

Tln> reversal of old conditions has been coming on gradually with the 
denudation of the forests ; and emphatic warnings, as we have seen, have been 
uttered. The only result has been the appointment of commissions which have 
done nothing. Remedial measures on a large scale are now contemplated. Are 
they too late ? 



A PLEA FOR PLANTING. 

The sixth Earl of Haddington, in a work in the form of letters to his grand- 
son, published in 1773, says : " When I came to live here (1770) there were not 
above fourteen acres set with trees. I believe that it was a received motion that 
no trees would grow here on account of the sea air, and the north-east wind ; so 
that the first of our family, who had lived here, either believed the common 
opinion, or did not delight in planting." He continues : " I had no pleasure in 
planting, but delighted in horses, and dogs, and the sports of the field ; but my 
wife did what she could to engage me to it, but in vain. At last she asked leave 
to go about it herself, which she did, and I was much pleased with some little 
tilings, which were well laid out and executed. These attracted my notice, and 
the Earl of Mar, the Marquis of Tweedale, and others admired the beauty of the 
work, and the enterprise of the lady." After his lady had planted several orna- 
mental clumps in the shape of wildernesses, she proposed to plant a field of about 
three hundred Scotch acres, called the Muir of Tynningham, a waste common of 
very little value. From this all her ladyship's friends, as well as her lord, tried 
to dissuade her, but in vain ; she planted this likewise. In 1707 she began Ben- 
ningwood ; the prejudice of the country being still against her, they continued to 
deride her, telling her it could be of no use. Success, however, always gave her 
encouragement. The next was a large tract of ground, mostly dead sand with very 
little grass, and very near the sea. Here her ladyship participated in the com- 
mon prejudices, and thought it would be of no use, but as a gentleman from 
Hamburgh, being there on a visit, told her he had seen timber growing on such 
land, she immediately formed a resolution of putting it to a test ; planted sixty- 
seven acres of it ; and the trees grew to the astonishment of all who saw them. 
Thus ln>r ladyship, to the honor of her sex and benefit of her lord and her country, 
overcame the prejudices of the sea and the barren moor being pernicious, and of 
horses and dogs being the best amusement for a nobleman; converting a dashing 
son of Nimrod into an industrious planter, a thoughtless spendthrift into a frugal 
patriot. His lordship goes on to say the next was a field, which he had often let 
to tenants, who could do nothing with it ; and further, that he had a great deal 



17 



more waste land, and intended to plant it all. These woods were of all the usual 
sorts of timber, fir, beech, chestnut, larch, etc. But oaks were the favorite and 
succeeded extremely well in every sort of soil. 

" Thus can good w>ves, when wise, in every station, 

" On man work miracles of reformation, 

" And were such wives more common, their husbands would endure it, 

" However great the malady, a loving wife can cure it. 

" And much their aid is wanted, we hope they'll use it fairish, 

" While barren ground, where wood should be, appears in every parish." 

TREES FOR SHELTER. 

Fuller in his "Practical Forestry' very truthfully says that pioneers in 
heavily wooded regions are usually anxious to make a clearing, and as every tree 
felled not only increases the area which he is to cultivate, but extends his view, 
the axe is often kept in use long after there is any necessity for the purpose of 
obtaining land for cultivation. In a few years the settler who was at first so 
anxious to open up the country, finds he has gone a little too far in this direction, 
for his own comfort and that of his animals, for on taking clown the screen, he 
has not only admitted the cold winds of winter, but those of summer sweep over 
his fields, driving away needed moisture whip the fruit from his trees before 
it is ripe, and otherwise cause loss that might have been prevented. 

It is then that he begins to feel the need of protection, and to wish that his 
house and outbuildings were located by the side of some friendly forest or grove. 

The hygroscopicity of humus or vegetable earth is much greater than that of 
any mineral soil, and consequently forest ground, where humus abounds, absorbs 
the moisture of the atmosphere more rapidly and in larger proportion than com- 
mon enrth. The condensation of vapour by absorption develops heat, and con- 
sequently elevates the temperature of the soil which absorbs it, together with that 
of air in contact with the surface. Von Babo found the temperature of sandy 
ground thus raised from 68 to 80 F., that of soil rich in humus from 68 to 88 F. 

The question of the influence of the woods on temperature does not, in the 
present state of our knowledge, admit of precise solution, and, unhappily,- the 
primitive forests are disappearing so rapidly before the axe of the woodman that 
we shall never be able to estimate with accuracy the climatological action of the 
natural wood, though all the physicial functions of artificial plantations will, 
doubtless, one day be approximately known. 

But the value of trees as a mechanical screen to the soil they cover, and often 
to ground far to the leeward of them, is most abundantly established, and this 
agency alone is important enough to justify extensive plantation in all countries 
which do not enjoy this indispensable protection. 



2 (F.) 



IS 



K< HtKSTRY BYE-PRODUCTS.* 

h l,a> been said that tin-re is in the British Isles an immense area of land 
t l,. lt either aever has yielded, or at the present time does riot yield, any agricul- 
tural rent, but whi-'li 'might become of value were capital invested in planting it 
with timl'i-r bre 

Thoiiidi, in common \vith other trades, the British production of timber has 
l.t-rii ivndrivd far less ivmiinerative than formerly by keen foreign competition, 
, n 1, ^hou-n that timl"-r will yet, ill many cases, yield a very fair return for 
capital. 

Tin- 1'iuvsi produce of Great Britain is mainly applied in the following 
ys : 

1. Ship and boat-building, piers, bridges, etc., requiring much large and 
-jinnd timber. 

2. Building, scaffolding, etc, 
:'.. Railway sleepers. 

4. Pit props. 

5. Fencing. 

r. Furniture ; mainly chairs of beech, yew, etc. 
7. Hop poles and agricultural implements. 
s. Bobbin wood. 
9. Fagots aud firewood. 

10. Charcoal for gunpowder, pitch, etc. 

1 1 . Bark for tanning. 

In the first four of these branches, the produce of the forests of Scandinavia, 
for the present apparently inexhaustible, shipped at the very smallest modicum 
of profit to the producers, has almost driven British timbe^r out of the market. 
The rent charges on land, the costliness of labor and of overland transit in Great 
Britain, may be contributing causes to this result ; but it is also apparently the 
fact that the sending of crooked or heavily-shaped timber into the market by 
British foresters is another reason for the success of Scandinavian trade. The 
best means of meeting foreign competition is by looking to increased economy 
of production, coupled with excellence of quality ; and as in other trades, it 
is probable that the utilization of waste substances and bye-products may prove 
the chief key to economical production. Hop poles, agricultural implements, and 
bobbin-wood are locally among the most remunerative outlets for coppice produce, 
the main question with reference to them being economy of production and 
utilization of waste. 

Though hops form a very uncertain and costly crop, the profits on hop- 
'\vino- are so considerable that the extension of its culture should be considered 

o 

by our farmers. Chemical substitutes for hops cannot be successfully used to 
the exclusion of the natural bitter ; whilst the " bine " could be sold in the 
manufacture of textile products, or of paper. The Spanish chestnut, ash, and 
larch are largely grown for hop-poles in the south of England. 

Ash is also in constant demand for the handles of ploughs, spades, axes, 
and other implements, and is. like sycamore, the wood of which is considerably 
used by wheelwrights, a rapidly growing tree. 

i. Boulger, F.L.S., F.G.S., London, in Forestry and Forest Products (Edinburgh), 1834. 



19 



The cultivation of hornbeam for such purposes might also be extended 
more especially on poor gravelly land. 

There are undoubtedly many trades not thought of by the timber merchants 
in which considerable quantities of small woods are consumed ; thus it is alleged 
by United States statisticians that besides 300,000 new telegraph poles, and 
.3,000,000 cords of wood used in brick-burning, the making of shoe-pegs alone 
uses 100,000 cords of soft maple annually, that of lucifer matches 390,000 cubic 
feet of pine, and that of boot-lasts and tool-handles 1,000,000 cords of birch. 

Such facts suggest the possibility of a remunerative production of larger 
quantities of coppice woods. 

It being man's highest intellectual function to utilize to the full all the latent 
powers of nature, we may well direct our attention to such bye-products as bark, 
charcoal, wood-spirit, turpentine, tar, sawdust, leaf-manure, and wood-ashes. 

BARK. 
Bark is used for tanning, i.e., for the conversion of hides or skins into a 

o 

strong, supple, impenetrable, and durable material known as leather, by the union 
of albumen, gelatine, or collagen of their connective tissue, with a substance in 
the bark known as tannin, so as to form insoluble tannates. Tannin is widely 
distributed throughout the vegetable kingdom, especially in barks, fruits, and 
galls. It is characterised by a slightly acid reaction, and astringent taste, a 
blueish or greenish black coloration (ink), with ferric salts, the precipitation of 
gelatine and albumen from their solution, and its union with them as above men- 
tioned. Sumach leaves form a valuable material for white morocco leathers ; 
clivi-divi, the seed-pods of coesalpinia ; " hemlock extract," a decoction of the 
bark of the hemlock-spruce (Abies canadensis) ; and " mimosa bark " from the 
Australian "wattles" (Acacia) are largely used, but the chief British tanning 
material is oak bark. In France the young bark of the cork oak (Quercus 
suber) is largely used, and for fine leather that of the evergreen oak (Q. ilex) ; 
in the eastern United States the white oak (Q. alba), the quercitron (Q.tinctoria), 
and the red oak bark are employed, while California and the western territories 
depend 011 the chestnut oak for tanning purpjses. 

When coppice was largely grown for bark a rotation of twenty-four years 
-was common, the stools being eight feet apart, the trees are more productive in 
proportion at twelve than at double that number years' growth. Branches down 
to an inch in diameter should be carefully peeled, since their bark contains a 
higher proportion of tannin than that of the trunk. 

Since the low prices for bark have made many foresters doubt the expediency 
of felling their oak in May when the timber is almost at its worst, it may be well 
to bear in mind that French and Prussian experiments have shown that bark of 
good quality may be obtained at any season by steaming the wood for from one- 
and-a-ha'f to two-and-a half hours according to the season, after which the bark 
peels easily. 

Willow bark is largely and successfully used in Russia for the best leather, 
and the bark of young alder shoots, not a third of an inch in diameter, yields 
sixteen per cent- of tannin. The bark of pine and larch is only used for roughly 
tanning sheepskins. 

There is a possibility of chrome-tanning superseding the use of bark of any 
kind. 



CHARCOAL. 

'['In- value i>r charred wood-fibre, deprived of its liquid and volatile portion 
l, v destm distillation, for smelting and heating purposes, has long been 

,,".,.,, Tihui^li now in England, Belgium and other coal producing countries, 

cheapness of |>i->duci.i<m outweighs considerations of quality, the value of Swedish 
iron is, |>rol.;iMv with justice, attributed to its being smelted with charcoal; and 
nianv of (he furnaces of the United States are as dependent upon the wood 
sui'i'lv. as were those of Sussex in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. For 
charcoal making, tin- hard woods are mainly used; beech charcoal being preferred 
in the miiKTa logical laboratory. 

In (livat llritain the chief use of charcoal is in the manufacture of gun- 
|io\viler, for which purpose a highly inflammable quality, which is obtained from 
light spongy woods of various broad-leaved species is generally required: it 
requires to be as free from earthy or mineral matter as possible, though no char- 
i is absolutely pure carbon, generally retaining as it does, some hydrogen and 
oxvgen, as well as mineral ash. For this reason, though still largely pre- 
pare. 1 by the primitive method of pits or heaps covered with turf, charcoal 
i> preferably manufactured in iron cylinders or retorts a method which is- 
far more economical and yields a more uniform result. The inflammable gases 
distilled from the wood are conveyed by pipes into the furnaces below the 
retorK so that an immense saving in fuel is effected, while the tar, pyro- 
1 igneous acid, etc., are condensed and collected. The temperature at which 
the wood is charred exercises a great effect upon the properties of the charcoal. 
The higher the temperature the more completely are the hydrogen and oxygen 
of the wood driven off, and the denser and blacker is the resulting charcoal, 
while its temperature of ignition is also higher in proportion. Slack-burnt 
charcoal retains more volatile matter, is softer, reddish, more readily inflamm- 
able and more hygroscopic. 

It has been found by experiment that, with sixty grains of saltpetre, 
twelve grains of each of the following kinds of charcoal give the number of 
cubic inches of gas (CO 2 ) in the table : 

Dogwood (Rkamnus frangula') 82 cubic inches. 

Willow (Salix alba) '. 77 

Alder 74 " 

Filbert 72 

Fir, chestnut, hazel 66 " 

The three first named species are accordingly preferred for the purpose, 
though Gornus sanguinea, Euonymus europceus, Rhamnus catharticus, and 
perhaps other species are not uncommonly substituted for the alder-buckhorn, 
berry-bearing alder, or true " dogwood " of gunpowder manufacturers. Rkamnus 
frangula ; this is a slow-growing shrub, being cut, when about an inch 
in diameter and under ten years of age, in lengths of not more than six 
i grown in Prussia, Belgium, and Sussex. It forms a very explosive 
powder, used for military small arms, and for sporting purposes. Willow and 
alder are of quicker growth, especially, the former, and are cut when about four 

\Vith reference to the use of the two last named species an 
that they can be cut in the spring, when their bark is in the 
t condition for tanning purposes. Charcoal is also of great value as a filtering 
and deodorising agent. 



VOLATILE PRODUCTS. 

Besides a certain amount of tar, and the inflammable gases which, as has 
"been stated, are utilized as fuel in the charcoal manufacture, even the smoke has 
proved of considerable value. It contains methylic alcohol, which also distils 
over from the retort in a liquid form, accompanied by acetic acid. This crude 
distillate is known as " wood vinegar," and is redistilled and rectified over quick- 
lime, yielding " wood-spirit" (crude methylic alcohol). The acid portion is then 
saturated with slaked lime, so as to form a solution of calcium acetate, which is 
evaporated, the salt being used in the manufacture of acetic acid and metallic 
acetates, especially that of lead, as as a step towards the formation of white lead. 

Dr. Hough describes a charcoal iron-smelting factory in Michigan, where a 
cord of wood yields forty-two bushels of charcoal, worth 7 cents per bushel, or 
$2.99 cents per cord, besides 2,800 cubic feet of " smoke," valued at over 30 cents, 
and the inflammable gas which supplies three-fourths of the fuel consumed. The 
"smoke" yields two gallons of wood-spirit, worth 85 cents (3s. 4|d.) per gallon 
in the Chicago market, and 200 Ib. of acetate of lime, worth 2| cents (l^d.) per 
Ib. in Philadelphia. Thus the " smoke " for which 30 cents (Is. 3d.) are paid, 
yields $6.70 (1 6s. 9d.) the total yield of a cord of wood being $9.69 (1 18s. 8d.) 
These products are best obtained from dry hard woods, especially beech. 

TAR AND PITCH. 

The mixture of heavy non-volatile hydrocarbons known as tar, though 
obtained in small proportions in the destructive distillation of all kinds of wood, 
is yielded mainly by the roots, boles, branches, and waste timber of pines, 
especially Pinus palustvis, P. sylvesh is, and P. pinaster. It is mainly imported 
from the southern United States, from Archangel, and from Blo^ and other 
Baltic ports. 

The pitch pine (P. palustris) covers extensive tracts, and springs up spon- 
taneously in the disused cotton fields of the Southern States, while the Scots 
pine (P. sylvestris) forms enormous forests in the North of Europe and in 
Siberia. The preparation of tar is still virtually the same as that described 
by Theophrastus. A hole is dug in the side of the bank in which billets of 
wood are heaped up and covered closely with turf or earth, a fire is then 
kindled from below, and the slow combustion causes the tar to exude from 
the wood and flow out from the heap into barrels placed below to receive it. 
On distillation, tar yields wood vinegar, creosote, and oil of tar, leaving a residue 
of pitch. The black, brittle, glossy solid which we know as pitch, and which is 
mainly home manufactured, is usually obtained by simply boiling the tar, so as 
drive off the volatile oils. 

TURPENTINE, RESIN, ETC. 

In addition to being our chief sources of tar and pitch, the firs are the 
exclusive commercial source of the oleo-resin known as turpentine. This is a 
solution of a resin in a volatile oil which exudes from incisions made in the stems 
of these trees. On distillation it yields from 14 to 16 per cent, of colourless 
essential oil, known as oil or spirits of turpentine (Ci H 16 ), the residue being 
resin or colophony (the formula of which is probably C w H 62 O 04 ). The greatest 
quantity of turpentine imported is the produce of the pitch pines (Pinus 



22 



palutftria, or P. ausfrrafris), the swamp fine, and 1'inn,* tceda, the frankincense 
pin. of Virginia, < 'arolina ami other Southern States, but a considerable quantity 
imported t'n.m Russia and Swollen, is the produce of the Scots pine (P. 
, and from Mi.- south of France, under the name of "Bordeaux turpen- 
t' m , ' \\-lifiv it is ol.i.-iinrd from the cluster pine (P. pinaster), and other species. 
Strasburg turpentine is obtained from the silver fir (Abies pectinate*,), and 
"Venice turpentine" from the larch (Lt.ri.c europcea). Canada balsam is a 
simihr produet from Ali'u'slxtJxn/ineti. and A. canadensis. The cultivation of the 
cluster | iin' I /'. i>inHte)') on the sand dunes of the Landes of Bordeaux is a good 
mple of the conversion of an originally merely protective measure into a 
soun-r of profit from soil formerly worse than useless. Whether the felling of 
Mir forests of Southern France, by producing floods and droughts, was or was 
not originally the cause of the arid barren sands, certain it is that by damming* 
up tlu> natural drainage and shifting inland, these dunes produced swamps and 
wastes, Mie advance of which was only stopped by the binding roots of these 
pines. Originally planted with this protective object, their yield of timbar, bark, 
turpentine and tar, has rendered them a source of profit, which should remind us 
that we have in our own country considerable stretches of sand wastes. A use- 
ful illuminating oil containing from 80 to 92 per cent, of carbon has been obtained 
by M. Guillemara from the resin from the Bordeaux area. 

MINOR PRODUCTS. 

Besides such substances as bark, charcoal, wood-spirit, acetic acid, tar, pitch 7 
turpentine, and resin, which are important articles of commerce, chemical 
discovery has demonstrated in the past, and may be expected to show still more 
frequently in the future, the presence of substances in trees which might well 
form sources of profit. For example : from the sap of the Scots pine and of the 
larch felled in summer, barked and scraped, a substance known as " coniferin " is 
obtained, which yields " vanillin " the essential constituent of " vanilla." Though 
an expensive substance to prepare, this is considerably cheaper than common 
vanilla, the sole source of which is the inner pulp of the pods of one or two- 
species of orchid. 

Another similar product, not as yet much developed, is the " rubber " obtained 
\)y distillation from the bark of the common birch, a black, gummy " latex,' r 
which resists the action of air and acids, and which will considerably increase 
the durability of india-rubber or gutta-percha, even if mixed with them in only 
a small proportion. As in the salt mines of Stassfurt it has been found that the 
formerly wasted bye-products, the salts of potash, are as valuable as the rock salt, if 
not more so, and as in Michigan the " smoke " has proved more valuable than the 
charcoal, so the development of new chemical industries may render such pro- 
ducts as this vanillin and gutta-percha more remunerative than the timber itself. 

LEAVES, SAWDUST, ETC. 

In Styria young pine and fir needles, from loppings or thinnings made in 
spring, are dried in ovens or kilns, ground, mixed with one-twenty-fifth of salt, 
and used with advantage as a food for cattle. Similarly, in the north of Italy the 
dried leaves of the poplar have long been used as cattle food, and chemical analysis 
bears out their value for this purpose. When not used for fodder, however, dried 
leaves make an excellent litter, and analysis proves their value as manure. 



23 



The following table, prepared in Bavaria, exhibits the composition of the 
leaves produced annually by an acre of forest under beech, pine, or spruce, as- 
compared with that of a ton of wheat straw : 





^3 

a 
g 




JS 




_oS 

*aa 
D 


'S 
o 

fvd 


O 
"fci 

%3 




K* 

Q 


00 


-*j 

o 


J 


I 


|1 


a, 5 
"3 * 

OJ 


Beech, per acre of land 


Ib. 
2,972 


Ib. 
165.5 


Ib. 
1.80 


Ib. 
17.18 


Ib. 
10.90 


Ib. 
9.32 


Ib. 
3.28 


Pine, per acre of land 


2,842 


41.5 


4.32 


16.84 


4.28 


3.28 


1.51 


Spruce, per acre of land.; 


2,683 


121.3 


4.30 


57.37 


6.20 


5.72 


1.87 


\Vheat straw per ton 


2,240 


85.2 


9.80 


5.20 


2.20 


4.60 


2.41 



















Saw dust also forms a good litter for cows and horses ; and though destitute 
itself of manurial value, being very absorbent of liquid manure, can, when thus 
soaked, be used as a valuable top dressing. 

Finally, if the forester has any waste that he cannot utilize in the tan pit 
or the charcoal retort, as paper pulp, or as firewood, it is probably best to burn 
it so as to avoid harboring insects and fungus life. By so doing he will lose 
little of the manurial value of the refuse, and leached ashes, being rich in pot- 
ash, is a valuable dressing for old grass land, orchards, market gardens, onions, 
rye, and other crops. The potash might even be recovered by lixiviation of the 
ashes and used for many purposes. 

THE PRODUCTION OF WOOD PULP.* 



The wood-pulp industry may be said to have commenced in the year 1846, 
But its development during the first thirty years was decidedly slow. Since 
1876, however, the production of this material has increased rapidly. Its pre- 
industrial period was known only to the chemist. Cellulose was made in the 
laboratory in 1840, but it was not manufactured commercially till 1852. Ground 
wood was first used for paper-making about the year 1846, when it was manu- 
factured by Keller under a patent taken out in Saxony in the previous year. 
Since that date many improvements have been made in the machinery and 
methods used in grinding, the main object being to produce a longer and finer 
fibre. The fibres of the wood are torn away by mechanical pressure against a 
revolving grindstone in contact with water. No chemical treatment of the wood 
is necessary, the only requirements of this industry being cheap wood, abundant 
water-power and suitable machinery. 

Processes, such as Sinclair's, have long been in use for pulping very finely cut 
coniferous wood, and in the Paris Exhibition of 1880 one of the most prominent 
objects exhibited in the Norwegian Section was a pate de bois or papier mache, 
made in this way from pine wood, and worked into cardboard and various moulded 
pannellings, etc. It has been found, moreover, that in this way the whole of a 
pine tree trunk branches, needles, and all can be converted into paper without 
waste. Saplings, which it would not pay to cut for firewood, are now profitably 
worked up in this way into pasteboard. 

* By G. F. Green, C. F. Cross and E. J. Bevan, in Forestry and Forest Products (Edinburgh), 1884. 



2-t 



I'.v the chemical processes for manufacturing wood-pulp, a good class of pulp 
; ma.l'e from the.|iiick-.un>\ving poplar and from spruce. The wood of the slower 
-rowing linden or li;iss\vood makes an equally valuable white paper pulp. 

<ak ,.,. m also he used, though yielding an inferior product that requires 
Meaelmi";. One '^reat advantage in the method is that the tannin in the oak is 

-rodiict, and the chemicals with it in the lye being rather an 

aid than a hindrance to the tannin!.'- process, it is found that hides can be perfectly 

nird in it in teii davs. This seems to ofter to the cultivator of oak coppice, or 

1 1 1. 1 nter of poplars, a most important source of income ; whilst in 

nii'eioiis plantations there need be absolutely no waste. 

The chemical preparation of fibre has given rise to two distinct processes 
the soda process and the acid process. 

.mieal pulp (cellulose) is used as an adjunct, with esparto, rags, or me- 
ntal jmlp, in the manufacture of news, printings, colors, and some kinds of 

wrapping-paper. It forms (according to Mr. Routledge) an excellent succedane, 
til lei' up, and bleaches to a high color. Fine prints are also manufactured 

exclusively from acid pulp. 

Mechanical pulp is chiefly used as an adjunct in the manufacture of news, 
cheap printings, and wall-papers ; but there are several distinct classes of paper 
made from it without any other ingredient, viz., wood-pulp middles from white 
pine pulp, and various self-colored wrappings and tinted wall-papers from brown, 
sometimes styled patent pulp. 

Another important use is for wood-pulp boards and so-called " patent " or 
brown boards, the latter being produced from brown pine-pulp and the former from 
white pine-pulp. 

The consumption of wood-pulp boards is increasing rapidly, chiefly for mak- 
ing paper boxes, for which they possess certain advantages over straw boards. 

Although almost any wood can be converted into pulp, experience has 
hitherto decided in favor of conifers of a certain age. 

For chemical pulp, trees on an average of twenty years' growth, and a thick- 
ness of six to eight inches at the base of the stem are said to be the best. 
Younger wood is more tractable by chemical means, but produces a fibre of inferior 
quality. Older wood requires stronger chemicals to remove the incrusting 
matter, and possesses no compensating advantages. 

In Canada many species of wood have been utilized, amongst which may be 
mentioned pine, poplar, spruce, willow, basswood, cedar, hemlock, maple, and 
birch. 

Poplar pulp remains white, birch becomes pink, maple turns of a purple 
tint, and basswood reddish after grinding, 

The practical operations concerned in the manufacture of pulp from wood 
by the caustic soda process may be divided into the following : Barking, saw- 
ing, chopping, crushing, boiling or digesting, washing and bleaching, treatment for 
sale as half-stutf, and soda recovery. 

HEMLOCK EXTRACT. 

In the final Report of the Select Committee of the House of Commons(Canada) 
in 1868 on the best means of protecting Hemlock Timber from destruction, the con- 
clusion was come to, after a most careful consideration of the question, that 
unless some steps were speedily taken to check the wasteful and extravagant rate 
.of consumption then going on, really for the benefit of other countries at the 



25 



expense of Canada, many years would not elapse before our own tanneries would 
bo seriously crippled, and we no longer able to compete successfully with other 
countries in the manufacture of leather. 

Answers from Gait, Guelph, etc.: Hemlock getting scarce ; not more than 
ten years' supply ; timber, sawn into lumber, used for rough work, such as roof- 
ing, etc. 

Large quantities in Drummoiid and Arthabaska ; five bark factories in the 
counties ; timber used for scantling and rough boarding ; in settled districts 
timber worth four to eight dollars per M; in remote districts not of sufficient 
value to bear transportation ; about one cord of bark is procured from 1,000 feet 
of lumber ; bark in some districts used for domestic purposes only, in others, as 
Eastern Townships, manufactured into extract ; five factories produced twenty 
thousand barrels of 400 pounds each, worth 2-| cents per Ib. at the factory and 5 
cents per Jb. in Boston; 1-i to 3 cords of bark will produce 1 bbl. of extract, 
worth in Boston $20 a barrel. 

On non-resident lands the timber is allowed to rot on the ground, and squat- 
ters, as a rule, either burn or allow it to rot if not close to a mark et. 

In some districts the best is sawn into lumber or cut into lathwood for 
exportation to England, the balance for railroad ties or cordwood. 

Wherere a farmer makes bark on his own land, he cuts the peeled trees into 
sawlogs aud clears the land. Where trespassers peel bark they leave the trees to 
rot. 

After the destruction of a hemlock forest it is generally succeeded by a 
mixed growth of maple, poplar, cherry, and balsam, when not cleared for farming 
purposes ; even if replanted, it would take one hundred years' growth to render 
it available for tanning or extract purposes. 

About 500 Ibs. or more of green raw hide can be converted into leather by 
one cord of bark. Hemlock extract is said to convert raw hide and leather in 
one-sixth of the time, and at one-half of the cost. 

The effect of the manufacture and export of hemlock extract will exhaust 
the hemlock forests at all accessible points and compel manufacturers to remove 
their tanneries into the rural districts to obtain a supply of bark, raise the price 
of bark, and consequently of leather, and diminish the quantity of leather pro- 
duced. 

For the protection of our hemlock forests it was suggested that the extract 
should be manufactured under a license upon Government land, an export duty 
charged on bark, and a considerable excise duty on extract manufactured for 
exportation. 

An acre of good hemlock land would produce from ten to twelve cords of 
hark, worth from $30 to $36 delivered at the factory, at a cost, say, of $1 per 
cord for felling and $1 per cord for carting. 

The cord of hemlock lathwood (128 cubic feet) is worth $8 at Montreal or 
Quebec. 

The conclusion arrived at from this evidence was that our hemlock forests are 
being and have been rapidly depleted and destroyed, and that without proper 
care and forethought the language put into the mouth of the Indian many years 
.ago (referring to stripping the soil of its trees) may in a degree become true- 

' The realms our tribes are crushed to get, 
May be a barren desert yet. " 

And the remedy seems to be that active measures be resorted to for select 
^cutting, natural reforestation and planting, and systematic forestry management . 



26 



THE GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE FOREST TREES OF 

CANADA. 

In tin- reporl of tin- Geological Survey of Canada for 1880, there is a paper 
l,\ Dr. 1!,-!1, tne Assistanl Diivetor, accompanied by a map on which the general 
ni'i-thern limits of tlir principal forest trees of Canada east of the Rocky moun- 
tains are represented. Dr. Hell says : 

Tin- 'ont incut of North America posesses a great variety of forest trees, 
Al'out :;4' different species occur within the United States. All the kinds which 
we have in Canada, amounting to about ninety, including those of the Pacific 
; ie, an also met \vitli in that country. Some species are not only very widely dif- 
fuse d, Inn an' ;ilso persistent over great areas, being found almost everywhere 
within the limits of their distribution, while others, although having an exten- 
uive range, are nowhere very common, and are sometimes absent for a considera- 
ble interval. Others again are confined to comparatively small tracts. As a 
gem-nil rule, the more northern species occupy the greatest extent of country, 
while the southern ones are progressively more and more restricted, even in a 
more rapid ratio than would be implied by the narrowing of the continent from 
north to south ; this is owing to the great differences experienced in climatic con- 
ditions in going from east to west in the more southern latitudes. Along the 
northern borders of the forests of the continent, the elevation of the land above 
the sea is comparatively slight, and regular, and the other physical conditions 
are tolerably uniform. As a consequence, we find the most northern group of 
trees extending from Newfoundland into Alaska, a distance of about 4,000 miles 

An inspection of the map accompanying Dr. Bell's report show some interest- 
ing features as to the general distribution of our forest trees, as well as regarding 
almost every individual species of timber. For example, it will be observed 
that there is no material change in the woods throughout the great triangular 
area, embracing about 600,000 square miles, of which the national boundary 
line between the Rocky Mountains and Lake Superior forms the base, and the 
Rocky Mountains and Laurentian Hills respectively the west and east sides, 
the apex being at the mouth of the Mackenzie River. In the southern part of 
of this area, a number of species are added to the kinds which everywhere 
throughout it make up the bulk of the forest ; and again, few trees of any kind 
are found to the south of the North Saskatchewan; still, making allowance for 
local peculiarities of condition, there is a remarkable uniformity in the timber of 
this enormous area. It includes, however, only a few species, of which the aspen,, 
balsam poplar, and willows are more abundant towards the western and the 
spruces, larch, balsam, fir and Banksian pine toward the eastern side of the area 

It will be observed that the lines marking the northern limits of about a- 
dozen species turn southward and become their western limits on reaching the 
eastern side of the valley of Lake Winnipeg and the Red River; while the 
boundaries of the species occurring next to the south of these also manifest a 
tendency to turn southward in approaching the prairies of the west. The species 
above referred to are the white cedar, black ash, white pine, red pine, sugar 
maple, yellow birch, red oak, white ash, hemlock, beech, iron wood, red cedar (ar- 
borescent variety) and white oak. They are to a great extent replaced by other 
species In-fore the region of open plains is reached. Had the great forests origi- 
nally extended further west, and been destroyed by fire or other causes, in com- 
paratively recent times, we should have found the northern limits of these species 
continuing their general course through the prarie regions, and ending abruptly 



27 



there, instead of which, they all curve gradually round, in a more or less concen- 
tric fashion, and other trees occupy the intervening ground. These well-marked 
features of forest distribution show that the present divisions of prairie and 
woodland are of very ancient date. The evidence of the smaller plants, and also 
of certain superficial geological conditions, all point to the same conclusion. 

The State of Minnesota is situated in a very interesting region in regard to 
forest distribution. Here we find the northern limit of the group to which the 
most southern trees of Ontario belong, such as the black walnut, shell-bark hick- 
ory, hackberry, and Kentucky coffee tree ; the north-western limit of the com- 
moner trees of the northern states and of Quebec and Ontario, such as white oak, 
red cedar (arborescent variety), iron wood, beech, hemlock, white ash, rock elm, 
red oak, yellow and black birch, sugar maple, red maple, wild plum, etc. The 
western boundaries of some of the trees whose northern limits pass through 
Northern Ontario, such as the white cedar, black ash, white pine and red pine ; 
the southern limits of the most northern group, including the white spruce, the 
large Banksian pine, balsam fir, balsam poplar and canoe birch ; and the general 
eastern limits of some of the western species, such as the ash-leaved maple, 
green ash, burr oak, and cottonwood. 

It will be observed that in Labrador peninsula the tree-lines tend northward 
midway between the eastern and western shores. This is due partly to the 
unfavorable influence of the sea on either side, and partly to the beneficial effect 
of the central depressions in which the rivers run northward into Ungava Bay. 

From Mingan to Lake Superior, the height of land, north of the St. Law- 
rence, is rudely parallel to the general course of the lines marking the northern 
boundary of the trees. And it may have had some effect in limiting the north- 
ward range of a number of species. A southward curve in the watershed about 
the longitude ot Ottawa is marked by a corresponding curve in the tree lines. 
Again, where a great depression occurs in this dividing plateau, some of the trees 
which in such cases may be approaching their northern boundaries, are found to 
extend, in the lower levels, beyond their general outline on either side. As 
examples of this the Lake Temiscaming and Abittibi District, and the valley of 
the Kenogami, or principal south branch of the Albany, may be mentioned. 

On the Missinaibi, or west branch of the Moose Eiver, the white elm reap- 
years, 130 miles north of its general boundary on descending to a sufficiently low 
elevation above the sea. The Saguenay, for about 100 miles from the St. Law- 
rence is really a narrow arm of the sea, and the country in the vicinity of Lake 
St. John at the head of the river, is only slightly elevated above its level and has 
a fertile soil, although surrounded by a mountainous region. Here we find an 
isolated colony of basswood, sugar maple and other trees, considerably removed 
from the rest of their species. On the north side of Lake Huron, and to the 
north of the City of Quebec, the land rises somewhat rapidly, and . in both 
instances the tree lines near these latitudes are more closely crowded together 
than elsewhere. 

Some kinds of trees, in approaching their northern limits, show a tendency 
to diminish gradually in size, and to become more and more scattered, rendering 
it difficult to draw any definite boundary of the species, while others vanish 
abruptly. The latter habit is more characteristic of southern than northern 
species so far as the Dominion is concerned. The various species appear to die out 
more gradually as they range northward in the western than in the eastern 
regions. 



28 



I-' ... bti t ..f'th.- Rocky Mountain- may b<- divided into four groups, as 

.u-.U th.-ir ijiliical distribution within the Dominion. 

\ nortl jroup, inrluding tlio white and black spruces, larch, Bank- 

spen, lialsam poplar, canoe birch, willows and alder. These 
r tli.- rritory down to about the line of the white pine. 

A central i;n>np of atiout forty species occupying a belt of country from 
;>inr line to that of the buttonwood. 

rroup, mil tracing the buttonwood, black walnut, the hickor^ 
tulip tivr, prickly ash, sour-gum, sassalVus, and flowering dogwood, 
whii- nl only in a small area in the southern part of Ontario. 

4. A \vr>trni -roup, consisting of the ash-leaved maple., burr oak, cotton- 
> I. .ni'l ^i-ci-ii ash. which are scattered sparingly over the prairie and wooded 
Jons \ve< of Red River, and Lake Winnipeg. 

In tin- western peninsula of Ontario the forests present a remarkable rich- 
ness in the number of species to be found growing together. In some localities 
as many as fifty different kinds may be counted on a single farm lot. A more 
varied mixture is probably not to be met with in any other part of the continent, 
or perhnp^ in the world. 



29 



LEVELS OF THE OTTAWA. 



The following tables from the reports of the Geological Survey (Canada 
show the levels at various points on the St. Lawrence, Ottawa and Mattawa 
rivers, from Three Rivers to Lake Nipissing. 

Levels of the Ottawa above the waters of the St Lawrence at Three Rivers, 
which is about the highest point affected by the action of the tides : 





Distance. 


Rise. 


Total rise. 






miles. 


ft. & in. 


ft. & in. 




Rise from Three Rivers to Montreal harbour, as 
stated in a report of the Hon. H. H. Killaly, 
President of the Board of Works in 1845 


90 


12.9 


12 9 


]VJ[ontr6al 


Rise from Montreal harbour to lake St. Louis at 
Lachine, from the same report : 
llock 13.3 










2 ' 13 3 










3 " 8.6 










4 " 9.0 










5 " 09 


10 


44 9 


57 6 




Rise in lake St. Louis from Lachine to Ste. Anne . . 
Rise in the lock at Ste. Anne 


13 


0.6 
3 


58.0 
61 




Rise in the lake of Two Mountains from Ste. Anne 
to Carill-m 


23 


8 


61 8 




Rise from Carillon to Blondeau : 
1 lock, up 10,0 










2 " 11.0 




















21 
3 lock down 13 


4i 


8 


69 8 




Rise in Chute a Blondeau 




4.0 


73 8 




Rise in the Grenville canal from the head of Blon- 
deau to the head of Grenville canal 










1 lock . ... 30 










2 3 










3 ,... 8 










4 8 










5 7 










6 6 


6^ 


35 


108 




Rise in the navigable part of the Ottawa, between 
Grenville and the entrance to the Rideau canal. . . 
Rise from the entrance of the Riaeau canal to the 
Chaudiere lake, viz : Rise in the Rideau canal to 
Dow's Swamp : 
1 lock 11 


58 


9.4 


118.0 


Ottawa. 


2 . 10 










3 .10 










4 10 










5 10 










6 10 










7 10 










8 . 10 










81 
Fall from Dow's Swamp to Chaudiere lake 18 


6 


63.0 


181.0 


Chaudiere. 


Rise in ChaudieVe lake from the foot to Fitzroy har- 
bour at the head, supposed to be one inch per mile. 
Rise from Fitzroy harbour to Chats lake, as ascer- 
tained by levels taken up the Mississippi channel 
by the Board of Works in 1845, 49.96, say 


25 
3 


2.1 
50.0 


183.1 
233.1 


Chats. 


Rise in Chats lake from the head of the Rapides des 
Chats to the foot of the Chenaux, supposed to be 
one inch per mile 


15 


1.3 


234.4 















Levels "f ili" <Mia\v;i above the waters of the St. Lawrence at Three 

Rivers. Continued 





1 (istance. 


Rise. 


Total rise. 






miles. 


ft. & in. 


ft. & in. 




Ki-.,. fn in the f.M.t of the Chenaux to Portage du 
,-uiTeiit prevailing all the way, sup- 


5 


5.0 


239.4 


Portage du Fort 






17.0 


356.4 




tin- he:.d of 1'ortage du Fort rapid and 
the I,,, -.';. a strong current prevailing 
ill the wtv s-iy one foot per mile 


5 


5.0 


261.4 




in the Sable rapid and two small ripples above. 
i he Sable and the Mountain Chute. . . 
n the boniii at the foot to dead water at the 
If the Mountain Chute, according to Mr. 


0.', 

1* 


6.2 
1.0 

15.0 


267.6 
268.6 

283.6 


Sable. 
Mountain. 


from the head of the Mountain Chute to the 
if I)'-\rgis r'ipid ^ay 8 inches per mile 


1 


8 


284 2 








5.0 


289.2 


D'Argis 


Rise from the head of D'Argis to the foot of the 
lumet Falls <av S inches per mile. 


H 


0.10 


290 




'alom.-t Falls, according to Mr. Gerrard 
V ; from dead water at the foot of the falls 
to the foot of the middle slide 26.3 










From the foot of the middle slide to dead water at 
the head 39.7 


1 


65 10 


355.10 


Calumet. 


Kist- from the head of the Calumet Falls to the head 
of the Calumet island, a considerable current pre- 
vailing the whole distance, fay 6 inches per mile. . 
Risp from the head of the Calumet island to Fort 
ulonges, including about 1 foot at La Passe 


13 

5 


6.6 

2.8 


362.4 
365.0 


Fort Ooulonges. 


Rise in Fort Coulonges lake from Fort Coulonges to 
the mouth of the Black river, quiet water all the 
wav say 2 inches per mile 


8 


1.4 


366 4 


Black river 


Rise from the mouth of the Black river to the Chap- 
eau rapid, swift water, say 6 inches to the mile . . . 
Rie in the Chapeau rapid 


6 


3.0 
2.0 


369.4 
371 4 


Chapeau 


Ki~e from the Chapeau to the Culbute, swift water 
til the wav say 6 inches per mile 


5 


2 6 


373 10 




l;i-e in the Chute Culbute from the foot of the cur- 
rent to dead water at the head, according to the 
Board of Works 




19.7 


393 5 


f Culbute and lake 


Rise from the head of Culbute rapid by Upper 
Allumettes lake and the Deep river to the foot of 
the Joachim Falls. The current in the deep river 
is so moderate that with a very gentle wind rafts 
are sometimes carried up stream without sails. 
The rise is supposed to be 2 inches per mile 


32 


5.4 


398 9 


(. Allumettes. 
Joachim 


l:i-e in the Joachim Falls from the Deep river to 
dead water at the head, according to Mr. Gerrard 
i- ... 


1 


23 3 


422 




from the head of the Joachim Falls to the 
mouth of Bennett's brook, say 3 inches per mile. . 
from 1'ennett's brook to the mouth of the Riv- 
iere du Moine, a strong current prevailing most of 
the wav. say inches per mile 


4 

3i 


1.0 
1 9 


423.0 
424 9 


Bennett's brook. 


Kir-e from the Uiviere du Moine to the foot of Islet 
rapid, a strong current prevailing at Riley's clear- 
ing and at McSwirley's clearing, say 5 inches per 
mile 


c 


Q A 


49S 1 




from the foot of Islet rapid to the Roche Capi- 
rapids, or that part of them called the 
Maribou, allowing one foot for the Islet 


1 


1 5 


429 6 


Tslpf- 


T<>m the head of Roche Capitaine 


9 


42 10 


472 4 




:"r .in the head of Roche Capitaine to the foot 
of the Deux Rivieres quiet water nearly the whole 
wav, sav 3 inches per mile 


11 


2.9 


47R.1 





31 



Levels of the Ottawa above the waters of the St. Lawrence at Three 

Rivers. Continued. 





Distance. 


Rise. 


Total rise. 






miles. 


ft. & in. 


ft. & in. 




Rise from the foot of the Deux Rivieres rapid to the 
head of the Levier rapid, viz : Difference of level 
between smooth water at the foot and smooth water 
at the head of the Deux Riviere Portage. .. .13.38 
Difference of level between the heads of the 
Deux Rivieres Portage and the mouth of the 
Maganisipi .... . . 8 . 55 










Difference of level between the mouth of the 
Maganisipi and the head of the Levier rapid , 8 . 09 
Rise from the head of the Levier to the foot of the 
Mattawa rapids, being swift water nearly the whole 
distance supposed to be 6 inches per mile 


3 

18 


30.4 
9.0 


505.5 
514.5 


Levier. 


Rise from the foot of the Mattawa rapids to the mouth 
of the Mattawa river 


14 


5.0 


519.5 


Mattawa. 


Rise from the mouth of the Mattawa to the foot of 
the Cave rapid, a considerable current about mid- 
way up, say 4 inches per mile 


2i 


0.10 


520.3 


Cave. 


Rise from the foot of the Cave to the head of the 
Chaudron rapid viz : 










Rise in the Chaudron. . 6.00 


'A 


11.9 


532.0 


Chaudron. 


Rise from the head of the Chaudron to the foot of 
the Erables rapid say 3i inches per mile. 


3i 


1.0 


533.0 




Rise from the foot to the head of the Erables rapid. 
Rise from the head of the Erables to the foot of the 
Mountain rapid say 3^ inches per mile 


4 

3| 


13.0 
1.0 


546.0 
547.0 


Erables. 


Rise from the foot to the head of the Mountain 
rapid , 


1 


5.5 


552.5 


Mountain 


Rise in the Seven League lake from the head of the 
Mountain rapid to the foot of the Long Sault 
rapids say 2 inches per mile 


17 


3.6 


555 . 11 




Rise from the loot to the head of the Long Sault 
rapids : 
1st or lower leap , 6 . 92 










Intermediate 1 mile 2.50 










2nd leap 6.16 










Intermediate 1 2-18 mile 2.20 










3rd Crooked rapid 6.38 










Intermediate 1 2-12 mile 0.23 










4th leap 15.82 










5th Upper rapid . . . . 8.34 


6 


48.5 


G04.4 


Long Sault. 


Rise from the head of Long Sault rapids to the mouth 
of the Opimika river above the Galere current ; 
there is a perceptible current only in two places, 
say 3 inches per mile 


12 


3.0 


607.4 


Galere. 


Rise from the mouth of the Opimika river to the 
head of lake Temiscatning, say 1 inch per mile. . . . 


55 


4.8 


612.0 


Temiscaming. 


Miles 


492i 



















32 



I ve\s ,,f tlir M.itt.iw.i from its junction with the Ottawa, 519 feet 5 inchesabove- 
th.- surface ..I' tli.- St. Lawrence at Three Rivers, to Trout or Turtle Lake. 







Feet and 


Tntnl 








inches. 






1 1 , ! 1 > 1 1 1 R ' \ t 'ix 






519.5 




n tli.- mouth ..f th.- IVfattawa to the foot of 
ri:iin-< 'liant iapi. Is, im-luding a rise of 1 foot 8 
Mil rapids, allowing 4 inches per 


24 


2.6 


521.11 




|; t tn head of Plain-Chant rapids : 
1 , 15.98 










1.60 


i 


17.7 


539.6 


Plain Chant. 


in Long lake from the head of Plain Chant 
lapi.ls t.i the foot of Portage a la Rose, say 3 
inches ]M r mile 


5i 


1.4 


540 10 




from th.- In >t nf Portage a la Rose to the head 
of ! in 1 Locher above Amabledu Fond river : 
1 Port a "i 1 a la Rose rise 5.90 










Int6nn6cliatG 20 










2 Portage de la Compagnie 5.80 




















3 Portage du Rocher . . .5.05 


2 


17.9 


558.7 


Du Rocher. 


Rise from the head ot Portage du Rocher to the foot 
of Portage des Parresseux, say 3 inches per mile 
in addition to a small fall of 4 inches 


3i 


1.2 


559.9 




Rise from the foot of Portage des Parresseux to the 
foot of the Talon or Hang falls : 
1 Portage des Parresseux rise 33.9 










Intermediate 0.25 










2 Portage de la Prairie rise , 8.55 










Intermediate 0.95 










3 Portage rise 6 . 30 










Intermediate 0.10 










4X0 Portage rise 3.31 










Intermediate .. 0.33 


2| 


53.9 


613.6 


Foot of Talon. 


Rise from the foot of Talon or Hang falls to the foot 
of Talon lake : 
1 Portao-e de Talon rise ,,. 42.23 




















2 No Portage rise ... . 85 


a 


43.4 


656.10 




Rise from the foot to the head of lake Talon by the 
old canoe route, say 1 inch per Tiile 


7 


0.7 


657.5 


Lake Talon. 


Rise from the head of lake Talon to the foot of 
Lower Trout lake, the difference of level ascer- 
tained by the new canoe route, the distance by the 
old route, viz : 
Rise from lake Talon to Lac des Pins 42.19 










Fall from Lac des Pins to Lower Trout lake. 10 . 89 
Rise from Lower to Upper Trout lake, say 1 inch 
per mile in addition to a rise of 1.1 at the outlet 
of the Upper lake 


4i 
3i 


31.3 
1.4 


688.8 
690.0 


Lower Trout lake. 


Rise from foot to head of Upper Trout lake 


8 


0.0 


690.0 


Upper Trout lake. 












Levels from the surface of Upper Trout lake, 690 
feet above the waters of the St. Lawrence at Three 
Rivers, to the surface of lake Nipissing 


39g 








Height of Upper Trout lake 






690.0 




Rise fiom Trout lake to the height of land between 
it and the Vase river on the canoe Portage 


i 


24.5 


714.5 


Height of land. 


Fall from the height of land to the Riviere a la Vase, 
at the end of the Portage 


i 


22 11 


691 6 


Vase. 


Fall from Trout lake Portage, on the Vase, to lake 
Nipissing: 
Fall at 1st Portage 3 14 










Intermediate 1 00 










Fall at 2nd Portage 20 88 










Intermediate 1 50 


41 


26 6 


665 






^4 









33 



Levels from the surface of Lake Nipissing, 655 feet above the waters of the St.. 
Lawrence at Three Rivers, to that of Lake Huron, at the mouth of the 
French River. 







Miles. 


Feet. 


Total rise. 








Heierht of lake Nipissing agreeably to the estimate 
of Mr. Win. Hawkins in his report to the Com- 
missioners of the lake Huron and Ottawa Survey 
in 1838, the falls on the French river are : 
1 Chaudiere falls (upper) 10.0 


55 


56.6 
27.6 


665.0 
84.0 




2 Chaudiere " (lower) 


..15.0 


3 Rapids 


. 3.0 


4 " 


OR 

... O.D 


5 " 


... 3.0 


6 


. ... 8.0 


7 ... . 


2.0 


8 


3.0 


9 


6.0 


10 


. 3.0 


Allowanoe for the supposed general slope of inter- 
mediate parts of the river, say 6 inches per mile. . 

To the level of lake Huron 


581.0 

578.0 
3.0 


The ascertained height of the surface of lake Huron 
above the sea, according to the Michigan Survey- 
ors is - 


Making a difference of .... 









3(F.) 



FOBEST PROTECTION AND TREE CULTURE ON WATER FRONT- 
AGES WITH Till': VIEW OF PROVIDING A CONSTANT AND 
STKADV SUPPLY OK WATER, FOOD, SHADE, AND SHELTER FOR 
FRESH-WATEK FISH. 

At the ( onferent e of the International Fisheries Exhibition, London, on Wed- 
nesday, -'nlv isth - a paper on the above subject was read by D. Howitz, 
|\,| | > onset \;.tor, and Commissioner for Denmark. It is in substance as 

follow 

Professional foresters take a great interest in this question, as it is of much 
importance to the success of pisciculture, and to all fresh-water fishing. Its 
value mav not at first appear so great as it really is, but it is sincerely hoped it 
may become a question of interest to all, and a special subject for future legisla- 
tion. It is the question of the protection, proper management, and cultivation of 
forest and forest trees in localities where are found the sources of creeks, rivers, 
and a supply of water to lakes and other fresh waters. The greatest part of the 
forest land in Canada with which this question has to deal is in the possession of 
the State, but there are no laws in existence giving a guarantee for the preserva- 
tion and proper management of these forests. 

That the forests regulate the flow of the water in water-courses, and insure a 
;dv supply during dry seasons, while they prevent sudden and disastrous 
floods, is a fact so often discussed and proved, that it need only be referred to 
here. There is still a great deal of uncertainty as to the extent of the effect of a 
forest on the rainfall, and it is only by very minute observations of forests, con- 
sisting of the same species of trees in various altitudes, that series of trustworthy 
-ults can be obtained. Still, there is no longer any doubt as to the effect of the 
forest in conserving the water that falls, or that the humidity of the air above a 
forest is considerably larger than that of the air of the open country. Experi- 
ments in the south of France showed that the rainfall in a forest, as compared 
with that in the open country, was in the proportion of 100 to 92.5, while the 
evaporation in the forest was only one-third of the evaporation in the open. The 
result of this is that the actual water received and retained from the atmosphere 
is nearly 50 per cent, greater in a forest than that received and retained by the 
plains. Numerous observations have also established the fact that the forests, as 
ready conductors of electricity, influence the current of vapours, and that their 
action is felt far above the actual height of the trees. Also that they condense 
the clouds into rain by lowering the temperature, and act as bulwarks against the 
severity of storms; all this we know by daily experience aud observation. That 
want of forest protection may have most fearful results has been so often and 
sadly proved, and I need only remind you of the disasters caused by great floods 
and long droughts in Spain, South of France, Sicily, Chili, Peru, Mauritius, and 
many other places, and you will grant the importance of the question. In the 
Murcia \ alley the river was reduced to a succession of stagnant pools, which dur- 
the summer heat developed malaria, fever, and miasmatic exhalations, detrimental 
to life and health, and furnishing but scant and bad accommodation for the few 
remaining fish. 

But as soon as the winter rains came, the river, in fact nearly all the valley, 
became a raging torrent, destroying life and property, and all because the forests 
on the ranges and mountains had been devastated, no legal restrictions protecting 
them. As a question of national economy ; as a question of protection to life and 
property ; and as a question of prosperity, forest protection has the greatest 



35 



claim to the attention of the Legislature. The forest, with its number- 
less roots and decaying vegetation, retains the rain water, and prevents it from 
rushing to the rivers and the eea, while it gives it off to these slowly and steadily. 
It acts like a great sieve and retains the fine particles of the soil, which the influ- 
ence of the air and sun, the frost and rain, and the action of the numberless roots 
have decomposed, thereby fertilizing the land and forming a layer of mould or 
humus, in which insects, worms, larvae, and other animalcules live and breed. 

In his most interesting paper on fish diseases, Prof. Huxley said that drought 
or flood did not seem to afiect the saprolegnea* but that a steady flow was bene- 
ficial to the fish. 

Mr. Wilmot, Superintendent of Fish Culture, Canada, in the discussion 
which followed, pointed out that the disease nearly always appeared where the 
regularity of thesupply of water had been disturbed by the destruction of the 
forests. 

I presume, therefore, that both these learned and practical gentlemen will 
agree with me in the importance of forest protection as a means of preserving 
the health of the fishes. 

The branchlets, leaves, decaying and decayed vegetation, produce a vast 
amount of nourishment for the fish, and one most agreeable to them. Each 
breeze drops into the water numberless grubs, caterpillars, beetles, flies, and other 
insects, the food most relished by the fishes, while from the banks and roots 
worms and grubs are constantly supplying them with delicacies. 

The shade of the overhanging trees is also agreeable to the fish, and one needs 
only to place a board in a stream and see the fish gather underneath it to be con- 
vinced of this. 

We all know that a shady deep pool is a good place in which to seek for fish, 
and have often observed the predilection fish have for the shady side of a stream. 
But not only as regards fresh-water fishing can this be said. In Denmark it is a 
well-kno\vn fact, that the best fishing is where a forest is close to the shore, and 
in particular where the trees, as is often the case in that country, overhang the 
very sea. The shadowing trees have another, and, perhaps, the far more import- 
ant effect of preventing a large evaporation, and at the same time, keeping the 
water clear and cool in summer, while on the same account the winter frosts do 
not deal so severely with them. In all forest country the changes of temperature 
are not so severely felt as in a treeless country or on the open plains, and the 
effect upon the water is even greater. It is a popular saying in Denmark of the 
forest streams, that they are cool in the summer and warm in the winter, this, of 
course, meaning that they present that feeling in comparison to the atmosphere. 
The forests not only regulate the flow of the water, but they purify the water. This 
is an experience often demonstrated in Australia in cases where streams have 
been polluted by wool-washing establishments. After having passed a few miles 
through a shady and dense forest, the water will appear as clear and pure as it 
was above the woolwash. 

I need not here enter upon more reasons for the conservation of existing forests 
to insure a steady supply, or to draw your attention to the danger in not protect- 
ing them by legislation. But I will draw your attention to the advisability of 
cultivating forests on places suitable for the supply of water, and especially 
along water courses and lakes, as means of purifying these, preventing too great 

*A fungus or mould. 



Monition, supplviiiLT food for fish, and providing these with shade against the 
nivs ,,f the -uinnier sun, and shelter from the pelting rains, the hail and the 

temp' 

Salmon fishing and all fn-h water fishing depend upon proper attention to 
this matter, and I feel certain that if the true causes were properly investigated 
where fish were said to disappear from a stream, in half the cases it would be 
found that the shade and shelter of the forests or protecting border trees had 
hem taken away. It was said at the reading of Sir James Gibson Maitland's 
lellenl papi-r on the " Salmonidse " that it was not enough to place spawn and 
frv in a water ; they must be provided with proper food, and the best means to 
do this is to preserve the border trees and insure a steady supply of water and 
food hv preserving the forests from whence the supply of water is derived. But, 
as before remarked, it is not enough to preserve the present forest. New forest 
must be cultivated on the barren ranges, and many a stream" now nearly empty 
during dry seasons, will be refilled and soon teem with fish and food for the many. 
So far for the principle of the conservation of the forest. 

I will now briefly mention the most suitable trees and their culture. But,, 
before entering upon this, I must draw jour attention to the important condition 
to be observed in the management of such forest areas as are preserved for the 
sake of conservation of water. This condition is density. In the dense shade of 
a well closed forest are developed all these atmospheric conditions on which 
depend the greatest effects of the forest in regard to climate and water conserva- 
tion. The so-called periodical thinning out in these areas should be carried on 
with the greatest care, and might with advantage be nearly dispensed with, if 
the economy of the management would permit it. The result would be, besides 
the effect on the water conservation, that tall straight trees would be reared, 
yielding timber most valuable for all practical purposes. Nature itself would do 
the thinning out, and do it in a better way than we could hope to do, while the 
ground would be kept moist and in a state favorable to the decomposition of 
vegetable matter. It is desirable, therefore, to frame regulations regarding such 
forests, deciding the minimum to be preserved of the number of trees per acre, 
due regard being, of course, paid to age, species, altitude and locality. For these 
reasons it is highly important that all such forests, whether private property, 
commons, or belonging to the State, should be placed under the control of the 
State. 

The different trees have naturally a different effect as regards conservation 
of water and production of food and shelter for fish, as I will here briefly point 
out. To simplify matters, we may divide all forest trees into two large groups, 
the deciduous and the evergreen trees. The deciduous trees, of which, so far as 
Great Britain is concerned, the oak, elm, beech, plane, larch, willow, and poplar, 
are the most prominent, have a decided advantage over the evergreens. I need 
not here enlarge upon the fact that the full- shady foliage during summer is far 
more effective in preventing a large evaporation, and that the branches of the 
trees of this group are more spreading than those of the other. The energy of 
life seems to be far greater in these trees towards effecting our objects, and, for 
direct border trees to a water, they are undoubtedly the best suited. The great 
amount of foliage and branchlets yearly thrown by these trees forms a prominent 
factor in the economy of nature, and their decaying vegetation is full of teeming 
life and food for fish. 

That this group is eminently suited for water conservation, was illustrated 
in a forest in Denmark, where an area of firs and pines was cultivated with beech 
and oak. After a lapse of about fifteen years, a mill stream, which, during the 



37 



time of the evergreen trees, had dwindled down considerably, assumed such pro- 
portions that the irrigation of a considerable area was affected by it, besides 
supplying the mill with an abundance of water. As regards the evergreen trees, 
the first cultivation of barren ranges on high plateaus might advantageously be 
undertaken with these, on account of their ability to resist the severity of the 
climate in those exposed localities, and to grow on stony and poor soil. But, even 
on rocky ground and in high altitudes, the larches, birches, and other deciduous 
trees, will often do well and serve better for the end which we have in view, the 
water storage and the pisciculture. 

In such localities, where only the most hardy trees can be reared, it would 
be practicable to cultivate along the watercourses, in the valleys and ravines, or any 
lower ground, a few rows of deciduous trees as soon as the other trees had attained 
sufficient height to protect them from the storms and the frosts. Several objects 
may be gained by doing so. First, the shade, shelter, and other beneficial effects 
for the fishes ; secondly, that more valuable timber could be reared, as these trees 
have, as a rule, a greater preference for damp and moist localities than the ever- 
greens ; and thirdly, because the deciduous trees permit more freely a luxuriant 
undergrowth of shrubs and annuals. 

All fresh-water fishermen will agree with me in the advantage of having a 
good growth of annuals, as watercress, nettles, etc., near the bank, and have 
observed that during feeding time the fish always seek such places. There is a 
vast variety of shrubs and annuals that might easily and with great advantage 
be introduced and grown on the river banks, but it would be outside the bounds 
of this paper to enter fully on the theme. However, I may only mention that 
many fodder plants and grasses from other countries might be a source of wealth 
to the population, and greatly benefit the fish as well as the owners of the land, 
if cultivated on the banks. 

The Prickly Comfrey, e. g. (Symphytum asperrimum) which yields such a 
splendid forage by its abundant foliage, and many others, are easily reared, both 
from seed and cuttings, and should do well in the low lands, while on the sandy 
beaches, near the outlet of rivers and creeks, the cabbage radish (Pringlce anti- 
scorbutica) would cover these barren and desolate places with vegetation, and 
furnish an object of merchandise by packing them for the use of fishermen and 
sailors in the Arctic regions. The plant, when cooked, is a good substitute for 
cabbage, and has a most wholesome effect on persons suffering from scorbutica. 

By a judicious forest management, the land can be kept covered constantly 
and always in a state favorable to the purpose of storing the water, but it is 
important that both sides of the stream should be planted instead of cultivat- 
ing twice the distance on one side. A great many American trees might well be 
introduced, as, for example, the Swamp Cypress (Taxodium distichum), a great 
tree yielding a fine-grained timber, hard and durable, and the Leverwood tree, 
Hop-hornbeam, Ironwood (Ostrya viryinica), which, besides excellent timber, 
furnishes a relished forage from its rich foliage: these, and a great many more 
might have a good effect on the river fishing, besides other advantages But it 
is particularly the willows to which our attention should be drawn. The pre- 
ference which these trees have for water, and particularly for running 
water, is well known, and points directly to the practicability of placing 
them in those localities so well suited for them. The fish like willows, and 
I have oftentimes in Australia seen the best fishing places close to where some 
weeping willows (Salix babylonica) had taken the place of the indigenous and 
even more shady wattles (Acacias). 



38 



Tin- yearly eonsumption of osiers in England is far greater than the 
national -upi>lv. an. I as the luisket industry is constantly on the increase, it 
would also on this account be advisable to further the cultivation of the osier 
willows. !,,! li^lit. sandy banks, the best willow should be Salix purpurea, and 
as it is so easily propagated, it will well repay the cost of cultivation, besides 
binding tin- 1 tanks, making them firm and adding to the health of the locality 
as well as that of the water. For more clayey soil, 8. viminalis and the more 
celfl -rated S.capracB, so much sought for powder factories, should be the best. 
The cuttings must be taken from the one to two-year-old shoots, and be put 1 
to H foot a pan, in double or treble rows 2 to 3 feet apart, care being taken to 
leave only half an inch or less above ground. 

There are many localities where comparatively vr lueless land, close to the 
mouths of rivers and canals, might be made highly profitable, at the same time 
as the cultivation of it with the before mentioned trees and plants would improve 
the state of the fishing, and, before placing spawn and fish in any water, I con- 
sider it important to pay great attention to this question. Where few or no> 
trees exist it will be necessary to cultivate them, and I feel certain that such, 
proceeding will enhance the chances of the success of pisciculture. I will not 
here enter further upon the practical details of the qeustion. These are bound 
to vary with the locality, and the local foresters will know how to deal with 
them. 

In drawing the attention of the conference to this question, it is with the 
sincere hope that it may enlist your sympathy, and that the public opinion may 
be won for it. That it is important for all fresh-water fishing is evident. That 
is one more reason added to the many why we should regard the forest as a pre- 
cious heirloom to be deeply revered, properly used, and, through careful main- 
tenance, descend improved and enriched to posterity. 



39 



SYSTEMATIC MANAGEMENT OF FORESTS.* 

THE MODEL FOREST. 

Imagine a uniformly productive tract, divided into any number (n) of 
divisions, or compartments of equal area; the first stocked with trees one 
year old, the second with trees two years old, and so on in an ascending 
series up to the nth compartment stocked with trees n years old. And let 
the revolution or age at which the trees of any compartment are to be cut, 
be n years. The land will then be parcelled out into a number of compartments 
equal to the number of years in the revolution and each one will 
be stocked with trees one year older than those of a compartment im- 
mediately proceeding it in age, so that there will be a complete series of groups 
of all ages from one to n years old If, now, all trees n years old, that is those 
in the nth compartment, be cut, and the land immediately restocked with young 
growth, it is evident that, at the end of twelve months, the group of trees next 
in order of age, or n minus one year at the time of the first cutting, will have 
advanced to maturity, while the plants on the first coupe will have taken the 
place of the youngest group in the series, and the plants of all intermediate com- 
partments have advanced one year in age. At the expiration of twelve months 
from the time of the first cutting, we may therefore again cut a group n years 
old, and so on forever, cutting a group n years old once a year without demolish- 
ing the standing stock. 

The yearly produce thus obtained is. in fact, the annual growth, or interest, 
of the material standing on n compartments, and is called the sustained yield, 
and a forest so organized is called a model, or ideal forest, because it represents 
a state of things which is theoretically perfect, if never quite attainable in 
practice. 

If, in the case just considered, we were to cut more than the sustained yield 
in any year, we would be trenching on the capital stock and unable to maintain 
an unvarying yield. If on the other hand, we were to cut less, we would not be 
working up to the full capability of the forest and would have a certain amount of 
capital, in the form of trees, lying idle, and for the time being unremunerative. 

A forest may, therefore, be regarded in the light of a capital producing by 
its yearly growth a certain interest in wood, just as a sum of money which is 
lent out produces interest ; and, in estimating the growth of a forest viewed as a 
productive money capital the rate is calculated in precisely the same way as in 
ordinary money transactions. 

Trees of about the same age and height, growing together in a mass, or trees 
growing in a sub-compartment are called a group. A compartment may con- 
tain one or more groups ; if more than one, the area occupied by each group is. 
called a sub-compartment. The group is the smallest unit of mass, and the sub- 
compartment is the smallest of area, in regular forests. 

THE REVOLUTION. 

The term revolution is used to donate the period of years which is being 
fixed to elapse from the time of the production of a tree, or group, to the time of 
its being cut down. It does not necessarily correspond to the age at which a 
tress is harvested, because trees sometimes have to be cut, or fall from natural 
causes, before the revolution fixed upon is completed. 

* Macgregor ; Organization and Valuation of Forests. 



41) 



Tin- I. 'Mirth of thr n volution may depend on many tilings; such as the kind 
, t - tree, :ml tin- method of IV-.-M. 'ration to ho followed subjects which are fully 
.iiiiiin'<l in books ..n s\ 1\ irulture and the special objects of the proprietor. 
Tin- principal ohjrcts of the latter may be classed as follows: 
T. obtain from the l:md the largest possible average annual return, (1) of 
material, 2) of money, (3) f interest on his capital invested; or, to adopt the 
involution besl suited to (4) natural regeneration, or some (5) special, technical 
purpo-r. U, volutions tixed with a view to make such special requirements are 
calli-d, respectively: The revolution of the largest mean yearly yield, (1) in 
o.l and (-2) money, <:!) the financial revolution, (4) the physical, and (5) the 
t. chnical. 

CHOICE OF A REVOLUTION. 

For private owners there can be no doubt as to the most favorable revolu- 
tion the financial. "But when it is a question of forests belonging to the State, 
it is i'ivt|Uently urged that cost what it may, it is the duty of a government to 
providr for all possible requirements of the community, and to prevent a diminu- 
tion of the supply of any kind of material. No doubt a good deal may be said 
in favor of this view. In the first place, it is undeniable that forests that can be 
cut lo\vn any day may take years or even centuries to replace, and that it would 
never do to rely on private enterprise for the supply for the largest timber, more 
particularly as it seldom pays to grow it. Again, experience teaches that 
private individuals cannot be relied upon to provide even small timber, or fire 
wood, which does pay; the temptation to exceed the capability of the forest, or to 
convert all the standing stock into gold, whenever money is required by the 
proprietor, is irresistible, and not to be restrained by other people's ideas of moral 
obligations to themselves and posterity. 

Xow, without denying that circumstances (as in the case of protective forests) 
are conceivable which would render it advisable for a State to keep a forest 
standing after it had reached financial maturity, advocates of ths financial revo- 
lution may reply as follows: As a general rule, it is the business of a govern- 
ment to make the most of the property entrusted to its charge, rather than to 
anticipate and provide for highly improbable contingencies which, if they ever 
did threaten to arise, would certainly not in these days take everybody by 
surprise. 

The government timber forests of all civilized countries are of vast extent, 
Spain perhaps alone excepted. They are are all systematically managed, or in a 
fair way to be so, and could npt therefore, be swept away as if by magic, nor the 
uding stock suddenly reduced to a great extent, because that would involve 
the sale of largely increased quantities of wood, which could not be quickly dis- 
posed of without greatly depreciating its value. In a well-regulated forest, 
therefore, the financial revolution would act as a self-adjusting measure of the 
requirements of the people, and act as a regulator of the supply in sympathy 
with their most pressing wants. 

NATURAL REGENERATION OF WOODS.* 

In forests naturally regenerated by seed, the mother trees are only gradually 
removed, and several cuttings go on at once. In every rational method of working 
a forest, reproduction ought to be the result of the cuttings themselves. 

*Bagneris: Elements of Sylviculture. 



41 



This is one of the essential objects of the science and art of sylviculture. 
Thus in the different kinds of high forest, reproduction is obtained from seed shed 
by the trees under conditions favorable to germination, while in coppices it is 
obtained just as naturally, by means of the shoots principally and secondarily by 
means of the seeds furnished by the standards. 

But whatever the precautions taken, in both descriptions of forest there are 
often spots where seedlings do not come up, or where stools die and leave blanks. 
At other times it may happen that the reserve does not contain a sufficient 
proportion of a given species, a mixture of which is necessary, or that this species 
has disappeared owing to indiscreet operations or the total absence of 
all operations. In each of these different cases recourse must be had 
to artificial means in order to restore the good condition of the forest 
or a satisfactory composition of the crops. But such means ought to 
be the exception not the rule. It cannot become general and take the place of 
natural methods. To abandon natural reproduction is only to retrograde, to 
return to the infancy of the art ; it is tantamount to claiming to supersede the 
forces of nature ; above all it is simply wasting money under the false idea of 
economy, only to arrive in the end at results which are at the best doubtful. 

Nevertheless, artificial restocking cannot be totally proscribed. It forms 
the necessary complement of natural regeneration, but it must remain only its 
complement. Hence it is necessary for the forester to know how to do it well. 
Besides tins, it is the only method of stocking extensive treeless wastes. 

REGENERATION BY SEED.* 

Regeneration by seed is applicable to all species ; that by shoots and suckers 
applies only to broad-leaved species ; since the power of reproduction of conifers 
by shoots is either absent altogether, or so feeble that it is useless for sylvicultural 
purposes. 

Under natural regeneration b}' seed is understood the formation of a new 
wood by the natural fall of seed, which germinates and develops into a crop of 
seedlings. The trees which yield the seed are called the mother trees; they may 
either stand on the area which is to be restocked, or on adjoining ground. A 
distinction is made between 

(1) Natural regeneration under shelter-woods ; 

(2) Natural regeneration from adjoining woods. 

In natural regeneration under shelter-woods the area is stocked with seed- 
bearing trees, and the new generation springs up under their shelter ; for some 
time at any rate, the area bears the new crop and part of the old one. 

The system is that which occurs in primeval forests. When a tree falls 
from old age, or other cause and an opening is thus formed in the cover overhead, 
the seed falling from the adjoining trees germinates and develops into seedlings; 
these grow up under the shelter ol the older trees, until they in their turn become 
mother and shelter trees. In this manner primeval forest, if undisturbed, goes on 
on regenerating itself for generations. The process is a slow one, as the young 
crop will only develop when sufficient light is admitted by the fall or death of 
the old trees. In sylviculture it is accelerated by the artificial removal of a 

* Schlich : A Manual of Forestry. 



42 



of bheold tiv.-s, \\hcn they have become fit for economic purposes. By 
^ m.Mli lira tii ms have been introduced which lead to a number of distinct 
methods : 

( 1 ' Tin xi'li'i'f'ioit si/strni. 

(2) 7'ln- ,'//"/' system. 

(:>) 77/. compartment system. 

(4) Y7/< *////> xi/ntem. 

In eacli of these there are certain general conditions of success which hold 
good for all. 

Tinier the selection system, regeneration goes on in all parts of the forest by 
the removal of the oldest, largest, diseased or defective trees, wherever they are 
found. No part of the forest is ever at rest ; advantage is taken of all seed years 
for the restocking of small holes cut into the cover here and there by the removal 
of one or a fe\\ r trees. Of the large quantities of seed which fall annually or 
periodically to the ground, only a small portion finds conditions favorable for 
the development of young trees ; the latter are found chiefly in those parts 
where old trees are standing, or where the cover has been interrupted. Here 
little groups of seedlings spring up, which must be assisted by cuttings either 
final or intermediate, to afford them the necessary light. 

CHOICE BETWEEN DIRECT SOWING AND PLANTING. 

Formerly the artificial formation of woods was chiefly effected by direct 
sowing, planting being restricted to special cases where the other method was 
not likely to succeed. The reasons for this were that sowing was considered to 
be more certain, cheaper, and that it was generally the custom to use too large 
transplants. In the course of time the raising of plants was elaborated, smaller 
plants were used, and the expense considerably reduced, so that now far more 
planting than direct sowing is done. 

Yet it is not always a foregone conclusion that planting is better or more 
suitable than direct sowing, since many different conditions and factors affect the 
ultimate results. The effect of some of these factors is as yet somewhat obscure, 
but in many respects experience has taught the forester which of the two- 
methods is preferable under a given set of conditions. 

Sowing and planting are costly. The outlay on the latter can, however, be 
considerably reduced by planting small plants according to a simple and cheap 
method. 

Where artificial regeneration follows clear cutting, the young plants are 
exposed to damage by frosts, drought, insects and weeds in a far higher degree than 
if the regeneration is conducted under a shelter- wood. In fact, tender species 
must be raised in the latter way, so that for them clear-cutting is excluded. 
Insects frequently become formidable to coniferous woods raised in clear-cuttings, 
while experience has shown them to be less dangerous to natural seedlings, es- 
pecially when these are raised under a shelter-wood. 

In the case of clear-cuttings, the laying bare of the ground for a series of 
years may seriously affect the fertility of the soil, so much so that the method is 
hardly admissible on inferior soils. 

Natural regeneration involves less expenditure than sowing or planting. 
In some cases the outlay may be absolutely nil, but in most cases some artificial 
help has to be given either by working (wounding) the soil, or by sowing and 



43 



planting. Still the outlay is considerably smaller. It must, however, not be 
overlooked that in the majority ot cases natural regeneration requires much time ; 
as long as the shelter trees increase sufficiently in size and quality so as to make 
up for any loss on this account no harm is done, but where this is not the case 
artificial regeneration may be actually more profitable. 

Damage by frost, drought, and weed growth is avoided, or at any rate con- 
siderably reduced. The same may be said as regards damage by insects, though 
perhaps not to an equal extent. 

SUMMING UP. 

Neither the artificial nor the natural method of regeneration is the best at 
all times and under any circumstances ; only a consideration of the local con- 
ditions can lead to a sound decision as to which is preferable in a given case. 
In forming such a decision the forester must chiefly take the following points - 
into consideration : 

(a.) General objects of management. 

(6.) Species to be grown. 

(c.) Condition of locality. 

(d.) Available funds. 

(e.) Skill and capacity of the staff. 

LABOR KEQUIRED VN FORESTRY. 

Forests require labor in a great variety of ways, which may be brought 
under the following three headings : 

(1) General administration, creation, tending, harvesting, etc., or work done 
in the forest. 

(2) Transport of produce. 

(3) Industries which depend on forests for their prime material. 

(1) General Administration. The quantity of labor required in the forests 
differs considerably according to circumstances, the value of the produce, and the 
consequent degree of the minuteness of the system of management. Great diffi- 
culty is experienced in obtaining accurate statistics on this point, but five days' 
work annually for every acre of land under forest may be accepted as an approxi- 
mate estimate all round. From the available data it has been calculated that in 
the forests of Germany about 39,000,000 are paid annually for administration, 
creation, preservation, road making, cutting of wood, and collection of minor 
forest produce, on which about 200,000 families exist, or about 1,000,000 people. 
This estimate refers to forests which are already in existence, and in which fencing 
is done only in very rare instances. When new forests are created, additional labor 
is required at the outset. Nevertheless it is beyond doubt that forests require 
considerably less labour than land under field crops. 

(2) Transport of produce. Owing to the bulky nature of forest produce its 
transport forms a business of considerable magnitude. Timber and firewood are 
carried by water wherever practicable, but also extensively overland. Under 
this head the sum of at least $19,480,000 is paid annually in Germany. 

(3) Forest industries. The labour which is required to work up the raw 
material yielded by forests is of a much greater extent than that employed in 
managing the forests and in transport. There are the workmen employed in 



44 



.v-milk liuiMm-, ship-building, carpentry, coach-building, engineering, turning, 
rving, paper pulp manufacture, match-making, the manufacture of cases, and 

boxes, round and square, from the largest packing case to the smallest toy _box, 

frames of sieves, drums and cask hoops, wooden-ware for table covers, blinds, 
icils, wooden nads, instruments, tools, plates, shovels, spoons, shoes, lasts, 
Idle trees, l-rusln-s, harrows, and gunstocks, toys of thousands of patterns, and 

.ndl as other I. ranches of industry, some of which can only exist in and around 

forests. 

The \va-v- earned under this head amount in Germany to something like 

>] t-iijiioiioi) a year, maintaining 600,000 families or 3,000,000 people. 

Taking now the three heads of labour together, it has been estimated that 
SMin,. tiling like li' per cent, of the population of Germany is employed in forest 
\vork, transport <>!' forest produce, and the working up of the raw material yielded 
hy the forests. An important feature of the work connected with the forests 
and their produce is, that a greater part of it can be made to fit in with the 
requirements of agriculture ; that is to say, that it can be done when field crops do 
not require attention. Hence forest work offers an excellent opportunity to the 
rural labourer or small farmer of earning some money when he has nothing else 
to do, and when he would probably sit idle, if no forest work were obtainable. 

ORGANIZATION OF THE PERSONNEL.* 

This will depend in a great measure on the extent of the forest concerned. 
It is evident that the degree of division of labour which is possible in the man- 
agement of forests comprising a million acres could not be applied with advantage 
to an estate of a thousand acres, and that private individuals will seldom be in a 
position to adopt the elaborate systems followed in the State Forests of European 
countries. 

The following plan is that usually adopted for the management of forests of 
large extent, such as those of most European countries. 

The establishment consists of an inferior and a superior branch. The former 
consists of (1) guards and (2) rangers. 

(1) Guards or Under- Foresters. The duty of these is, as the name implies 
in the first place, protective. But, besides this, they are employed in the execu- 
tive work of their beats, as, for instance, in supervising work of regeneration and 
felling. 

(2) Rangers, 'or, range-foresters, who have immediate charge of the executive 
work of a range, and are responsible for its proper conduct to the assistant con- 
servator. 

The superior branch consists of (1) Assistant-Conservators, (2; Deputy-Con- 
servators, (3) Conservators, and, in certain cases, of (4) an Inspector-General. 

(1) Assistant-Conservators. An assistant-conservator has charge of several 
ranges, called collectively, a sub-division. Besides the general management of the 
work of the sub-division, the accounts of each range are audited, and have to be 
passed by him before payment is made. 

(2) Deputy-Conservators. A Deputy-Conservator has charge of several sub- 
divisions, called collectively, a division. His duty is purely to control, and he 
does not, as a rule, interfere with the executive work of the Assistant -Conserva- 

* Macgregor ; Organization and Valuation of Forests. 



45 



tors ; but it is his business to see that the general provisions of the sanctioned 
working schemes and yearly budget of his division are properly carried out, and 
to audit and pass the accounts of the sub-divisional officers. 

(3) Conservators. A Conservator has general control of several divisions, 
collectively called a c.ircle, comprising all the forests of the State, or, if they are 
very extensive, of a Province only. He is the immediate adviser of government 
in all forest matters concerning his circle ; holds in fact, in this respect, much the 
same position as an under-secretary of State, and usually has his headquarters 
at the seat of Government. 

(4) Inspectors-General. An Inspector-General stands in the same relation 
to a supreme government as a conservator to its local government, and exercises 
a general supervision over the whole system of a country. 

It will be observed that by this system the administration is divided into an 
executive and a controlling branch, the former consisting of Assistant-Conserva- 
tors and their subordinates, and the latter of Deputy-Conservators and officers of 
superior rank. 

Members of the inferior establishment do not, as a rule, rise higher in the 
service. A much lower standard of technical and general education is demanded 
from them than from the members of the superior branch, and they are, therefore, 
generally unfitted for the higher appointments. 

The size of ranges, sub-divisions, divisions, or circles, depends on local circum- 
stances, such as the degree of intensiveness of the working, compactness of the 
forest area, mode of treatment and means of communication. It is, for instance, 
evident that, other things being equal, a Deputy-Conservator could manage a 
larger division where there was railway communication than where there 
was none. It is equally obvious that a ranger could manage a much larger forest 
worked by the method of equal areas, and solely with the view to producing 
firewood coppice, than a seedling forest worked by the combined method with a 
view to the production of large timber and naturally regenerated. 

CHOICE OF AN OKGANIZER. 

Should the sub-divisional officer who has been in immediate charge of the 
forest, perhaps for many years, be intrusted with a preparation of a plan, or 
should a special branch of the executive be employed, whose sole business is (o 
prepare plans of management ? 

In regard to this question, opinions are divided. Of course it is one which 
can only arise in regard to large tracts of forest belonging to one proprietor 
the State for example. A small proprietor would not be able to keep a special 
staff fully employed. 

It has been urged in favor of the local officials conducting the organization 
and revision of a forest, that he must know the special conditions far better than 
other people, and that he would take much more interest in the carrying out of 
his own programme than that of another. ^ 

On the other hand, it has been maintained that the special practical knowl- 
edge and skill necessary to organize a forest successfully cannot be acquired in 
the ordinary routine of an executive officer, who would probably not be called 
upon to carry out a work of this kind more than a few times during his whole 
career ; that by constant practice a special branch would attain the necessary 
proficiency ; that if the work is done by a small body of men, it is more likely to 



I..- uniformly > ;uii. ,1 out (linn by a number of different persons; that the officer 
in c-li.-iri:'' i^ >">t the proper person to revise his own work; that he will be 
always tlirir tn assist and advise the organizer. 

. 

A large majority of countries, including India, have adopted the system of 
having works of organization carried out by a separate branch of the service; 
and soim- hnvr gone ^till further and constituted a distinct survey branch as well 
as an assr>-mi-nt l>ranrh. As a rule the separation of these two departments is 
not dfsirulilc. IV-rliaps it conduces towards efficiency, if a part of the staff is 
ocrliisivrlv employed in surveying and the other in assessment, but the work of 
tin.- two is so intimately connected that it is expedient they should both be under 
one head. 

The composition of the organization staff depends on special circumstances. 
Sometimes a good plan is to have a board of senior officers, presided over by the 
principal officer. All organization schemes are submitted for the approval of, 
:md have to be passed by, this board, the members of which carry on the work in 
addition to their ordinary controlling duties. Under the board is the working 
staff, which carries out the works of organization, and which is recruited by 
1 rafting men into it from the ordinary branch of the service after they have 
-i.-rvi.'d a few years and become thoroughly acquainted with the working of a 
sub-division. 



This system is onl}^ suitable for districts in which the headquarters of the 
controlling officers on the board are all in one place. Each member looks speci- 
ally after the working of the plans in his own division, and generally conducts 
the revisions in person. 

An important duty of the organization branch is to collect and work up 
statistics. The business of collecting statistics and drawinggeneral inferences is best 
done by a central institution of this kind, and much useful work would often be lost 
without a trained staff', whose special duty is to work up details collected in dif- 
ferent parts of the country : the " Bavarian tables," which have proved so useful, 
not only in Bavaria, but throughout Germany, are a case in point; they would 
probably never have been constructed it' there had not been a central organiza- 
tion department at Munich. 

Speaking generally, the bent of the argument appears to be in favor of 
having this kind of work done by a special branch ; but not always, as circum- 
stances ma}* without doubt arise which render the alternative course advisable, 
as, for instance, when the aggregate area of forests requiring to be organized is 
so great that their organization could not be accomplished within a reasonable 
period by a necessarily limited staff, or when the methods to be employed are so 
simple that their execution does not require any special skill. 



47 



FORESTRY IN THE COLONIES AND IN INDIA.* 

A circular containing questions relating to colonial timber was addressed by 
the Secretary of State for the Colonies to the administrative heads of the various 
British possessions in 1874, from the replies to which it appears that in none of 
the six Provinces of the Dominion had measures been taken to secure the replant- 
ing of cleared areas, or the afforestation by natural reproduction, notwithstanding 
an enormous and growing consumption. 

In the Province of Ontario more than 87| per cent, of the timber annually 
cut was exported, and, looking to the magnitude of the timber exports, it was 
remarkable that so little had been done to prevent the threatened exhaustion of 
the chief article of trade in the Province. 

In Nova Scotia the amount of timber annually cut was estimated to exceed 
by 25 per cent, the amount which could be cut each year without permanent 
in] ury to the forests, while in Prince Edward Island the amount annually cut exceeded 
nearly seventeen times the quantity which would represent a prudent rate of 
consumption. 

The timber resources of British Columbia were declared by local authorities 
to be practically inexhaustible, but it is probable that, should the whole strain of 
the demand be thrown upon British Columbia, a few years would make a very 
perceptible inroad upon the stock of native timber situated in accessible districts 
of the Province. 

The importance of this trade to the commercial prosperity of the Dominion 
will be exemplified by the following table, compiled from materials contained in 
returns issued by the Board of Trade. 

Comparative cables of money values of timber and corn (grain) exported to 
the United Kingdom during five years ending 1876. 



Articles. 


Value. 


1872 


1873 


1874 


1875 


1876 


Total. 


Timber and wood 


$ 
4,218,661 
3,003,104 


$ 
5,220,296 
3,898,204 


$ 
5,706,567 
3,697,616 


$ 
4,205,045 
3,124,056 


$ 
5,282,657 
2,814,003 


$ 
24,633,226 
16,536,983 


Corn and grain 





Timber and corn (grain) are the chief exports of the Provinces of the Domi- 
nion, but the value of the timber exports exceeded the value of the corn exports by 
more than one-third, and constituted nearly one-hall of the total value of all the 
exports from the Dominion to the United Kingdom. 

The returns exhibit, in a striking manner, the urgent need for some prompt 
and comprehensive action to st ly the influences at work to destroy the indigenous 
forests, which constitute, in many instances, the principal natural riches of the 
colonies. There is a tendency in newly-settled countries to regard the timber as 

* Scblich : In Proceedings of Royal Colonial Institute, vol. xxi., 1889-90. 



48 



;i mere encuml. ranee to the land, and the finest timber is that first selected for 
truction l>v dre, bj ring barking, and other rude and wasteful methods in 

faV"lir \\ itll srttlers. 

It is probably not po-^iMe in newly-settled colonies to put restraints upon 
tin- ele;irim; ill' the most fertile soils, although it would seem to be advisable to 
leave 1 "'Its for protection against the winds, and to enact that all the hills should 
be preserved in perpetual forest to protect the sources of the springs. 

In maiiv cases the reports of surveyors-general and other officials demon- 
strated the possibility of preserving, and even of restoring the forests, by the 
constitution of a small but energetic forestry department, but nothing worthy of 
notice had, up to the date of these returns, been done in the nature of forest 
conservation. 

NEW ZEALAND. 

The subject of forest conservation appears first to have engaged the attention 
of the Colonial Legislature in October, 1G8, when a motion was made and agreed 
to that " steps be taken to ascertain the present condition of the forests of the 
colony." 

In the course of a parliamentary debate in 1873, it was remarked, with 
reference to the Kauri wood, that extensive districts which were once covered 
with that wood were then totally destitute of it, and that its extermination pro- 
gressed from year to year at .uch a rate that its final extinction was as certain 
as that of the natives of New Zealand. Another speaker maintained tha.t " unless 
great care was taken, there would not be a Kauri tree in the colony in the next 
generation.* 

As the result of the agitition of this question, an act was passed by the 
colonial Legislature in August, 1874, entitled " An Act to provide for the estab- 
lishment of State forests, and tor the application of the revenues derivable there- 
from." The Dreamble recites that "it is expedient to make provision for preserving 
the soil and c'imateby tree planting, for providing timber for future industrial 
purposes, for subjecting some portion of the native forest to skilled management 
and proper control, and for these purposes constitute State forests." 

The Act provides that an annual sum of 10,000 for thirty years is to be 
paid quarterly out of the Consolidated Fund into a special fund, to be called the 
" State Forests Account," and all receipts from State forests are to be paid into 
this account. The money is to be expended in managing and planting State 
forests and nurseries, and the establishment of schools for instruction in forestry. 
The department is placed under the supreme control of a minister of the Crown,, 
who is to be assi&ted by a " conservator " and subordinate officers. Lands may, 
from time to time, be set apart as State forests on the recommendation of the super- 
intendent or of the Provincial Council of any Province. Power is taken to set 
aside pastoral leases or licenses over lands so selected. 

The Governor-in-Council may make, alter, and repeal by-laws and regula- 
tions 

Prescribing the duties of officers. 

To regulate the form and issue of licenses. 

* Kauri Dammara Auxtmlis. A Conifer, the largest and most valuable tree in New Zealand. Attain* 

a height of ) feet and diameter of 10 feet to 15 feet Grows in Province of Aukland only Exudes 

large quantities of resin known as Kauri gum. Weight, 38 llx to 4L Ib per cubic foot ; grows on clay 

The above remarks as to the " Kauri " will apply to. our most valuable hard-wood tree (the Black 

W iilnut i. 



49 



To control the management of the forests. 

To determine the seasons for the cutting and removal of timber ai;d bark. 

To prevent waste and unnecessary destruction. 

To prevent the danger and spread of fire. 

To prohibit trespass and regulate access. 

For constructing roads and tramways in the forests and charging of tolls. 

The Act also provides for the punishment of offenders and for the application 
of money recoverable as penalties. 

As a practical and comprehensive experiment in the direction of forest 
conservancy, the results were looked forward to with interest. 

AUSTRALIA. 

Australia proper consists of the colonies of New South Wales, Victoria, 
Queensland, South Australia, and Western Australia. The causes which deter- 
mine the climate of Australia are remarkable in many ways. In the first place 
the northern parts of the country are situated in a tropical, and the southern 
parts in a temperate latitude. Secondly, between the two stretches the enormous 
central plain is daily heated in summer to a very high degree, the air expands, is 
lifted, and flows away on all sides, causing an indraught of moist sea air. This is 
forced to rise on reaching the high coast lands, which it moistens in various 
degrees. Owing, however, to the great distance from the shore to the centre of the 
country, the latter profits only at regular intervals by this, because the indraught 
is regularly stopped by the nightly radiation of the heat absorbed during the day, 
or the clouds are once more converted into vapour owing to the high temperature 
of the air. 

Such is the heat of the interior during the summer that the air, if it moves 
at all, feels like a furnace blast. Sometimes, however, sufficient masses of clouds 
succeed in passing over the coast ranges, and, in such cases, floods of rain fall 
upon the inland country. The distribution of the rain differs considerably. The 
north coast has the advantage that the air drawn in from that side comes from 
the equatorial regions, the great reservoir of moisture. 

Then the hills on the east coast are comparatively high, those on the west 
coast are lower, and along a portion of the south there are no mountain ranges at 
all. Thus it happens that the rainfall at the head of Spencer's Gu'f is only 6 to 
8 inches ; at Adelaide, 20 ; Melbourne, 26; Portland, 32; Sydney, 48 ; Newcastle, 
44 ; Brisbane, 49 ; and at Rockingham Bay, something like 90. 

In every part, however, the rainfall decreases rapidly in passing inland, so 
that comparatively little falls on the inner slopes of the coast ranges. 

The temperature depends on the situation and the rainfall. The northern 
part of the continent is tropical. Brisbane has a mean annual temperature of 6 
degrees, Fahr.; Sydney, 63 degrees ; Melbourne, 57 degrees ; and Adelaide, 65 
degrees. 

The mean temperature in the interior is much higher than along the shore ;. 
it is said to rise as high as 130 degrees in the shade during summer. 

South Australia was perhaps first in the field to introduce a separate forest 
law. 

4 (F.) 



50 



h, Victoria ;i new l/md Act was passed in 1S.S4, which provides, amongst 
Others, !r the folio win-' matters : 

! i Tin- I,. rmal ion of State forests. 
cJ) The formation of timber reserves. 

Tli- management of l>oth. 

I Th. management and disposal of timber and other forest produce on the 
mi;i ,1 ( Y(i\vn lands not included in the State forests and timber reserves. 

1'nder this Act the State forests can only be alienated with the consent of 
the t }overnor-in-< 'onneil. The timber reserves shall not be alienated in the first 
instance, but as the several parts become denuded of timber, they may be added 
i.i the pastoral <>r agricultural lands in other words, thrown open to selection. 
The timber reserves are, therefore, only temporary reserves. 

'I he forests generally are worked under the license system, regulated by 
rules made under the Act. There are licenses for felling, splitting, clearing under- 
growth, the erection of saw-mills, grazing, removal of wattle bark, etc. For each 
til' these, licenses certain fees are paid. Penalties are provided for breaches of the 
law, or any regulations issued under it. 

The question is whether, and in how far, effect has been given to the policy 
which is indicated in the Act. Mr. Vincent, an expert and a trained forest officer 
of known ability, who served in the Indian Forest Departments since 1873, gives 
the following description of forest management in a report to the Governor of 
the colony, as existing in 1887. 

The area of State forests and timber reserves then stood as follows : 

State forests 664,710 acres, 

Timber reserves 690,732 " 

Total 1 ,35 5,442 acres. 

Ktjual to 2,118 square miles, or about 2 per cent, of' the area of the colony. 

Mr. Vincent visited a number of the State forests, timber reserves, and other 
forest lands, and he draws a rather gloomy picture of their condition. 

This is what he says, for instance, about the Wombat and Bullarook forest 
;area, 105,000 acres): "This is said to have been originally a magnificent forest, 
chiefly of messmate or stringy bark, the timber being of the very best class- 
enormous quantities have been sent away to Melbourne, Sandhurst, and Ballarat 
there were thirty-six saw-mills at work in 1884 the splitters have cut more 
timber than even the saw-millers the good timber is now almost all worked out, 
except in certain localities in the southern half of the forest. In the portion 
which I visited there are only seeond-class trees, with a certain number of bigger 
ones, which have been left for some fault. There has been little or no repro- 
duction, the whole of the young trees have been burnt, and there are no middle- 
aged ones coming on to yield timber some twenty or forty years hence. 

' The useless waste and destruction that have been going on in this forest 
for the past thirty years defy all description. The saw-mill fellers and the 
-plitters have been allowed to go in and cut when and what they chose. Gener- 
ally the fellers took one log out of each tree, leaving the rest, which, although not 
quite so good as the butt-end log, still consisted of first-class timber. The splitters, 
as often as not, left trees to rot where they had fallen, without even taking out 
one log, on finding that the wood did not split well. Even if they did split, at 



51 



least three-fifths of the timber in the trees was wasted. Subsequently, when the 
wood thus left on the ground was fired, a fierce blaze occurred, which killed or 
rendered useless almost as man}^ trees as had been felled. The selection of the 
State forests has not been well made here, for some of the best forests have been 
left outside, and inferior growth taken up for the reserve. 

" As a large increase in the consumption may be safely anticipated, taking 
into account the natural increase in the population, the present rapid extension 
of quartz mining, and the decrease of timber on private lands, there is likely to 
be a great scarcity of timber in the next ten or fifteen years. Already the mining 
community complain of the great increase in the price of firewood and timber, 
and the neglect which the large area of Crown lands in the vicinity of the mines 
receive. On some mines firewood costs now 30 to 40 per cent, more than it did 
five years ago, and there is a universal complaint that the timber now supplied 
for props, laths, etc., is very inferior and immature." 

Mr. Vincent then sums up as follows : " The immediate causes of this are 
the bad license system, the ill-arranged classification of State forests, timber 
reserves and Crown lands, the absence of professional foresters to direct opera- 
tions, and the neglect to reserve the best natural forests. The officials in charge 
of the forests have often protested against the present license system, explaining 
that the forests were being rapidly ruined. They explain that they cannot 
protect the forests from theft, and yet no change is made. Why ? Because Par- 
liamentary influence is brought to bear by the saw-mill owners and by the splitters, 
who are determined that no change shall be made in the present arrangements. 
Both these classes are powerful, the splitters especially. When an attempt is 
made by the foresters or the Secretary of Agriculture to do justice to the forests 
and to protect them, the persons affected organize deputations, questions are asked 
in Parliament, and concession after concession is made. There is little hope of 
the forests ever receiving proper treatment until the forest question is made a 
national one, and removed from the arena of party politics. The question is, are 
the electors prepared to allow the saw-millers and splitters to devastate the 
remaining forests, robbing them and their children of their supply of timber and 
firewood, and risking some of the climatic changes which are traceable to the 
destruction of forests ? Are they prepared to sacrifice a source of large and 
increasing revenue to the demands of a limited class ?" 

o 

It was suggested that the Victorian Government should secure the services 
of a fully competent forest expert, a man like those who introduced systematic 
forestry into India, who should be directed to go round the colony, see for him- 
self, and then propose what, in his opinion, ought to be done. After all the pass- 
ing of fine laws is not such a difficult thing. What is of much greater import- 
ance is the determination to carry the law into effect when once passed. 

Under any circumstances fehe Government of Victoria should not fall a vic- 
tim to the delusion that the formation of some limited plantations will make up 
for the loss of the natural forests. The all-important step to be taken is to 
gazette and demarcate on the ground a sufficient area of reserved State forests, 
and to provide for their systematic management, according to the approved rules 
of scientific forestry, and, in addition, to take what measures are desirable and 
practicable for the protection of the forest growth on the Crown lands, which 
are not included in the reserve State forests. 

The following short abstract indicates what seemed to be required: 

(1) Engagement of a thoroughly competent forest expert to be the head of 
the Victorian Forest Department. 



52 



iL') Selection, demarcation, and legal formation of a sufficient area of 
reserved State to rests, suitably distributed over the country, systematically man- 

i and ellicieiitly protected. 

(3) IV.'tection and disposal of forest produce on Crown lands not included 
in the reserved State forests. 

If the Government makes up its mind to do this, all the details will settle 

themselves easily enOUgh. 

INDIA. 

India lias to provide an enormous population of 255,000,000 people with 
timber and tire.wood, and, apart from a certain amount of teak and fancy woods, 
thai country can probably do little towards an increased export of timber. 

There are certain reasons why State interference is more called for in the 
ea-e of forestry than in most other branches of industry. Most of our valuable 
timluT trees require long periods of time to ripen. Large-sized oak trees are from 
one hundred to two hundred, and even more, years old. The teak, which comes 
to England from India, is derived from trees which are on an average at least 150 
years old. If forests are to yield a regular annual return of timber they 
require to have trees of all ages, and consequently a considerable accumulation of 
material . which has been produced in the course of a long period of time. To 
maintain the forests in that condition only a quantity equal to that which grows 
annually should be removed, and no more. If more is removed a reduction of 
the producing capital must ensue. As long as the estates are in the hands of pri- 
vate parties, they are at all times liable to be overworked, that is to say, more 
than the annual increment is taken out ; and it is easy to see that in a compara- 
tively short time the forests must cease to yield timber. Experience has proved 
over and over again that this is generally the result. If we are to make over to 
our children the forests in an unimpaired condition they must be treated in a sys- 
tematic manner, and this can, as a rule, only be achieved for any length of time 
by State interference. But the mere theory of such is by no means sufficient. 
Nominal interference on the part of the State is the most disastrous of all. 
In that case the forests are looked at as common property, and everybody tries to 
get the most out of them and into his own pocket, the result being that they dis- 
appear faster than ever, 

If the State, as such, has arrived at the conclusion that the maintenance 
under forest of a certain proportion of the area is essential or desirable, it must 
also, once for all, decide to do what is necessary to secure that area, and to see 
that it is managed in a systematic and orderly manner. There are various ways 
of doing this. Either the State establishes State forests by setting aside certain 
areas at its disposal for forest purposes, or it passes laws which empower it to 
supervise the management of communal and even private forests. The former 
alternative is much the best wherever it can be adopted, and this is the case in 
India and in most of the Colonies. 

Practically, only India has really and honestly dealt with the forest ques- 
tion. Some of the Colonies are fairly in earnest, but too many have restricted 
their action to nominal measures. 

India is situated between the 8th and 35th degrees of northern latitude, 
hence the southern half of it lies within the tropic. Its length, as well as its 



53 



greatest breadth, is about 1,900 miles, leaving out of consideration the newly- 
acquired territory of tipper Burma. The area and population stand as fol- 
lows : 





Area in 


Population. 
Total. 


Per 
square mile. 










British Territory without Upper Burma 


912,000 


202,000,000 


221 




531.000 


53,000,000 


96 










Total ... 


1,463,000 


255,000,000 


170 











The physical configuration is very peculiar. The country consists of three 
great sections : 

(1) The Himalayas. 

(2) The Indo-Gangetic Plain. 

(3) The Peninsula. 

The Himalayan ranges stand out like a high wall on the north, separating 
India from the Thibetan high plateau. The great Indo-Gangetic plain runs 
along the southern edge of the Himalayas from Sind in the west to the Bay of 
Bengal in the east. To the south of this plain, and partly surrounded by it, lies 
the Indian peninsula, forming another plateau of moderate elevation. The con- 
trasts of elevation which occur in these territories are greater than those in any 
other part of the globe. While the Himalayas reach a height of 29,000 feet, the 
plain of Hindustan, at the foot of the hills, rises only a few hundred feet above 
sea level ; further south elevation increases again, since the peninsula shows a 
height ranging between two thousand and eight thousand feet. 

Another peculiar fact is that India receives the drainage of both slopes of 
the Himalayas, which ultimately collects into the three great rivers, the Indus, 
Bramaputra, and Ganges. The first two rise in close proximity to each other at 
the back of the Himalayas ; one runs towards the west and the other towards 
the east, until both break through the Himalayas the former running through 
the Punjab and Sind to the Arabian Sea, and the latter through Assam and 
Lower Bengal to the Bay of Bengal. The Ganges drains the greater part of the 
south face of the Himalayas, finding its way, after uniting with the Bramaputra, 
into the Bay of Bengal. The highest part of the peninsula is situated along its 
western edge, in consequence of which the greater part of the drainage from this 
part of the country goes in an eastern direction into the Bay of Bengal. 

It will be easily understood that in a country like India many different 
climates are found. As a matter of fact, they range from the driest in Sind to 
the wettest along the west coast of the peninsula, in Assam, Eastern Bengal, and 
Burma ; and again from the hottest to an arctic climate in the highest regions 
of the Himalayas. Of these various climates the following four types may here 
be mentioned as most characteristic : 

(1) The climate of tropical India : Showing the highest average temperature ; 
the early arrival of the monsoon raius mitigates the summer temperature ; there 
is little or no cool season. 

(2) The climate of North-western India: Showing the highest summer 
temperature, though the average temperature of the year is lower than in the 



former region : there are f"iir or live cool and even cold months during winter, 
\vli>'ii the elimate ivsemHes that, of South Italy. 

ilimate of North-eastern India: Hen- humidity reigns supreme ; the 
temperature in sp miner and winter are moderated by the effects of 
tin- relatively large <|uantities of moisture in the air. 

(4) The climate of tin- Himalayas : It i.- according to elevation, more or 1> 
temperate, and e \vith frost. sno\v, and bitter winds in winter, and a 

moderate heat in summer. 

The rai::fall depends in the first place on a very simple set of phenomena. 
'I'll.- extensive plains and table lands of India are in spring and summer heated to 
a much higher degree than the surrounding sea, while during winter the air 
nverlving the sea is warmer than that over the dry land in other words, sea 

zes prevail during summer and land breezes during winter. 

In spring which shall here comprise the months of March, April, and May, 

!ii;_die-,t temperature is found over the centre of the peninsula (Nagpur-Hy- 

derabad), the difference being from five to ten degrees compared with the tem- 

.iture at i- coast on the east or west, or at the foot of the Himalayas. 

The air in the centre expands, lifts the higher layers, causes them to flow away 
mi all sides, and produces a centre of comparatively low pressure. Into this 
centre presses the heavier atmosphere from the surrounding country, principally 
from the sea on the south, east, and west, and from the dry table land of Belu- 
chistan and Afghanistan on the west and north-west. As a general rule, the moist 
si -a breezes gain the upper hand and bring a rainfall, ranging from three to six 
inches during this period. The north-western breezes, on the other hand, are 
dry, and known as the hot winds of the Bombay Presidency, the north-western 
provinces, and Centre India. With the advance of the season the sea- winds become 
stronger and stronger, and the air is then drawn from the most distant equatorial 
region, the great reservoir of moist air; they now cause a copious rainfall, known 

the south-west monsoon. The amount of rain differs, however, very consider- 
ably according to the configuration of the country ; in other words, according to 
the degree to which the clouds in their forward passage are forced to rise or .sink 
a^ain, owing to a rise or fall of the surface. 

As long as the sea-winds are sufficiently strong to keep in check and even 
force back the north-western winds, all is well for India; but occasionally the 
i -verse occurs, that is to say, the north-west winds force back the sea- winds and 
proceed far into the Indian plain and the peninsula. If this ascendancy con- 
tinues for some time, the rains fail, and scarcity, or even famine, is the result. 

In September the monsoon commences to decline, and by degrees north-east- 
erly winds replace the south-western and southern breezes. They are dry, except 
in part of Madras, where they bring heavy rains until December, and are known 
north-east monsoon winds. Local rains of moderate extent are caused during 
winter, more especially in the Punjab and North-western Himalayas. 

The total annual rainfall ranges from 4 inches in some parts of Sind to moie 
than 500 inches in the Khasia Hills, and all intermediate grades are duly re- 
presented. 

A country which shows such extremes of climate must necessarily show a 
most varied vegetation. The actual distribution of the forests is principally 
governed by the rainfall. Where that is favorable, production is great, and the 
forests are dense ; where it is unfavorable, production proceeds at a slow rate. 
Again, the nature of the rainfall governs the character of the forests. Where 
the rains are heavy, the country is generally covered with evergreen forests; 



where it is less copious, the forests are deciduous ; under a still smaller rainfall 
they become sparse, and more dry, untill they gradually end in desert. Conse- 
quently, the evergreen forests are found along the moist west coast of the penin- 
sula, in the coast districts of Burma, Chittagong, and along the foot and low<-r 
slopes of the eastern Himalayas. The deciduous forests occupy the greater part 
of the peninsula and Burma away from the coast. Dry forests are found in 
Rajputana, and the Punjab, while deserts are the principal feature of Sind.* With 
rising elevation in the hills, the forests become gradually temperate, and then 
Alpine, until they disappear altogether on approaching the lower limit of the 
eternal snow. 

These details on the great variety of climates prevailing in India are given, 
because some idea on the subject is necessary so as to understand the forest policy, 
which is indicated in the case of that country. The main issues of that policy 
depend on the following three points : zuou 

(1) Forests in relation to climate and rainfall. / 

(2) The regulation of moisture, and 

(3) Forest pi^oduce required by the country. 

The south-west monsoon must for ever be the main source of moisture in 
India, and the climate and rainfall of the Indian plain, and of the peninsula, are 
generally subject to other influences, in comparison with which the effects of 
forests must alwajs remain small. On this account then, afforestation cannot be 
pushed in the case of India. It must, however, be mentioned that the shade and 
shelter of forests will be most gratefully accepted by man and beast in a hot 
country like India. 

In a tropical climate like that of India, the evaporation from an area expDSed 
to the full effects of bhe sun, is probably not less than four times that from an 
area which is covered by a dense growth of forest vegetation ; hence afforestation 
is of great importance wherever the rainfall is limited, or unfavorably distributed 
over the several seasons of the year. 

Then, there is irrigation to be considered, No less than 30,000,000 acres of 
land are artificially watered in India by means of canals, wells, lakes, and tanks. 
Only three million acres depend directly on the melted snow of the Himalayas, 
and it will easily be understood of what importance it is to keep the areas which 
provide the remainder of the water properly sheltered. The larger the proportion 
of the catchment areas, whence the irrigation water comes, is shaded by forest 
vegetation, the more favorable and sustained will be the supply of water. On 
this account, then, forestry in India has an important mission to fulfil. 

The mechanical action of forests in regulating the flow of water from hill- 
sides also is not without importance in India, and cases are by no means rare, 
which show the mischievous effect of reckless deforestation. In this respect, none 
is more instructive than the case of the hills behind Hushiarpur in the Punjab. 
These, consisting of a friable rock, were safe until, some forty years ago cattle 
graziers .settled in them and destroyed the forest and other vegetation. Since 
then a process of erosion has set it, which is carrying by degrees the hills into the 
plains, where they appear as huge sand-drifts which have already covered enor- 
mous areas of fertile cultivated land, and even destroyed part of the town of 
Hushiarpur. Such an evil can be avoided by preserving the natural vegetation 
on the land, but, if once started, special measures are required to meet it. In the 

*Sind has some very valuable forests, which are situ i,tu 1 on the binks of ihe Indus on land more or 
less regularly inundated. 



56 



lirst plaee. -ra/.iiiL; must In- stopped, at any rate that of goats and sheep, so as to 
allow a natural growth of plants, shrubs, and trees to come up; artificial sowing 
and planting must be done, preceded in bad cases by the construction of darns 
and dvkes to steady the soil, until vegetation has once more laid hold of it. Mis- 
diief of this kind can be stopped and cured at a comparatively small sacrifice, 
provided it is taken in hand at an early stage ; but if it has been allowed to grow 
tor a series of years, the expenses of checking the evil may be beyond the means 
of i In- state. 

Although forests are of considerable importance in India in respect of their 
,n-i ion as regards the regulation of moisture, they are absolutely indispensable on 
account "f t lie produce which they yield, since by far the greater part of India 
must rely on the timber and fuel produced in the country, apart from other pro- 
duce. All the teeming millions of India use wood for their domestic tiring, or, if 
sueli is not available, <' 'cow-dung, the latter being much to be deprecated from 
an agricultural point (Shall k. At the same time, enormous quantities of timber 
are required for constr,;;iston, boat-building, tools, agricultural implements, rail- 
ways and other public works. If we add thereto a demand for many important 
items of minor produce, more especially cattle fodder in the drier parts of the 
country, it will easily be understood that at least 20 per cent, of the total area 
requires to lie kept under forest. Even such an area would give only about half 
an acre per head of population, an allowance below that of most European con- 
tinental countries. 

The history of forestry in India is very instructive. According to the avail- 
able evidence .the country was in former times covered with dense forests. Then 
settlers opened out the country along the fertile valleys, but the destruction of 
the forest on a larger scale was carried out by nomadic tribes, who fired alike hills 
and plains as they moved from one pasture to another. This process is believed 
to have gone on for more than 700 years Subsequently came British rule, and 
with it a more fierce destruction of the forests than before. Extension of culti- 
vation became the order of the day, and before its march many of the remaining 
woods fell under the axe, no inquiry being made as to the ultimate result. Simul- 
taneously with the extension of cultivation and the increase of population, the 
annual requirements of timber and fuel increased, while quickly multiplying 
herds of cattle roam far and wide over the remaining forests. Finally, railways 
came, and with their extension the forest disappeared with greater rapidity than 
ever, partly on account of the increased demand for timber used in construction 
and firewood, and partly on account of the fresh impetus given to cultivation on 
both sides of the line. 1 have watched this last process, and 1 can testify from 
personal experience how fatal railway extension is to forests which aro not subject 
to proper control and protection. 

For some time matters went smoothly enough in India, but then the shoe 
commenced to pinch. Difficulty was experienced in meeting the demands of 
timber for public works, sleepers had to be imported from foreign countries, and 
it was then recognized that a great mistake had been made in allowing the forests 
to be recklessly destroyed. Experience had definitely proved that th.> preserva- 
tion and suitable management of a sufficient area as forests could not be left to 
private enterprise, and that the interference of the State had become a necessity 
in the general interest of the country. 

The forest question commenced to attract attention in the early part of this 
century, in consequence of which aj timber agency was established on the west 
oast of the Peninsula. 



57 



Next we find, in the year 1843, Mr. Gonolly, collector of Malabar, planting 
teak on a large scale at Milambur, Dr. Gibson was appointed conservator of 
forests in Bombay in 1847. 

In 1848, Captain Frederick Conyers Cotton caused the appointment of Lieu- 
tenant James Michael (now Major-General J. Michael, C.S.I.) as Forest Officer in 
the Anamalais, which post he retained for seven years. Dr. H. Cleghorn became 
connected with forest conservancy in Mysore in 1847, and he was appointed Con- 
servator of Forests in Madras in 1856. He was on special duty with the Govern- 
ment of India about the years 1860-62 when he inquired into the forest matters in 
the north-western Himalayas and elsewhere. In the Central Provinces Colonel 
Pearson was the first Conservator who took up forestry in a business-like manner. 

These gentlemen and others were the pioneers of foiest conservancy in 
India. Their action, though localized, caused the matter to be discussed and kept 
before the public, and it led ultimately to the organiztion of a general depart- 
ment by Dr. D. Brandis (now Sir Dietrich Brandis, K.C.I.E.) The latter was 
appointed superintendent of Forests in Pegu in 1856 by that great administrator, 
Lord Dalhousie. Dr. Brandis was principally instrumental in saving the Burma 
teak forests from destruction by enterprising timber merchants that is to say 
estates which yield now a gross revenue of some 250,000 a year. In 1862, he 
was attached to the Government of India, and in 1864 appointed the first Inspec- 
tor-General of Forests to that Government. He then set to work to establish the 
Indian Forest Department, and to introduce a systematic management of the 
forests. At first he devoted himself to the Provinces directly under the govern- 
ment of India ; subsequently he was twice deputed to Bombay, and he totally 
re-organized the forest department in Madras in 1881-83, immediately before his 
finil retirement from India. 

The first duty of the new department was to ascertain the extent and 
character of the remaining forests and especially of that portion which still be- 
longed to the Government. This inquiry was not of special difficulty, except in 
so far as a sufficiently trained staff was not available at the outset. 

The next step was to take the State forests under protection and manage- 
ment, and now difficulties arose. There were no doubt some administrative 
officers who soon preceived that it was to the true interest of the people to pre- 
serve a suitable forest area, and who cordially assisted the new department, but 
the majority of the officers of the State failed for a long time to accept that view, 
principally because the idea of forest preservation was rew to them, and they 
feared complications from the facts that the rights of government in the forests 
were in many cases ill-defined, and that the people claimed extensive rights by 
prescription, and on other grounds, in the areas which were the property of the 
State. 

The first Indian forest law was passed in 1865 ; it provided that the Govern- 
ment might declare any land belonging to it a Government State forest, and that 
such declaration should not abridge any right held by private persons over such 
areas ; but the Act did not provide power to inquire into and legally settle the 
rights of third persons in the State forests. Under this Act considerable progress 
was made in the preservation of the forests, wherever the population was limited 
and the forest areas extensive. 

But where the reverse conditions prevailed, and where the rights claimed by 
the people, rightly or wrongly, were extensive, the benefits of the Act soon 
threatened to become abortive. Consequently fresh legislation was soon contem- 
plated, and after years of discussion, a new Act was passed known as the Indian 



58 



F..P i Art <>f I,s7>\ followed liy special Acts for Burma, Madras, and one or two 
other 1'ioviiices. ( )i' these, the Burma Act is the best. Generally speaking, the 
ennctments give power to I. In- < iovrrnment : 

(1 To declare any area belonging to the State, or over which the State has 
righK to be a State forest. 

(~2) 'I'n demarcate such area, and to enquire into and settle, once for all, the 
right- claimed l>y third persons in or over such area ; to commute such rights 
it' thej .-eriously inte.rfere with the maintenance of such forests; and to prevent 
the springing up of new rights except by a ( io\ ."rnment grant. 

(Mi To piovide for the proper protection and management of the State 
fore 

(4) To provide for the protection and management of Government forests 
not included in the reserved State forests. 

(">) To provide for the preservation of private forests, which are of special 
importance to the community as a whole. 



law. 



(6) To provide for the protection of forest produce in transit. 

(7) To provide for the adequate punishment of persons breaking the forest 



Passing over many other provisions. I shall only add that the Act is through- 
out permissive, that is to say, the Government may bring its provisions into 
operation or not, as may be required from time to time. 

Under these laws an area of about 55,000,000 acres, which is just under 10 
per cent, of the British territory, has been brought under the control of the Indian 
Forest Department ; thirty-three million acres are so-called reserved State 
forests, that is to say, areas which have been set aside and are managed as per- 
manent forest estates ; while the remaining twenty-two million acres are as yet 
so-called protected or unclassed State forests, enjoying a limited extent of pro- 
tection until it has been finally decided whether they are to be incorporated with 
the permanent State forests or not. Some fifteen million acres of additional 
forest lands are at the disposal of Government, which have not as yet been 
brought under the control of the Department. 

It will be noticed that the area of State forests falls considerably short of 20 
per cent, of the total area, the proportion which is believed to be that required to 
meet the demands of the country. There are however, as yet extensive forest 
lands in the hands of private persons, and although their extent and yield 
capacity is decreasing every year, a considerable portion is so situated, or of such 
a description, that it is not fit for permanent cultivation, and may be expected to 
yield always a certain amount of produce. Interference with these private forests 
will only be possible in cases of absolute necessity. 

The bulk of the required produce must come from the State forests, and if 
they are to \ ield that, they must be managed in a careful and systematic manner. 

Hence Sir Dietrich Brandis recognized at an early stage the paramount impor- 
tance of providing a competent staff of officers. He obtained, as early as 1866, 
the sanction of Government to a scheme, under which every year a number 
of young Englishmen are selected, and trained in forest science and practice 
before they proceed to India to take their places as officers of the Forest Depart- 



59 



ment. For many years these young- men studied forestry in Germany and in 
France. Gradually the difficulties of studying in a foreign country and in a 
foreign language made themselves more and more felt, until it was decided to 
start, in 1885, an English forest school in connection with the Royal Indian 
Engineering College at Cooper's Hill. Under these arrangements, some 110 officers 
have been trained and drafted into the Indian Forest Department. At tbe 
present moment we have twenty-two forest students under insti'uction at Cooper's 
Hill. 

These young men are destined to recruit the superior or controlling staff of 
the department. In addition, it was found necessary to let the future executive 
officers pass through a suitable course of training, Accordingly, an Indian forest 
school was started, in 1878, at Debra Doon, in the North Western Provinces, 
which has been gradually developed, so that it now turns out annually some 
thirty trained forest rangers. These are almost entirely natives of India ; they 
enter the executive branch of the service, but those of special merit are eligible 
for promotion to the controlling staff. 

The organization of the department may be shortly described as follows : 
The Inspector-General of forests is the head of the department, and responsible 
to the Government of India. The department in each Province is presided over 
by a Conservator of Forests (or two, and even three in the large Provinces) who 
is responsible to the Local Government. He is assisted by deputy and assistant 
conservators, each of whom controls the management of the forests in a district 
or other part of a Province. Subordinate to this controlling staff' are the execu- 
tive officers, divided into various grades, and they in their turn are assisted by 
the protecting staff, consisting of foresters and guards, numbering- many 
thousands. 

In this manner a well-organized department has been built up during the 
last quarter of a century, which has under its charge an immense government 
property consisting at present of some 55,000,000 acres of forest lands. Some of 
the forests were taken in hand before they had been destroyed, but by far the 
greater part of the area was taken over in a reduced and even ruined condition. 
Although a quarter of a century is only a short period in the life of a timber tree, 
the effects of protection and systematic management are eveiywhere apparent 
Economic systems of utilization have been introduced, a large proportion of tii 
forests is successfully protected against the formerly annually recurring fores 
fires; young growth is allowed to spring up under the protection now afford e! : 
sowings and planting are carried out when required ; the forests are managed 
under carefully considered working plans; and all this without interfering with 
the acknowledged rights of the people, who receive every year enormous quan- 
tities of forest produce, either free of charge or at comparatively low rates. In 
many parts of the country the people have come to recognize the importance to 
themselves of the proper preservation of a suitable forest area, and this feeling is 
steadily extending. 

What I have said above refers to British territory. Space does not permit 
my dealing with forestry in native States, beyond mentioning that of late years 
many native rulers have commenced forest conservancy in their States, with the 
assistance and advice of officers of the Indian Forest Department on lines similar 
to those followed in the British territory. 

And now the question may well be asked, how about the cost of all this 
elaborate organization and the works of protection and improvement ? 



GO 



Well, on tl.;it hand. t.o, lean present you with what I consider satisfactory 
S. Tli.- iit-t. surplus of the Indian Forest Department, after meeting all 

luis In-rii us follows since 1804: 

NI-:T REVENUE OF INDIAN STATE FORESTS. 

1M>4 (>7, ;i\ i't;t"r annual net revenue 106,615 

1867-7^ 133,929 

ls7i> 77, " 219,919 

is77-,si>. < " 243,792 

1882 N 384,752 

The annual net revenue during the period 1882-87 was nearly four times 
that of the period 1864-67, and although I am not in possession of the detailed 
figures for the years 1887-ScS and 1888-89, I may state that the gross revenue 
i alized in the latter year surpasses that for the period 1882-87 by about 
300,000, Calculated for the whole area of the forests the revenue is as yet 
small, but there is little doubt, if any, that twenty-five years hence the net 
surplus will be four times the present amount, provided the Government of India 
perseveres in the forest policy as developed in the past. The growth of tress is 
of slow progress, and of all branches of the administration of a country the forest 
departments require to be more thoroughly guided than any other by the watch - 
wnnl, i-onrinuity of action." 

BURMA. 

EXTRACTS FROM RULES RELATING TO RESERVED FORESTS. 

1. Within a forest reserve no person shall poison water or set traps or 
snares, and no person shall hunt, shoot or fish without a license. Any person 
who in a reserved forest, in contravention of this rule, hunts, shoots, fishes, poisons 
waters, or sets traps or snares is punishable under section 25 of the Act with fine, 
which may extend to Rs. 50, or when the damage resulting from his offence 
amounts to more than Rs. 25, to double the amount of such damage. 

2. Such license may be granted by the deputy commissioner or forest officer 
in whose local jurisdiction such reserve is situated. Provided that no such license 
may allow hunting or shooting during the season when forest fires most com- 
monly occur, namely : from the 1st March to the 1st June, nor the hunting or 
shooting of pheasants, jungle-fowl, partridges, quails or hares, during the breeding 
season, namely : from the 1st March to the 1st September. 

3. Such license to be in form provided, and a fee of Rs. 10 may be charged 
for the issue thereof, 

4. Between the 5th day of January and the 15th day of June no person 
shall, within two miles of the boundary of a reserve, leave any fire burning 
unless he shall have taken the following precautions, namely: 

(a) He shall, at least one week before kindling such fire, have given notice 
of his intention to do so to the nearest forest officer. 

(6) He shall have cleared of inflammable matter a belt of ground of not 
less than twenty feet in breadth around the place whereon he proposes to kindle 
such fire. 



61 



(c) He shall have kindled such fire at a time when no high wind is blowing 
in the direction of the reserve. 

Any person who, in contravention to this rule, leaves any fire burning in 
such manner as to endanger a reserved forest, is punishable under section 26 of 
the Act with imprisonment for a term which may extend to six months, or with 
a fine which may extend to Rs. 500, or with both, in addition to such compensa- 
tion for damage done to the forest as the convicting court may direct to be paid. 



62 



NOTES ON FoRKST MANA<JK.MKNT IN GERMANY.* 

The following extracts are made t'nmi a work published by Sir Dietrich 
I'.randis to facilitate the instruction o!' senior Forest students at the Cooper's Hill 
Royal Indian Engineering College, England, and deal with the subject of Forest 
Management in Western (Jrrmany. Though intended primarily for Indian Forest 
< Mlicers, they arc not without a hearing on the subject of Forestry in Ontario ; 

The character of modern forestry may be said to consist in this, that each 
portion of tin.- forest is treated with special regard to the peculiar conditions of 
locality and the requirements of the growing stock, while due attention is 
constantly paid to the systematic arrangements of the entire forest range. The 
working plans prepared at che present time are elastic, and they are carefully 
framed to adapt themselves to the circumstances of the case. 

BADEN FOIJEST ADMINISTRATION ; BLOCKS OF THE WOLFSBODEN RANGE. 

Block 1 (compartments 1-72.) Aha, 2,053 hectares, comprises the valley of 
the Aha stream, as well as the northern slopes of the range which separates the 
Alb valley from the Schluchsee, and the head waters of the Aha stream, 884 to 
1,300 m. Spruce is the prevailing tree, with silver fir at lower elevations and 
beech near the top of the ridge. Pinus montana and Scotch pine in and near 
peat bogs at the head of the lake, and on the head waters of its feeders. 

Block 2 (compartments 1-61.) Alb, 1,679 hectares, occupies the south-western 
slopes of the range mentioned under Block 1 above and opposite to St. Blassien, 
and a small area situated between the two branches of the Alb above their junc- 
ture, elevation 770 to 1,270 m. Spruce is the dominating tree, with silver fir 
here and there, occasionally up to one-fourth of the growing stock. Beech more 
abundant near the top of the ridge. Scotch pine in a few places on steep and dry 
slope, with a south-westerly aspect (compartments 7 and 8.) Very good natural 
reproduction on the piece situated between the two branches of the Alb, over- 
looking the northern branch, in compartments 40 and 44. Young poles of 
excellent growth, mainly spruce, with a little beech and silver fir, 430 cub. m. 
per hect., at 950 m. mean elevation in compartment, 28. Fine old forest though 
not completely stocked, spruce with 25 per cent, silver fir 100 to 150 years old, 
with 100 cub. m. per hect. in compartments 32 and 33, on opposite sides of the 
small valley leading to Muchleland. Also near the southeast end of the block, 
at a similar elevation part of compartments 7 and 8 stocked with spruce mixed 
with silver fir and beech, 70 to 150 years old, with 650 to 800 cub. m. per hect. 
A large extent, the greater part of compartments 14, 15, 23, 24 with portions of 
the adjoining compartment, nearly 100 hect. of mostly pure spruce 60 to 1UO 
years old on the top of the hill called Botzberg, which overhangs St. Blassien, 
between 1,100 m. and 1,270 m. The forest is completely stocked, the soil is good, 
with a dense covering of moss, the climate very moist, but the trees are short. 
The growth is slow, and hence there is not so much timber upon the ground as 
there might otherwise be, 300-350 cub. m. per hect. The reason is the high 
elevation and severe climate. At a lower elevation the growing stock of the 
same age in such a locality would be much larger. According to old traditions 
the trees were habitually felled while the snow was on the ground, and this 
agrees with the remains of the stumps 2 m. high overgrown with* moss, standing 
in these and other compartments. On the tops of such stumps the seed of the 

*By Sir Dietrich Brandis K.C.I.E., Ph.D., F.R.S., late Inspector-General of Forests to the Govern 
ment of India. 



63 



spruce has often germinated, and the young plant has sent its roots over the 
decaying stump into the ground. The stump has perished, and the tree stands 
now, as it were, upon stilts in the air supported by its roots. 

Block 3 (compartments 1-4.) Kutberauer Halde, 90 hect., a small detached 
block, occupying the lower slopes of the Alb Valley, 2| km. below St. Blasien, at 
AH elevation' of 700 to 840 m. under the village of Hochenschwand. Spruce, 
silver fir. and beech, with a little oak. 

Block 4 (compartments 1-3.) Schwarzathal, 616 hect., occupying the 
slopes on the right side of the Schwarza Valley, below the village of Hochen- 
schwand. Spruce, silver fir and beech, with a little oak in the lowest part. More 
than half of this area has been acquired within the last fifteen years, chiefly by 
the purchase of private forests and pastures which now are planted up with piiie ; 
spruce and larch. 

Blocks 5 and 6 (compartments 1-6), 179 hect., are two small detached blocks, 
Blasiwald and Dresselbach, lately purchased. 

The total area as here stated, 4,617 hect. for Wolfsboden, and 3,14 1 hect. for 
St. Blasieu refers, it must be understood, to 1887, and comprises soina pieces 
included within forest limits since 1885. 

UTILIZATION OF FOREST PRODUCE. 

With so large a forest area, the question naturally arises whether there is a 
sufficient demand for all the timber and wood annually produced. For charcoal 
there was formerly a very large local demand for the numerous iron and glass 
works which existed upon these hills. The names of places such as Althutte, 
Altglashutte, recall the former existence of this industry, which is now nearly 
xtinct. The last considerable iron works belonged to the State, and these were 
closed in 1863; some glass works existed until 1877. The completion of works 
elsewhere using mineral coal, and favorably situated near railways and rivers, 
"was too powerful, and the struggle of these small establishments, situated far 
from rivers and railways in out of the way and difficult mountainous districts, 
against such powerful opposition was hopeless, though the abundant water 
power available and the cheap and plentiful supply of charcoal gave them important 
advantages. Quite lately, I am informed, a prospect has arisen of selling large 
quantities of small wood for making charcoal which is wanted by large iron 
works in Switzerland. On the other hand, the construction of roads has greatly 
facilitated the export of forest produce. The road up the Wehra Valley to Todt- 
mooswas built in 1848-49, and that from St. Blasien down the Alb Valley was 
completed in 1861, and it is now proposed to construct a road from the Schluchsee 
along the valley of the Schwarza to the Rhine, which will greatly facilitate the 
export of timber from the forests in the basin of the Schluchsee and in the 
Aha Valley. St. Blasien and the the country around has long been connected 
with the Rhine Valley by an old carriage road, but it ascended the plateau with 
-a rise of nearly 300 metres and then continued with numerous descents and 
ascents to Walshut. For the export of timber, roads along the valleys with an 
even and gentle gradient are indispensable. The construction of convenient 
main roads has been supplemented by a system of well designed cart roads 
throughout the forest, and thus it has become possible as already mentioned, to 
sell the thinnings from some of the forest as hop-poles. The construction of 
these forest roads commenced in 1860 and every year new lines are added in 
order to complete the system laid down in the programme. 



It i> a i, inai k;iMc fact that in this part of the Schwarzwald water carriage 
has MI-VIM- bri'ii us. .I for timber to any large extent. The elaborate and most skil- 
ful anuniivMit'Mts which were formerly used, and are still in use to some extent, 
to 1'arilitat.r tin- floating of timber on the Enz, Nagold, Murg, Wolfach and Kinzig- 
rivcrs in tin- northern SohwarzwalH, were unknown here. At first sight this 
seems dillicult to understand. But the rivers of the southern Schwarzwaid, 
particularly those here in question, the Alb and Wehra, have a much greater 
fall, and their bed in places is more narrow, and more obstructed by rocks and 
stones than that of the northern streams, in which floating has been chiefly 
practised. 

The following is a sketch of existing arrangements for the utilization of the 
produce of these forests. For felling the trees, fashioning the timber, and bring- 
ing the logs to the roadside where they are sold, contractors (accordanten) here, 
as in the other State forests of Baden, are employed by the district forest officers. 
In each range four or five of these contractors generally find employment 
throughout the year. They are men of long experience in the business, picked, 
and to a great extent trained, by the Oberforster himself. Each works, accord- 
ing to circumstances, with from 8 to 15 timber cutters, the contractor being the 
foreman and working himself with the men, with whom he shares the profits 
aiising from their operations. 

As previously explained, by far the most important produce of these forests 
consists in the timber of spruce and silver fir. The following remarks will be 
mainly limited to them. The mode of utilizing beech wood offers no peculiar 
feature. 

The thinnings in young forests are generally made between June and 
August. The poles to be taken out are marked by the forest guard, under the 
district forest officer's general direction. The forest guard is authorized to 
permit more experienced timber cutters to mark, under his supervision the poles 
to be thinned out. It has not having been possible to carry out thinnings 
in young forests as extensively as would be desirable, for the poles cut are 
in many cases, unsaleable. The spruce and silver fir forests of those por- 
tions of the Black Forest which adjoin the Rhine Valley and of the Vosges on 
the other side of that river, supply poles for the hop gardens of Alsace and 
Baden at lower rates. The forests of St. Blasien therefore can, in exceptional 
cases only, enter into competition with them. The present depressed state of 
the hop market makes it unlikely that hop-poles will be largely exported fr m 
these forests. 

Mature timber is generally cut between April and the middle of June, and 
during the remaining months of summer and autumn the logs are prepared and 
brought to the roadside. As already mentioned, winter felling was customary, to- 
a certain extent at least, in old times, but in those days charcoal was the main 
article produced, and the timber was at once cut up for the charcoal kilns into' 
billets which were easily moved on sledges over the snow. At present, when 
large timber is the chief article produced, winter transport is not feasible, and 
during the last 40 years summer felling has become the general rule in these 
districts. 

The first operation is to bark the trees. Of the spruce bark a considerable 
portion is sold for tanning, that of the silver fir is used as fuel. Timber 
of prime quality, whether spruce or silver fir is left in logs as long as possible 
and for such timber the contractor is paid for at the rate of 2 mark per cub. 
metre. It is classified under five classes, the first and second comprising those 
logs which at 18 m. (59 ft.) from the butt end have a diameter of 30 c.m. (12 in.) 



65 



and 22 c.m. (9 in) respectively, while logs of the third class are required to have a 
diameter of 17 c.m. at 16 m. from the butt. The rest, known as Sageklotze and 
Lattenklotze, is cut into convenient lengths, generally 5 to 6 m. and brought to 
the local saw mills, where it is converted into planks and battens For this 
class of timber the contractor is paid 1.60 mk. per cub. metre on delivery at the 
roadside. 

A certain portion of the timber, chiefly of spruce, is in these forests used 
for splitting. At Bernau, a large village north-west of St. Blasien, and other 
places in the vicinity there is a thriving industry in sieves, tubs and other 
articles made of split wood. The workmen brought up to this special 
branch of the trade make a careful distinction between logs which split readily 
and those not so suitable for their work, and the former fetch a much higher rate 
at the sales. Thus, in the Alb Valley forests of St. Blasien, from which the 
coopers of Bernau draw their chief supplies, the three first classes of logs when 
fit for splitting, sold in 1885 for 21.2, 18.2, and 15.2 marks per cub. metre respec- 
tively, while ordinary logs fetched only 16.8, 14.4 and 12 marks. In 1886 the 
figures were 19.9, 16.5 and 14.1, for logs fit for splitting and 15.9, 13.8, 10.9 for 
ordinary timber. 

The Oberforster of St. Blasien regularly employs one of the men from 
Bernau in order to mark the logs fit for splitting, and the logs thus marked are 
sold separately. I spent a day in the forest with this man in order to learn the 
characters upon which he relied. The first condition is that the log must be 
regularly shaped and clean, without knots and branches. Secondly, the fibres must 
not be much twisted and if twisted at all, the twist must go from right to left. On 
barked logs the twist is readily seen by the direction of the fine fissures on the 
surface of the wood. It can also be recognized, but less distinctly, on the bark 
of standing trees. 

In order to drag the timber to the temporary depots at the roadside, where 
the sales take place, horses or bullocks are employed when the ground is level or 
nearly so. Down a slope, however,' the timber is lowered by means of ropes. The 
tools used for this purpose are of the simplest description, a stout rope 140 feet 
long, a strong ir>m hook, with a ring to which the rope is attached (Seilhaken), 
and a kind of pick (krempe), the wooden handle 4 to 4i feet and the iron 18 
inches long. 

On slopes large trees are always felled with top and branches down hill, and 
the logs are sent down top end forward, two men holding the rope, which is 
generally slung round a tree, while four or five men, all armed with picks, work 
alongside the log, lifting it over uneven places in the ground or other impedi- 
ments, stopping it while the rope is slung over another tree lower down and 
generally directing its course. It is a fine sight to witness the speed and pre- 
cision with which this difficult work is accomplished. Accidents very rarely 
happen. 

In the latter portion of summer and in autumn, the timber intended for ex- 
port is all carted down to the railway station. It chiefly goes westward, to 
Switzerland, Alsace, and France. This manifests itself in the higher rates 
realized at sales in the Wehra than in the Alb Valley division of the St. Blasien 
State forests range, which have to be carted nearly the same distance before they 
reach a railway station. In the Wehra forests first class logs in 1885 fetched 
17.9 and in the Albthal forests 16.8 mk per cub. metre. In 1886 the figures were 
were 19.4 and 15.9. 

5(F.) 



66 



Small lirandit'.s, as well as the underground wood, are unsaleable. The 
collection of small branch wood is permitted, and, where pi-acticable, the condition 
is attached to the permission granted that what remains on the ground must be 
burnt. 

< >f the larger branches and of the poles obtained by thinnings, small quanti- 
liave as already mentioned, latterly been sold as hop-poles. A new demand 
for small wood has fortunately arisen through the erection of paper-stuff 
factories from wood, the first of which was built in 1874. There are four such 
factories now in the vicinity, and to these it is due that much of the srnall- 
si/eil >pnice timber, for this is the only kind used by them at present, can be dis- 
posed of. 

The yield of minor forest produce in these districts in insignificant. Here, 

as elsewhere in the Black Forest, the spruce was formerly extensively tapped for 

resin and in Wolfsboden the collection of resin in a few places, where the old 

trees formerly tapped are still standing, is still let out, but this will soon cease, 

the old trees are being cleared away rapidly. 

REGENERATION OF THE FOREST. 

In some cases, for instance where a large proportion of old trees formerly 
tapped for resin are on the ground, it is necessary to clear and plant, but, as a 
rule, the system followed is to rely upon natural reproduction as much as possible, 
and this necessitates the gradual cutting of the mature stock. It has already 
been stated that the mean age at which the timber in these forests is cut is 120 
years. When the time arrives for commencing cuttings in a compartment which 
has attained that age, the first operation is to clear away all soft woods and use- 
less brushwood, and to cut out any advance growth that may be on the ground 
and that may not be suitable to form part of the young forest intended to be 
produced. After this follow in succession a series of cuttings more or less 
heavy, the beginning being made with the removal of all oppressed, damaged 
and diseased trees. These successive cuttings are generally continued in these 
ranges during a period of from 30 to 40 years. Thus in 1858, when a prelimi- 
nary cutting had already been made, compartment 31 of Block 2 in Wolfsboden 
was stocked with a forest of two-thirds spruce, and one-third silver fir, contain- 
ing 800 cub. metres per hectare, 11,432 cub. feet per acre. In 1864 the first 
heavy cutting removed 200 cub. metres per hectare (2,860 cub. feet per acre). 
Afterwards five successive cuttings were made, which only left 80 cub. metres 
(1,143 cub. feet per acre), in 1887. Meanwhile the ground has got well stocked 
with young growth, and the remaining old trees will probably be cleared away 
by 1896. This long period of regeneration is necessary, because seeding years 
in the cold climate of these districts are scarce, in the case of spruce and silver 
fir every fourth or fifth year, and in the case of beech once in 8 to 10 years. But 
there is another object besides, viz. the great increase in timber of the trees left 
standing in a more isolated position after each successive cutting, hence the 
practice is to keep the most vigorous trees to the last. In the case of the silver 
fir, groups of younger trees or single trees are left standing after the series of 
cuttings has been completed ; they form part of a new forest growing up, and 
will be cut, when the next rotation comes round, having then attained an age of 
200 years or more. 



67 



FOREST RANGES FORBACH (I AND II) AND HERRENWIES. 

The three forest districts to which the present remarks specially relate are 
the following-. Area and actual yield are for 1886 :- 





Productive 
forest area, 
in hectares. 


Annual yield in cubic metres. 


Sanctioned. 


Actual, 1886. 




Total. 


Per hectare. 




3,609 
4,977 
3,459 


16,720 
32,000 
21,000 


18,906 
29,257 
18,894 


5.24 
5.88 
5.46 


Forbach II 


Herrenwies 





Of these, Herrenwies, which is entirely State forest, is situated on the head 
waters of the Raumumzach, and occupies a portion of the range west of the 
Murg. Forbach I comprises the communal forests of Forbach, Langenbach, 
Gausbach, and a few other villages, as well as the Heiligenwald (Saints' Forest) 
of 860 hectares (2,124 acres), which is the property of the Forbach parish church. 
In these forests the Oberforster has the management in his hands in the same 
manner as in State forests. In regard, however, to the disposal of the wood cut 
by him, the communal authorities, and the trustees of the church are at liberty 
to make their own arrangements. As a matter of fact, they gladly avail them- 
selves of the Oberforster's services in this part of the business also. From the 
proceeds of these communal forests roads, school-houses, and other public buildings 
are built, and the income from these forests is sufficient to defray all other 
expenses of the municipalities, so that the members of these communities not 
only enjoy immunity from all local rates and taxes, but also pay no school fees 
for their children. Part of the firewood which forms the yield of these forests 
is distributed among the villagers, so that they have most of their fuel free. 
For timber and other wood they pay like other people, but the money yield of 
most of the communal forests in the range Forbach I is so considerable that a 
certain surplus is divided annually among the villagers. Thus the people of 
Gausbach and other villages have this year received a share of the surplus, 
amounting to 70 mk. (3 10s.) each householder. 

The study of this and other communal forests in the Grand Duchy of 
Baden, and in many other parts of Germany, will be found most instructive for 
those who have to deal with forest matters in India, for there is no doubt that 
the success of the endeavors which of late years have properly been made to 
stimulate the development of local self-government in the different Provinces of 
India will, to a great extent, depend upon the success which may attend the 
efforts to place the self-government of towns and villages upon a stable footing, 
by organizing a good management of such landed property as these communities 
possess, or may hereafter be able to acquire. 

The income derived from the Heiligenwald has of late years been allowed 
to accumulate, until the amount had become sufficient for the erection of a new 
church, which has been completed at a cost of 350,000 mk. (17,500). 

Forbach II consists of the forests belonging to an ancient corporation (Murg 
Schifferschaft). The State has of late years purchased a large portion, about 



08 



one-half, of tin- shar.-,, and since that time (1886) the management of these 
st > has been intrusted to a State forest officer. 



As aliva'lv mentioned, the prevailing trees are spruce and silver fir, the 
latter being more abundant at lower elevations, while the spruce predominates in 
the iippei poi ti"ii. With them the beech is associated at all elevations, but in 
varying proportions, for while in some places it forms a large portion of the 
growing stock.it is almost absent in others. The Scotch pine is found in the 
granite region, chielly upon dry, steep, rocky slopes with a southerly aspect, 
while in (In- sandstone region it occurs almost everywhere, sometimes scattered, 
and in other places forming an essential element of the growing stock. A remark- 
able feature here is the occurrence of mixed forest of Scotch pine and silver fir. 
the latter forming a kind of high underwood under the former. 

Although these forests present great variety of soil and other conditions, yet 
uuoii the whole it maybe said that in places the growth of the species mentioned 
is magnificent. 

The three conifers attain a height of from 40 to 45 metres, the stems carry 
their girth well up to a great height, and are, as a rule, regularly shaped. Seed 
3 7 ears occur frequently, and the reproduction is generally very good. A marked 
difference is, however, noticeable, especially at lower elevations, between slopes 
with a southerly and northerly aspect, the latter showing much better growth 
and more abundant reproduction The disease most frequently observed consists 
of the irregular swellings on the stem of the silver fir, commonly known under the 
name of cancer. Considering the enormous area of unbroken forest, on both 
sides of the Murg Valley, chiefly composed of conifers, it is remarkable how 
little damage by insects takes place. Storms and snows do some damage, but 
upon the whole it is insignificant. At times the pressure of the masses ot snow 
is so heavy that large trees are bent down gradually and uprooted. There are not 
many species of subordinate importance, and those which occur are scarce upon 
the whole. Along the valley from Gernsbach to Forbach, and even higher up r 
the oak forms a fringe at the lower edge of the forest, and a few oak trees are 
seen scattered over the whole granite region. The hornbeam is found here and 
there, associated with the beech, and single specimens of the sycamore are now 
and then met with. On peat soil at high elevations, and on the top of the two 
chief hill ranges, a considerable area is stocked with the mountain pine, and in 
such places the birch is also common. 

Of shrubs there is no great variety. It may be justly said that the forest is 
everywhere too dense and too well stocked for much subordinate vegetation. In 
old and dense forests, where there is not sufficient light for the young growth to 
come up, the ground is frequently covered with vaccinium, brambles are almost 
absent, and the wild raspberry is scarce. 

From time immemorial these forests have been treated on the system of 
selection fellings (jardinage), and this system is still followed in the two Forbach 
ranges. Here, therefore, the character of the forest is extremely varied, trees 
of all ages standing on the ground together. Formerly, the practice was to select 
the finest and most accessible trees for felling. In this respect a great change 
for the better has now taken place, for the aim at present is to cut out all 
unsound and badly-shaped trees first, so as to leave more room for the young 
growth and the more vigorous trees A rational treatment of forest on the 
selection system cannot easily be brought under precise rules ; the manager must 
consider the requirements of each plot separately, and this is being done at 
present in these forests. 






69 

I 

In order to determine the annual yield of forests managed under the 
selection system it is necessary to measure the old timber over the entire area, 
and the work cannot be shortened by the examination of sample plots. Thus, at 
the renewal of the working plan for the Schifferschaft forests in 1886, all large 
trees (in diarn. 15 c. m. -- -- 6 inches and upwards) were measured on 85 per cent, 
of the total area. This was accomplished in two working seasons by two valua- 
tion officers, an immense and most difficult piece of work, considering the dense 
underwood of young growth which in most places covers the ground under the 
old trees. The volume of the smaller trees was estimated, and the total growing 
stock was thus determined at 1,912,244 cubic metres, exceeding the normal growing 
stock by 232,688 cubic metres. The rotation for this forest range was fixed at 
120 years, and upon these data the annual yield was fixed at 32,000 cubic metres, 
or 6.43 cubic metres per hectare. The average growing stock was 382 cubic 
metres, but in many compartments the volume of timber exceeds 700 cubic 
metres per hectare.* 

In 1886 the sanctioned yield of the Schifferschaff forests was not fully 
worked up to, whereas, in Forbach I, there was an excess of 2,200 cubic metres 
over the sanctioned yield, caused partly by the timber cut for road-making, 
partly by some extraordinary requirements of the village of Forbach. 

In the Herrenwies range the plan is, not to continue the system of selection 
fellings, but gradually to introduce the system of felling by compartments 
(schlagwirthschaft), and in some portions of this range considerable progress has 
been made in this respect. Large areas are now stocked with uniform thickets 
up to twenty years old, while others are stocked with pole forests, so that in 
places a regular gradation of ages has been brought about. This has been 
accomplished by the gradual removal of the old trees, under the shelter of which 
the young growth had come up. 

The rotation here, as in the two other forest ranges, has been fixed at 120 
years, and it is intended that the period assigned to the cutting out of the old 
timber and the regeneration of the forest is eventually to occupy thirty to forty 
years. 

Considering the enormous area of the forests, it is remarkable that all the 
timber in them can be sold. Underground wood, however, finds no purchaser 
anywhere in these forests, and only in the vicinity of the villages will people 
undertake to root up the stumps on taking away the wood without payment. 
The removal of tops and branches is free throughout these forests. The bark, 
at present at least, is not sold, but is removed free with the branch wood. The 
produce of thinnings formerly found a ready sale in the hop gardens of the 
Hhine Valley, but the cultivation of hops has of late years greatly diminished, 
and much of the small wood would remain unsaleable if numerous factories of 
paper pulp had not. about fifteen years ago, been established in the Murg Valley. 
This has opened a new demand not only for poles but also for small trees. At 
present the paper pulp factories have a decided preference for spruce, and pay 
more for clean stems without branch knots. 

At Schonmunzach, already mentioned as the first village of Wurtemberg 
territory, is a large glass factory, which works with gas made from wood, and 
this factory consumes annually a very large quantity of small wojd. It is not 
improbable that hereafter the inferior kinds of wood produced in the fire-pro- 
tected forests of India, which at present are unsaleable, may be used for the pro- 

* It would lead too far in these note? to discuss this question why the Murg Valley ranges here des- 
cribed, possessing as they do unusually favorable conditions for the growth of spruce and silver fir, have a 
smaller annual yield in material than the St. Blasien and Bonndorf Ranges in the southern Scharzwald. 



70 



dm-iion of gas for iron sm-hing, and that thus it may be possible to revive the 
ol.l inm industry in some parts of India. Indian forest officers will do well to 
visit- tin- Schonmunzacb glass works. 

The disposal of lar^c timber is greatly iacilitated by the numerous saw mills- 
in the vadey of the Murg and other rivers, and most of the timber from the 
Mur_; fore -;t is now exported in the shape of beams and boards. Of the principal 
kinds of timber * 'Id spruce and silver fir command the same rates, while Scotch 
pine -vi K -i-ally fetches a somewhat higher figure. 

Timber is cut during spring and summer. In forests like these with much 
young growth under the trees, great care is necessary and is used, so as not to 
injure tin- mass of seedlings and saplings on the ground. In dragging the timber 
much attention is paid to this, and as a further safeguard the branches of the 
standing trees are lopped before felling. This is dona by men who climb the 
trees, with the aid of foot-irons, and who are paid at the rate of from 20 to 30- 
pfennige a tree. A skilful man can lop ten to fifteen trees, thus earning from 2s. 
to 4s. 6d. a day. Formerly the custom prevailed to lop the branches of trees 
standing over young growth intended to remain on the ground so as to diminish 
the shade. This practice, however, has of late years here been abandoned 
because it was found that the lopping of branches made the trees unsound. 
Through the whole forest are narrow dragging paths, some in their natural con- 
dition, others levelled and built up. The timber is brought to the edge of these 
dragging paths, and there the sale takes place! The logs are dragged generally 
by horses, with or without the help of a pair of wheels, according to the gradient 
of the path. 

A system of carting roads, however, is being steadily extended over the 
whole forest, and the timber carts carry very heavy loads measuring up to ten or 
twelve cubic metres. Under the present practice the stems are brought out as- 
long as possible, provided they are sound, for it is found that the proprietors of 
the saw mills pay higher rates when they can cut up the logs according to their 
particular requirements. For timber work on the dragging paths, as already men- 
tioned, as well as for carting, horses are generally employed, and from spring to- 
autumn the roads are full of large timber carts, on which huge logs, up to 30 m, 
in length, are carried down the valley. 

COPPICE UNDER STANDARDS NEAR KIPPENHEIM, IN THE KHINE VALLEY. 

The contrast between the unbroken forest of the Schwarzwald, interrupted 
only here and there by stretches of field, not very productive, and the rich plains 
of the Rhine valley bearing splendid crops, with luxuriant meadows on low 
ground and extensive vineyards on t le hills, is exceedingly striking. In the 
Rhine valley, between Freiburg and Oftenburg, one of the most fertile portions of 
Baden, there is not much forest, but what there is produces large quantities of 
most valuable material. Here are situated the forest districts of Kippenheim and 
Ettenheim, which comprise the State and communal forests situated in the civil 
district of Ettenheim. Kippenheim. where the Oberforster resides, is a large 
village, situated at the foot of the hills, which rise into the Schwarzwald. Like 
some of the other villages in this district, it has forests both in the outer hills 
and in the Rhine valley. The produce of these communal forests is sufficient in the 
case of this and other villages in the vicinity to cover all municipal expenses, so- 
that the inhabitants have to pay no local taxes and no school fees. The forests 
in the plains are of special interest,. and particularly those which belong to the 
Kippenheim forest district. They form a compact block six kilometers long and 



71 



one to two kilometers wide, and are situated between the Rhine and the foot of 
the hills at an elevation of 170 metres. One hundred and forty-nine hectares of 
this area belongs to Government, and is known under the name of Kaiserwald; 
the rest belongs to six villages in the vicinity. Of these the best stocked and 
most instructive is that belonging to the village of Grafenhausen, 148 hectares, 
adjoining the Kaiserwald on the west side. Over the whole area of these forests 
the soil is not uniformly good. It always consists of a surface layer ot loam 
with much vegetable mould, resting upon a stratum of more binding clayey soil 
under which there is a thick stratum of gravel. The thickness of the soil over 
lying the gravel varies. At the same time there are slight differences in level, 
and these circumstances are believed to have a considerable influence on the dis- 
tribution of the trees of which the forest is composed. 

The whole of this forest is treated as coppice under standards. In low situ- 
ations and on moister soils, where soft woods prevail, the rotation of the coppice 
is 25 years, but most of the area is worked under a rotation of 30 years. The 
species of which these forests consist are ash, oak (Quercus pedunculate^, alder, 
hornbeam, sycamore, and elm. Of subordinate importance are birch, aspen, maple, 
wild cherry, and willow. Over the greater part of the forest the ash prevails, 
and its proportion is being steadily increased by planting. In suitable localities- 
this is also the case with the oak. In regard to the influence of the soil upon 
the distribution of the different kinds, it may be said that where the gravel is 
dry and near the surface the hornbeam prevails in the underwood and the oak 
succeeds particularly well, while in such localities the ash is apt to become stag- 
headed after the age of sixty years. Such places also generally have a somewhat 
higher level. Where the gravel is moist the ash, the hazel, and the elm prevail ; 
where the gravel is wet the oak is wanting, while the alder, elm, and hazel 
abound. In such places, and on low ground generally, the rotation is only twenty- 
five years, because this is sufficient for the prevailing kinds, which, as already 
stated, are the alder, the elm, and the hazel. In such places, however, the pro- 
portion of the ash is being steadily increased by planting, and eventually the- 
normal length of a thirty years' rotation will probably be established. 

COPPICE AND FIELD CROPS ix THE SIEGEN DISTRICT. 

The Sieg, which flows into the Rhine below Bonn, drains a large area of 
mountainous country, rising to near 700 m. (2,300 feet), the rocks of which, clay 
slate and grauwacke of the Devonian formation, are remarkable on account of 
the numerous veins of excellent iron ore which they contain. The oak is the 
principal tree, forming excellent high forest, more or less mixed with hornbeam 
and beech, up to the top of the highest hills, such as are rarely found in similar 
localities, while over an area of 57,000 hectares (140,800 acres), on both sides of the 
Sieg as well as on the headwaters of the Dill, a tributary of the Lahn River, a 
peculiar class of oak coppice prevails, known under the local designation of 
" hauberge." This area is situated in the circles (Kreise) of Siegen and Olpe, 
which form part of the civil district (Regierungsbezirk) of Arnsberg, belonging 
to the Province of Westphalia, and in some tracts belonging to the adjoining dis- 
trict of Coblenz and Wiesbaden. The following remarks relate chiefly to the 
circle of Siegen. 

^j 

In the narrow valleys of this mountainous country are numerous factories, 
mines, and iron works, some of them of old standing, formerly worked with 
water-power, now mostly with water-power and steam, surrounded by well- 
watered meadows, with very limited areas of fields and gardens. The hills are 
well wooded, and, as already stated, almost exclusively stocked with oak. In the 



72 



midst of i In- oak coppice, mi tin- slopes and ridges, are numerous extensive fields 
with rye, the pale given of which in early summer contrasts strangely with the 
dark green c..loi- of the oak forest. These fields change their position from year 
to year, so that ihe traveller who visits those hills in two successive years finds 
the aspect of the landscape changed, though its general character remains the 
same. Th high forest which covers the tops and ridges belongs to the State or 
to large private proprietor-,, l>ut the vast areas of coppice which occupy the main 
poi'tion of i his tract of country do not belong to the State or to private proprie- 
tors, nor to (.own or village communities but to public corporations, commonly 
regarded as the remains of the old '' Mark genossenschaften," which in the words of 
tin- lair Sir Henry Maine, were " an organized, self-acting group of Teutonic 
families, exercising a common proprietorship over a definite tract of land, its 
mark, cultivating its domain on a common system and sustaining itself by the 
produce." The coppice is managed on rotation of from 17 to 20 years (19 years 
on an average), and the area assigned to each year's cutting is treated in this 
in inner. Karly in spring (March, April) all soft woods, birch, hazel, aspen, and 
others, as well as the most slender shoots of the oak coppice, are cut out, the 
operation proceeding from the bottom ef the valley upwards. At the same time 
the poles intended to be peeled are cleaned by cutting oft the lower branches. As 
soon as the season is sufficiently advanced for the bark to come otf readily, gen- 
erally in May or June, the poles are peeled standing, the operation being per- 
formed as follows: From a cut made breast high the the lower portion of the 
bark is taken off downwards, while the upper portion is peeled upwards, the 
upper end remaining attached to the pole. In the case of high poles ladders are 
used, and weak poles are bent down in order to peel them. The naked poles 
remain standing until the bark is dry. Long strips remain hanging ; smaller pieces 
are tied up in bundles and are huug upon the poles. In the case of poles which 
have sprung from seed, either natural or planted, the rule is strictly observed to 
ring them close to the ground by a circular cut going through the bark only. 
The bark then conies off down to the girdle only, and this promotes the growth 
of coppice shoots from the stool. 

The wood is cut as near the ground as possible, the cut being smooth and 
slanting without splitting and without injuring the roots. The poles over 5 cm. 
(two inches) diam. are cut one to two inches above the ground by means of two 
opposite cuts slanting upwards. Seedlings, whether natural or planted, not yet fit 
for peeling, remain standing so they may not be damaged by hoeing and when 
the corn is cut. 

The wood is placed on the ground between the stools with the butt end 
down hill, and is removed as soon as possible without injuring the young 
shoots from the stools. 

Immediately after the bark has been peeled and while the naked poles are 
still standing, the ground between the stools is worked up with a hoe of peculiar 
shape, the sharp edge indented, and is turned up in sods, which are gathered in 
heaps and when dry are burnt, with the aid of the small branch wood. 

The burning takes place between July and September. The ashes are then 
evenly spread over the ground with a shovel, and the rye is sown broadcast. 

The seed is worked into the ground with the aid of a peculiar kind of 

light plough without wheels, locally called" hainharch," drawn by cows or oxen, 

which are muzzled so as to prevent their browsing upon the young shoots of the 

oak coppice. The crop is always clean, without weeds. In August the harvest 

akes place, and the corn is cut with the sickle, so as not injure the young coppice 

hoots of the oak. 



73 



SYSTEM OF MANAGEMENT : ITS ORIGIN. 

The management of the forest estates here described is entrusted to commit- 
tees, elected by the shareholders for a period of six years. Each committee 
consists of a chairman and one or two members. The current duties are conducted 
by the chairman alone, but certain matters, such as the appointment of the guard 
who is intrusted with the protection of the estate, are by law and custon 
assigned to the full committee. 

In order to maintain the coppice well stocked, cultural operations are regu- 
larly carried on in most of these estates. The old established practice is to dibble 
in acorns in lines about 2 m. apart, either with the seed corn in autumn, or in 
spring with the young crop, or in the second autumn into the stubble. Where 
sowings have been made the broom is cleared away when it threatens to choke 
the young plants. Cattle are excluded until the plants are sufficiently advanced 
to be beyond damage. Where it is not possible to keep the area closed so long, 
strong saplings 1| to 2 m. high are are planted about 3 m. apart, and in order to 
provide a sufficiency of such plants suitable nurseries are established for each 
estate. The chief civil officer of the circle (Landrath), together with six share- 
holders who are elected for a period of six years by the whole body of hauberg 
associates, form a board of control for the management of these estates throughout 
the circle (Schotfenrath). This board appoints one or several forest officers, who 
have the supervision of the management of these estates as far as regards profess- 
ional matters. The board also assigns the area to be subject to their inspection, 
and is empowered by law to decide all matters relating to these estates that may 
be referred to them. At present there is one forest officer (Hauberg Sachver- 
standiger) for the entire circle. His chief duty is to watch over the due observ- 
ance of the treatment laid down by law, and generally by his advice and personal 
influence to promote the good management of these estates. All these matters 
are governed by a special law ba?ed upon old ordinances and customs existing in 
regard to these estates. The law which is in force at the present time was 
passed by both houses of the Prussian Parliament in 1879. 

The system under which these forests are managed is very old. The oldest 
document preserved regarding it is of 1447, and a detailed account exists of 
1553, from which it appears that in its main features the system then was the 
same as at present. The peculiar development of the system must be attributed 
to two circumstances, the requirements of the mining and iron-making industry, 
and the insufficiency of arable land in the district. 

Formerly, all the iron works in this district were worked with charcoal, 

which the forests furnished, and for this purpose coppice was the simplest and 

most convenient mode of treatment. The poles, whether oak, birch, or other 

kinds, could readily be utilized for charcoal. The mines and the iron- works in 

this part of the country in former times were always owned by associations 

(genossenschaften) and in some cases these associations may have also owned the 

forest lands adjoining the works. In any case, the organization of the " Hauberg 

genossenschaften" has developed in a manner similar to that of the mining 

-associations. At the same time, the population, though never dense, as compared 

with the plain country, nevertheless did not produce corn enough for their 

maintenance, nor was there sufficient litter for their cattle. In this manner the 

neieesity arose to utilize the forest for the temporary cultivation of corn after 

the coppice had been cut over. These temporary fields furnished a large portion 

of the corn and straw which they required. In 1862 the total area of the circle, 

64,653 hectares (159,800 acres) with a population of 48,479, consisted of 74 per 



74 



t. foiv<t (live-sixth hauherge) 10 per cent, meadows, and 13 per cent fields. Of 
thr lidds an average area of 6,940 acres was devoted to the production of corn, so 
that tlu- addition of about 4,400 acres, which at that time was the aggregate area, 
of coppice annually nil over ami cultivated with rye, was an important addition 
to tin- corn-producing land. Kven. then, however, grain was imported largely, 
and now, with a vastly increased population, (77,674 in 1885) the importation 
of grain has largely increased. It is estimated that at present three-fourths of 
the corn consumed in the district has to be imported, hence the great importance 
f the system here described for increasing the corn producing area. 

The eiiNtmn of raising one or several crops of corn on forest land, and of 
letting the forest grow up again after the harvest, is an ancient custom in moun- 
tainous countries of all parts of Europe, nor is it limited to Europe, but is found 
in most other parts of the world. In India it is known as kumri in the south,, 
as jhum in the east, as dhya in Central India, as khil in the north-west Himalaya, 
and as toungya in Burma. In Europe, however, the system has in so far 
developed, that the wood which grows up after the harvest is not all destroyed 
to furnish ashes for the field crops, but is other-wise utilized. 

As the Siegen country was gradually opened up by railways, coal was: 
imported, and the use of charcoal ceased. This diminished the value of the forest 
crop as far as the wood was concerned, but simultaneously the tanning industry,, 
which was important as long ago as the fifteenth century, developed on a much 
larger scale, and at present bark is the most valuable produce of these lands. At 
Freudenberg, Siegen, and elsewhere in the circle, large tanneries exist which 
receive hides from all parts of the world and send away the leather prepared by~ 
them in all directions. The oak bark produced by these woods amounts to 
85,000 cwt. a year. 

COPPICE AND FIELD CROPS IN SOUTH GERMANY, AUSTRIA AND FRANCE. 

Coppice, combined with corn crops, likewise occupies extensive areas on the 
sandstone (Bunter sandstein) of the Odenwald, the mountain range situated 
between the rivers Main and Neckar, in the Grand Duchies of Hesse Darmstadt 
and Baden. Here this kind of coppice is known under the name " hackwald." 
Further south, in the valleys of the Kinzig and Rench, on the gneiss and granite of 
the Schwarzwald, it is known as " reutfeld," and under the same name it ia 
practised in Wurtemberg and some parts of Switzerland. Circumstances in som& 
respects are similar to those existing in the Siegen district and on the Moselle. 
The arable land is limited and the forest area large. Hence the desire to utilize part 
of the forest land for the production of corn and straw, whenever the ground ha& 
been cleared by cutting the coppice. 

In upper Styria there existed formerly and probably now to some extent 
exists a similar management of forests, chiefly consisting of alder, birch, aspen 
and sallow. At the age of twenty-five to forty the coppice was cut, the larger 
wood used or sold, while the branches were burnt, one crop of rye and a second 
crop of oats being taken, after which the forest was allowed to grow up again. 
Wessely, in giving an account of this system in 1853, states that it is disappear- 
ing, and that many of the areas formerly thus treated are gradually being 
converted into spruce forests. 

The practice called schiffeln which prevails in the mountainous tracts of the- 
Eifel is only a variety of this system, differing in this, that small brushwood only 
and no regular forest grows up on the land after it has yielded a cereal crop. 
Near Cochem. for instance, the land on the plateau of the Eifel which is not under 



75 



the plough or kept as meadow land is either high forest, or coppice, or schiffel 
land, which is allowed to remain fallow for twelve years, between two crops of 
corn, and during that period gets covered with a dense matting of grass and 
bushes of broom and juniper. It is here the place to mention the system of 
sartage, which prevails in some mountainous districts of Belgium and France, 
particularly in the Ardeunes, the continuation to the south of the " Hohe Venn." 
Sartage resembles the system here described, except that the coppice is worked 
under a longer rotation (twenty-four }*ears), and that what is called open-air firing 
is more generally employed, that is, the sods of turf are not burnt in heaps, but 
small wood and branches are spread uniformly over the ground, and are f red 
during calm weather, with the needful precautions against spreading of the fire. 
The system is well described in that excellent work of Lorentz, " Cours elemen- 
taire de culture des bois," 4th edition, 1860. p. 424. 

It is also treated in Bagneris' Elements of Sylviculture, English translation, 
1882, p 125. Bagneris remarks, that the system is dying out in France. Zealous 
foresters, in Germany, as well as in France, have often condemned the system of 
combining coppice with field crops, as barbarous and indefensible. This, however, 
is not a correct view of the case. The system has certain positive advantages as 
far as the growth of the coppice is concerned ; moreover, in many districts it 
admirably adapts itself to the requirements of the population. With due care 
and with the aid of diligent sowing and planting, the coppice can under this 
system be maintained in excellent condition. On the other hand, where it is not 
carefully supervised, the system is wasteful and unprofitable. As a matter of 
fact, in some districts the altered circumstances of the people may perhaps even- 
tually lead to a gradual extinction of the system, whereas in other districts it 
will be maintained and will continue to contribute materially to the well being 
of the population. 

HIGH FORESTS AND FIELD CROPS. 

The raising of cereal crops between two crops of high forest, or as an 
operation preparatory to the formation of new forests on waste lands, has been 
practised centuries ago in different parts of Europe. On the south-western portion 
of the mountain range which separates Bavaria from Bohemia, known as the 
" Bayrische Wald," a peculiar system of forest culture has existed since the 
fifteenth century. The forest which here chiefly consists of birch, is cut, a number 
of trees being left standing for seed. During one or two years rye, millet, potatoes 
and oats are raised on the ground, which had been fertilized bv the ashes of the 

v - 

top> and branches. The birch seeds plentifully an.i regularly, and the ground soon 
gets covered with dense young growth, partly seedlings, partly coppice shoots. 
Where cattle have been kept out, the young forest is large enough to be cut and 
burnt after the lapse of twenty to forty years. Often, however, these areas, 
which are mostly private property and are known under the name of " Birken 
berge. Birken renter," are indiscriminately opened to cattle. 

In the large spruce forests on the mountains of upper Styria, during the first 
part of this century, the old wasteful system still existed of making wholesale 
clearances into which cattle were admitted immediately after cutting, no steps 
being taken to facilitate reproduction. When gradually the rapid development 
of the iron industry in those parts of Austria made wood (for charcoal) more 
valuable, one of the first measures to accelerate the regeneration of these forests, 
and thus to increase their productiveness, was to let out the clearances for culti- 
vation, and to so\v the spruce seed with rye. The stems were used for timber or 
charcoal, but tops, branches and trees without value were burnt. This system I 



76 



found in existence in I *<;,"> "ii tin- mountains west of Bruck. A large extent of 
well sioeked forest liav l>eeii raised in this manner. 

On the mountains oF the Odenwahl, which have already been mentioned in 

uertion with fields and coppice, a system of raising high forest with the aid of 

il cmps, eallrd lloderliau, has existed from time immemorial. The results of 

thi- system may lie seen in the shape of excellently stocked forests (aggregating 

over _.' on lieet.. equals 4MIO acres) of .Scotch pine, spruce, silver fir and beech up 

t<> ]'2() vears uld, with a mean maturity increment per hectare of 6 cubic metres, 

or N.~>.7 cul>. ft. MT acre. 



GENERAL If KM AUKS ON THE SYSTEM OF HEAVY THINNINGS. 

The system of heavy thinnings in high forests, combined with the raising of 

underwood, so as to produce as it were a forest consisting of two stories, the upper 

storey of trees which, like the oak and the Scotch pine, require much light, and 

the lower of shade supporting trees, such as beech and silver fir, has, as explained, 

tirst been applied in a methodical manner and upon a large scale to the oak and 

and beech in the Spessart about forty to fifty years ago. It is not impossible 

that the natural mixed forests of Scotch pine and beech in the Steigerwald, a 

beautiful forest-clad mountain range, situated east of the Spessart, may have 

given the idea of improving the growth of Scotch pine by means of an underwood 

of beech. To pure beech forest the principle was applied about 1830 in the 

Soiling, a hilly country consisting of red sandstone, situated east of the Weser 

River. In these forests, which were burdened with heavy prescriptive rights of 

old standing, it was at that time found difficult to satisfy the requirements of 

right-holders in the matter of wood ; and with the view of meeting immediate 

needs without at the same time impairing the productiveness of the forests, a new 

system of treatment was devised by Christian von Seebach, who at that time had 

the control of those forests under the Government of the former kingdom of Han- 

over. The period of rotation was UK) to 120 years, but all compartments which 

had attained that ago had been gradually cut and renewed, and it became neces- 

sary to commence cuttings in forests 70 to SO years old, of which, fortunately, 

there was a large area. In the areas taken in hand, about three-fifths of the 

trees were cut, the ground got covered with a dense growth of self-sown seedlings, 

with a few coppice shoots, and thirty to forty years later the crowns of the trees 

left standing had again closed and had formed a complete canopy. In this 

manner a portion of the crop was cut by way of anticipation, and what remained 

had more vigorous growth through the greater space given to the trees, the 

ground remaining all clothed with what may be termed the ground floor or the 

lower story of the forest. Subsequently, as the canopy of the older trees became 

complete, the undergrowth gradually went back, and most of it died. The 

forest, after it had attained the full age prescribed by the term of rotation, was 

then cut by means of successsive fellings, and renewed by self-sown seed in the 

usual manner. 

Of late years this system of heavy thinnings has been somewhat overdone 
in various localities, and a great deal has been written upon the subject. It 
would lead too far on the present occasion to enter further into this matter. 

TREATMENT. 

The rotation in this forest is 120 years, divided into six periods of twenty 
years each, but it is part of the general system of treatment followed here to 
allow selected vigorous oak and Scotch pine trees to remain on the ground when a 



77 



piece of forest is cleared which had attained maturity, and thus to produce larger 
timber than the ordinary rotation would yield. This method is of old standing. 
In a portion of compartment Laubchesbusch (4) of the " Oberwald," there is a 
beech' forest dating from about 1808, with a number of Scotch trees at that time 
60 years okl, which were allowed to remain standing when the original forest was 
cleared. The result, vigorous and well grown Scotch pine, 60 years older than 
the beech forest which surrounds them, proves the excellency of the arrangement. 
The old Scotch pine tre^s standing over the young growth of oak in Kaisertanne 
(2a) have already been mentioned. In this case the expediency of the measure is 
somewhat doubtful, the Scotch pine being rather aged (140 years), and, as a 
matter of fact, a portion of these old trees have already become dry, and had to be 
removed. In compartment Scheerwald (7) (Oberwald), which is under renewal at 
present, and where the last clearance is expected to be made in 1 890, after a period of 
regeneration of about fifteen years, it is intended to hold over fifty to one hundred 
stems (oak and Scotch pine) per hect., the young growth consisting of oak and 
beech, with groups of silver fir and maple, planted chiefly where stumps have 
been rooted up. 

In the regeneration of these forests, night frosts are one of the chief difficulties 
and it may here be mentioned that this is felt throughout the tract with compara- 
tively dry climate, which extends from the foot of the Taunus range to the Rhine. 
In the Rhine valley, near Darmstadt, I am told that there is hardly a month in 
spring and summer when night frosts do not occur, and it is not impossible that 
there is a connection between the frequency of night frosts and a comparatively 
dry climate. This circumstance has, to some extent, influenced the treatment of 
these forests. Species which are readily damaged by frost, such as the beech and 
silver fir, can here only be raised under cover, and even the oak greatly profits 
while young by a certain amount of shelter. The combination of field crops with 
sylviculture, the system of partial clearances with underwood, and the method of 
allowing older trees to stand among the young forest, all these measures have a 
special value in this district, where a young forest growth is so much exposed to 
damage by night frosts. 

Great stress is justly laid in this forest district upon the early cutting out of 
brushwood, of soft and inferior woods, and of woods which have served their 
object in acting as nurses to the more valuable kinds. A considerable amount of 
pruning also is done, always with the saw. Thinnings are commenced early, and 
under ordinary circumstances, are repeated once in ten years. The peculiar 
treatment of these forests, which results in mixed forests, consisting of different 
species, necessitates much attention to these operations, whereby the development 
of the more valuable kinds is generally promoted. Fortunately, the vicinity of 
the town makes it possible, as a rule, to sell nearly all the small wool which is 
the result of these operations. At times, however, the market gets overstocked, and 
these operations have then to be delayed. 

PROVISIONS OF THE BADEN FOREST LAW ON THE SUBJECT OF PASTURE. 

32. In high forests, pasture is only admissable where the young growth has 
attained the age of thirty-five years in deciduous, and of thirty years in coniferous 
forests. 

In coppice woods, pasture is not permitted unless the young growth in hard 
wood is twenty-five, and in soft wood, twelve years old. Where the forest is 
mixed, the age of the dominating kind, and in cases of doubt, tne age of the hard 
wood, decides the point. 



78 



33. Forest pasture can only take place between the months of May and 
October. 

."4. Before sunrise and after sunset, cattle are not allowed in the forests ; 
except ions iiuiy hi' made in those cases where, on account of the distance, the 
cattle must remain in the forest. In such cases, however, they must be kept 
during the night in sheds, or within a ring- fence. 

'35. Unless proprietors of cattle have a right to use certain paths, the line of 
road to be used in going to the pasture grounds and watering places, is indicated 
by the forest officers. 

36. Sheep and goats are not admitted into the forests. In special cases, 
\ceptions may be made by the forest authorities, with the consent of the forest 
proprietor. 

37. Each head of horned cattle must be provided with a bell. 

38. Each village community is obliged to employ one or several herdsmen 
for their cattle, as may be necessary. 

The members of a village community may not drive their cattle themselves 
into the forests, nor may they send them with a herdsman of their own, separate 
from the herd of the village. Where a right of pasture does not belong to a village, 
but to an association of proprietors, they must entertain a common herdsman for 
their cattle. Single proprietors having rights of pasture entertain their own 
herdsmen. 



79 



FOREST DESTRUCTION : ITS CAUSES AND RESULTS.* 
FORESTS OF UNITED STATES. 

In his book, " The Earth as Modified by Human Action," Mr. George P. 
Marsh devotes considerable space to the effects upon the earth's surface and the 
conditions of human life which have followed the removal of forests both in 
Europe and America. Some of the more pertinent paragraphs are herewith 
.appended : 

It is, perhaps, a misfortune to the American Union that the State Govern- 
ments have so generally disposed of their original domain to private citizens. 

Within the memory of almost every man of mature age timber was of so 
little value in the northernmost States that the owners of private woodlands sub- 
mitted, almost without complaint, to what would be regarded elsewhere as very 
aggravated trespasses upon them. Persons in want of timber helped themselves to 
it wherever they could find it, and a claim for damages for so insignificant a 
wroncr as cutting down and carrying off a few pine or oak trees was regarded as 
a mean-spirited act in a proprietor. The habits formed at this period are not 
altogether obsolete, and even now the notion of a common right of property in 
the woods still lingers, if not as an opinion at least as a sentiment. Under such 
circumstances it has been difficult to protect the forest, whether it belonged to 
the State or to individuals. Property of this kind is subject to plunder as well as 
to frequent damage by fire. 

It is evidently a matter of the utmost importance that the public and 
especially land-owners be aroused to a sense of the dangers to which the 
indiscriminate clearing of the woods may expose, not only future generations, 
but the very soil itself. 

Some of the American States, as well as the Governments of many European 
colonies, still retain the ownership of great tracts of primitive woodland. The 
State of New York, for example, has in its north-eastern counties a vast extent of 
territory in which the lumberman has only here and there established his camp, 
and where the forest, though interspersed with permanent settlements, robbed 
of some of its finest pine groves, and often ravaged by devastating fires, still 
covers far the largest proportion of the surface. Through this territory the soil is 
generally poor, and even the new clearings have little of the luxuriance of harvest 
which distinguishes them elsewhere. The value of the land for agricultural uses 
is therefore very small, and few purchases are made for any other purpose than 
to strip the soil of its timber. It is desirable that some large and easily accessible 
region of American soil should remain, as far as possible, in its primitive condition, 
at once a museum for the instruction of the student, a garden for the recreation of 
the lover of nature, and an asylum where indigenous tree and humble plant that 
loves the shade, and fish and fowl and four-footed beast may dwell and perpetuate 
their kind, in the enjoyment of such imperfect protection as the laws of a people 
jealous of restraint can afford them. The immediate loss to the public treasury 
from the adoption of this policy would be inconsiderable, for these lands are sold at 
low rates. The forest alone, economically managed, would without injury, and 
even with benefit to its permanence and growth, yield a regular income larger 
than the present value of the fee. 

*Marsh ; The Earth as Modified by Human Action. 



so 



collateral advantage, of the preservation of these forests would be far 
greater. Nature threw up those mountains and clothed them with leafy woods,, 
tint tlii-v mi^lit serve as a reservoir to supply with perennial waters the thousand 
rivers and rills that an- fed by the rains and snows of the Adirondacks, and as a 
screen for the fertile plains of the central counties against the chilling blasts 
of the nrtli wind which meet with no other barrier in their sweep from the 
north pole. The elimato of northein New York even now presents greater 
extremes of temperature than that of southern France. The long-continued 
cold of winter is more intense, the short heats of summer even fiercer than 
in Provence, and hence the preservation of every influence that tends to main- 
tain an equilibrium of temperature and humidity is of cardinal importance. The 
felling of the Adirondacks woods would ultimately involve, for northern and 
central Xew York, consequences similar to those which have resulted from 
the laving bare of the southern and western declivities of the French Alps, and 
the spurs, ridges and detached peaks in front of them. 

It is true that the evils to be apprehended from the clearing of the moun- 
tains of New York may be less in degree than those which a similar cause has 
produced in southern France, where the intensity of its action has been increased 
by the inclination of the mountain declivities, and by the peculiar geological 
constitution of the earth. The degradation of the soil is perhaps not equally 
promoted by a combination of the same circumstances in any of the Atlantic 
States, but still they have rapid slopes and loose and friable soils enough to- 
render widespread desolation certain if the further destruction of the woods is 
not soon arrested. The effects of clearing are already perceptible in the compara- 
tively unviolated region of which I am speaking. The rivers which rise in it 
flow with diminished currents in dry seasons, and with augmented volumes of 
water after heavy rains. They bring clown larger quantities of sediment, and the 
increasing obstructions to the navigation of the Hudson, which are extending 
themselves down the channel in proportion as the fields are encroaching upon the 
forest, give good grounds for the fear of irreparable injury to the commerce of 
the important towns on the upper waters of that river, unless measures are 
taken to prevent the expansion of "improvements" which have already been ! 
carried beyond the demands of a wise economy. 

In the Eastern United States, wherever a rapid mountain slope has been 
stripped of wood, incipient ravines already plough the surface, and collect the 
precipitation in channels which threaten serious mischief in the future. 

There is a peculiar action of this sort on the sandy surface of pine forest, 
and in other soils that unite readily with water, which has excited the attention 
of geographers and geologists. Soils ot the first kind are found in all the Eastern 
States ; those of the second are more frequent in the exhausted counties of Mary- 
land, where tobacco is cultivated, and in the more southern territories of Georgia 
and Alabama. In these localities the ravines which appear after the cutting of j 
the forest, through some accidental disturbance of the surface, or, in some forma- 
tions through the cracking of the soil in consequence of great drought or heat, 
enlarge and extend themselves with fearful rapidity. 

In Georgia and in Alabama, Lyell saw " the beginning of the formation of 
hundreds of valleys in places where the primitive forest had been recently cut 
down." One of these, in Georgia, a soil composed of clay and sand produced 
by the decomposition in situ of hornblendic gneiss with layers and veins of 
quartz, " and which did not exist before the felling of the forest twenty years 
previous," he describes as more than fifty-five feet in depth, three hundred yards 
in length, and from twenty to one hundred and eighty feet in breadth. He refers 



81 



to other cases in the same States " where the cutting down of the trees, which 
had prevented the rain from collecting into torrents and running off in sudden 
land floods, has given rise to ravines from seventy to eighty feet deep." 

Similar results often follow in the north-eastern States from cutting the 
timber on the " pine plains " where the soil is usually of a sandy composition and 
loose texture. 

WOODLANDS IN EUROPEAN COUNTRIES. 

In 1862, Rentzsch calculated the porportions of woodland in different Euro,- 
pean countries as follows : 

Norway 66.00 percent. 

Sweden , 60.00 

Russia 30.90 

Germany 26.58 

Belgium 18.52 

France 16.79 

Switzerland 15.00 

Sardinia 12.29 

Neapolitan States 9.43 

Holland 7.10 

Spain 5.52 

Denmark 5.50 

Great Britian 5.00 

Portugal 4.40 

In many places peat is generally employed as a domestic fuel, hence, though 
Norway has long exported a considerable quantity of lumber, and the iron and; 
copper works of Sweden consume charcoal very largely, the forests have not 
diminished rapidly, enough to produce very sensible climatic or even economical 
evils.* 

FORESTS OF GREAT BRITAIN. 

The proportion of forest is very small in Great Britain, where, on the one 
hand, a prodigious industrial activity requires a vast supply of ligneous material, 
but where, on the other, the abundance of coal, which furnishes a sufficiency of 
fuel, the facility of importation of timber from abroad, and the conditions of 
climate and surface combine to reduce the necessary quantity of woodland to its 
lowest expression. 

With the exception of Russia, Denmark and parts of Germany, no European 
countries can so well dispense with the forests, in their capacity of conservative 
influences, as England and Ireland. Their insular position and latitude secure an 
abundance of atmospheric moisture ; the general inclination of surface is not such 
as to expose it to special injury from torrents, and it is probable that the most 
important climatic action exercised by the forest in these portions of the British 
Empire, is in its character of a mechanical screen against the effects of wind. The 

*Railway ties, or sleepers, are largely exported from Norway to India, and sold at Calcutta at a 
lower price than timber of equal quality can be obtained from the native woods. 

From 1861 to 1870, Norway exported annually, on the average, more than 60,000,000 cubic feet of 
lumber. 

Since 1872 the quantity of the annual exportation of timber from Norway and Sweden has steadily 
increased, and in 1881 it was so large that it might well excite the grave anxiety of all friends of the 
primeval forest. 

6 (F.) 






dm- proportion of woodland in England and Ireland is, therefore, a question 
imt i)l' geographical hut almost purely of economical expediency, to be decided by 
tin- comparative direct pecuniary return from forest growth, pasturage and plough 
land. 

In Kngland, aboriculture, the planting and nursing of single trees has, until 
i;]iarativrly recent times, been better understood than sylviculture, the sowing 
and training of the forest. But this latter branch of rural improvement now 
receives great attention from private individuals, though not, so far as I know, 
from the National ( iovernment, except in the East Indian provinces, where the 
forestal department has ..assumed great importance. Many laws for the protec- 
tion of the forest, as a cover for game and for the preservation of ship timber, 
wore enacted in England before the 17th Century. The Statutes I Eliz. c. XV., 
\ui Eliz. c. v., and XXVII Eliz. c. xix., which have sometimes been understood 
i- designed to discourage the manufacture of iron, were obviously intended to 
I MX- vent the destruction of large and valuable timber, useful in ordinary and 
naval architecture, by burning it for charcoal. The injury to the forges was 
accidental, not the purpose of the laws. 

In Scotland, where the country is for the most part broken and mountainous, 
the general destruction of the forests has been attended with very serious evils, 

O / * 

and it is in Scotland that many of the most extensive British forest plantations 
have now been formed. 

FORESTS OF FRANCE. 

The preservation of the woods was one of the wise measures recommended 
to France by Sully, in the time of Henry IV., but tho advice was little heeded, 
and th> destruction of the forest went on with such alarming rapidity, that, two 
generations later, Colbert uttered the prediction : " France will perish for want of 
wood." Still, the extent of wooded soil was very great, and the evils attending 
its diminution were not so sensibly felt, that either the Government or public 
opinion saw the necessity of authoritative interference, and in 1750 Mirabeau 
estimated the remaining forests of the kingdom at seventeen millions of hectares 
(42,000,000 acres). 

In I860 they were reduced to eight millions (19,769,000 acres) or at the rate 
of 82,000 hectares (202,000 acres) per year. 

In a country and a climate where the conservative influences of the forest are 
so necessary as in France, trees must cover a large surface and be grouped in 
large masses, in order to discharge to the best advantage the various functions 
assigned to them by nature. A large part of its territory is mountainous, sterile, 
and otherwise such in character or situation, that it can be more profitably 
devoted to the growth of wood than to any agricultural use. 

The conservative action of the woods in regard to torrents and inundations 
has been generally recognized by the public of France as a matter of prime 
importance, and the Government has made this principle the basis of a special 
system of legislation in the protection of existing forests, and for the formation 
of new. The clearing of woodland, and the organization and functions of a police 
for its protection are regulated by a law bearing date June 18th, 1859, and pro- 
vision was made for promoting the restoration of private woods by a statute 
adopted on the 28th July, 1860. This latter law appropriated 10,000,000, francs 
to be expended, at the rats of 1,01)0,000 francs per year, in executing or aiding 
the replanting of woods. 



83 



In 1865 the Legislative Assembly passed a bill amendatory of the law of 
1860, providing, among other things for securing the soil in exposed localities by 
grading, and by promoting the growth of grass and the formation of greensward 
over the surface. 

In l!S63, France imported lumber t<> the value of twenty-five-and-a-half 
millions of dollars, and exported to the amount of six and a half millions of 
dollars. The annual consumption of France was estimated in 1886 at 212,- 
000,000 cubic feet for building and manufacturing, and 1,588,500,000 for fire- 
wood and charcoal. The annual product of the forest soil of France does not 
exceed 70,000,000 cubic feet of wood tit for industrial use, and 1,300,000,000 cubic 
feet consumed as fuel. This estimate does not include the product of scattered 
trees on private grounds, but the consumption is estimated to exceed the produc- 
tion of the forests by the amount of about twenty millions of dollars. 

The timber for building and manufacturing produced in France comes almost 
wholly from the forests of the State or of the communes. 

FORESTS OF ITALY. 

According to statistics, Italy had 17.64 per cent, of woodland in 1872, a 
proportion which, considering the character of climate and surface, the great 
amount of soil which is tit for no other purpose than the growth of trees, and 
the fact that much of the land classed as forest was then either very imperfectly 
wooded, or covered with gioves badly administered, and not in a state of pro- 
gressive improvement, might advantageously be doubled. 

Taking Italy as a whole, we may say she is eminently fitted by climate, soil 
and superficial formation for the growth of a varied and luxuriant arborial 
vegetation. In such a country the promotion of forestal industry was among 
the first duties of her people. 

The denudation of the central and southern Appenines and of the Italian 
declivity of the western Alps began at a period of unknown antiquity, but it 
does not seem to have been carried to a very dangerous length until the foreign 
conquests and extended commerce of Rome created a greatly increased demand 
for wood for the construction of ships and for military material. 

The eastern Alps, the western Appenines, and the maritime Alps retain 
their forests much later ; but even here the want of wood, and the injury 
to the plains and the navigation of the rivers by sediment brought down 
by the torrents, led to legislation for the protection of the forests by the Republic 
of Venice at various periods between the fifteenth and nineteenth centuries,* by 
that of Genoa, as early at least as the seventeenth, and both these Governments, 
as well as several others, passed laws requiring the proprietors of mountain land 
to replant the woods. 

Although 110 country has produced more able writers on the value of the 
forest and the general consequences of its destruction than Italy, yet the specific 
geographical importance of the woods, except as a protection against inundations 
has not been so clearly recognized in that country as in the States bordering it 
on the north and west. It must be remembered that the sciences of observation 
did not become knowledges of practical application till after the mischief was 

*According to Hummel, the desolation of the Karats, the high plateau lying north of Trieste, one of 
the most parched and barren districts in Europe, was owing to the felling of its woods centuries ago to 
build the navies of Venice. ' Where the miserable peasant of the Karat sees nothing but bare rock swept 
and scoured by the raging Bora, the fury of this wind was once subdued by mighty firs which Venice reck- 
lessly cut down to build her fleets. 1 ' Physiche Geogra$>he, p. 32. 



84 



already mainly done and even forgotten in Alpine Italy, while its evils were just 
I 'ginning to be sensibly felt in France when the claims of natural philosophy as 
a liberal study were first acknowledged in modern Europe. The former political 
condition of the Italian peninsula would have effectually prevented the adoption 
ut! ;i -moral system of forest economy, however clearly the importance of a wise 
administration of this great public interest might have been understood. The 
woods which controlled and regulated the flow of the river-sources were very 
often in one jurisdiction ; the plains to be irrigated or to be inundated by floods 
and desolated by torrents in another. 

Action under a single government can alone render practicable the establish- 
ment of such arrangements for the conservation and restoration of the forests, and 
for the regulation of the flow of the waters as are necessary for the full develop- 
ment of the yet unexhausted resources of that fairest of lands, and even for the 
maintenance of the present condition of its physical geography. 

FORESTS OF GERMANY. 

Germany, including a considerable part of the Austrian Empire, from 
character of surface and climate, and from the attention which has long been 
paid in all the German States to sylviculture and forestry, is in a far better 
condition in this respect than its more southern neighbors ; and though in the 
Alpine Provinces of Bavaria and Austria the same improvidence which marks 
the rural economy of the corresponding districts of Switzerland, Italy, and 
France has produced effects hardly less disastrous, yet, as a whole, the German 
States must be considered as in this respect the model countries of Europe. 
Not only is the forest area in general maintained without diminution, but 
new woods are planted where they are specially needed, and though the slow 
growth of forest trees in those climates reduces the direct pecuniary returns 
of woodlands to a minimum, the governments wisely persevere in encouraging 
this industry. The exportation of sawn lumber from Trieste is large, and in 
fact the Turkish and Egyptian markets are in great part supplied from this 
source. 

As an instance of the scarcity of fuel in some parts of Bavaria, where, not long 
since, wood abounded, the fact may be mentioned that the water of salt springs is, 
in some instances, conveyed to the distance of sixty miles, in iron pipes, to 
reach a supply of fuel for boiling it down. 

The Austrian Government has made energetic efforts for the propagation 
of forests in Tyrol and on the desolate wastes of the Karst. In 1866 upwards 
of 400,000 trees had been planted on the Karst, and great quantities of seed 
sown. The results of this important experiment are said to be encouraging, 
(Chronique Forestiere in the Revue des Eaux et Forets, Feb. 1870.} Later 
accounts .state that the Government nurseries of the Karst supplied between 
1869 and 1872, 20,000,000 young forest trees for planting, and that of 70,000 ash 
trees planted in the Karst scarcely one failed to grow.* 

FORESTS OF RUSSIA. 

Russia, which we habitually consider as substantially a forest country, which 
has in fact a large proportion of woodland, is beginning to suffer seriously for 
want of wood. Jourdier observes : " Instead of a vast territory with immense 
forests, which we expect to meet, one sees only scattered groves thinned by the 

* For information respecting the forests of Germany, as well as other European countries, see the 
very valuable Manuale d'Arte Forestale of Siemoni, 2d. edizione, Firenze, 1872. 



85 



wind or by the axe of the moujik, grounds cut over and more or less recently 
cleared for cultivation. There is probably not a single district in Russia which 
has not to deplore the ravages of man or fire, those two great enemies of 
Muscovite sylviculture. This is so true, that clear sighted men already foresee 
a crisis which will become terrible, unless the discovery of great deposits of some 
new combustible, as pit coal or anthracite, shall diminish its evils." 

Hohenstein, who was long professionally employed as a forester in Russia, 
describes the consequences of the general war upon the woods in that country as 
most disastrous and as threatening still more ruinous evils. The river Volga, 
the life artery of Russian internal commerce, is drying up from this cause, and 
the great Muscovite plains are fast advancing to desolation like that of Persia. 

ECONOMY OF WOODLANDS. 

The action of the forest, considered merely as a mechanical shelter to grounds 
lying to the leeward of it, might seem to be an influence of too restricted a char- 
acter to deserve much notice, but many facts concur to show that it is a most 
important element in local climate. Experience, in fact, has shown that mere 
rows of trees, and even much lower obstructions, are of essential service in 
defending vegetation against the action of the wind. Hardy proposes planting 
in Algeria, belts of trees at the distance of 100 metres from each other, as a 
shelter, which experience has proved to be useful in France. 

In the report of a committee appointed in 1836 to examine an article of the 
forest code of France, Araero observes : " If a curtain of forest on the coast of 

CT 

Normandy and of Brittany were destroyed, these two Provinces would become 
accessible to the winds from the west, to the mild breezes of the sea. Hence a 
decrease of the cold of the winter. If a similar forest were to be cleared on the 
eastern border of France, the glacial east wind would prevail with greater strength, 
and the winters would become more severe. Thus the removal ot a belt of wood 
would produce opposite effects in the two regions." 

It is thought in Italy that the clearing of the Appenines has very materially 
affected the climate of the valley of the Po. It is asserted inLe Alpi checingono 
I' Italia that : " In consequence of the felling of the woods on the Appenines, 
the sirroco prevails greatly on the right bank of the Po, in the Parmesan territory, 
and in a part of Lornbardy ; it injures the harvests and the vineyards, and some- 
times ruins the crops of the season." 

According to the same authority, the pinery of Porto, near Ravenna which 
is twenty miles long, and is one of the oldest pine woods in Italy having been 
replanted with resinous trees after it was unfortunately cut, has relieved the city 
from the sirroco to which it had become exposed, and in a great degree restored its 
ancient climate.* 

The local retardation of spring so much complained of in Italy, France, and 
Switzerland, and the increased frequency of Jate frosts at that season, appear to 
be ascribable to the admission of cold blasts to the surface, by the felling of the 
forests, which formerly both screened it as by a wall and communicated the 

*The following well attested instance of a local change of climate is' probably to be referred to the influ- 
ence of the forest as a shelter against cold winds. To supply the extraordinary demand for Italian iron, 
occasioned by the exclusion of English iron in the time of Napoleon I, the furnaces of the valleys of Ber- 
gamo were stimulated to great activity. ' ' The ordinary production of charcoal not sufficing to feed the 
cfurnaces and the forges, the woods were felled, the copses cut before their time, and the whole econ- 
omy of the forest was deranged. At Piazzatorre there was such a devastation of the woods, and consequently 
such an increased severity of climate, that maize no longer ripened. An association, formed for the purpose, 
effected the restoration of the forest and maize flourishes again in the fields of Piazzatorre." Report by G. 
Kosa, in II Politecnico, Dicembre, 1861, p. 614. 



SG 



w:if!nth of their soil to the air and earth to the leeward. Caimi states that since 
the cutting down of the woods of the Apennines, the cold winds destroy or stunt 
the vegetation, ;uid that, in consequence of "the usurpation of' winter on the 
domain of spring," the district of Mugello has lost its mulberries, except the few 
\v!'ii'h find, in the lee of buildings, a protection like that once furnished by the 
foresl - 

INFLUENCE OF THE FOREST ON THE FLOW OF SPRINGS. 

It is an almost universal and I believe well-foundel opinion that the protec 
tion aft', "i-i led by the forest against the escape of moisture from its soil by super- 
ficial flow and evaporation, insures the permanence and regularity of natural 
springs, not only within the limits of the wood, but at some distance beyond 
its borders, and thus contributes to the supply of an elememt essential to both 
vegetable and animal life. As the forests are destroyed, the springs which flow 
from the woods, and consequently the greater watercourses fed by them, diminish 
both in number and in volume. This fact is so familiar throughout the American 
States and the British Provinces that there are few old residents of the interior 
of those districts who are not able to testify to its truth as a matter of personal 
observation. 

The hills in the Atlantic States formerly abounded in springs and brooks,, 
but in many parts of these States, which were cleared a generation or two ago, 
the hill pastures now suffer severely from drought, and in dry seasons furnish to 
cattle neither grass nor water. 

Almost every treatise on the economy of the forest adduces facts in support 
of the doctrine that the clearing of the woods tends to diminish the flow of springs 
and the humidity of the soil. 

Marchand cites the following instances: 

" Before the felling of the woods within the la^t few years, in the valley of 
the Soulce, the Combe-es-Mounin and the Little Valley, the Some furnished a 
regular and sufficient supply of water for the iron works of Unterwyl, which was 
almost unaffected by drought or by heavy rains. The Some has now become a 
torrent, every shower occasions a flood, and after a few days of fine weather, the 
current falls so low that it has been necessary to change the water wheels, because 
those of the old construction are no longer able to drive the machinery, and at last 
to introduce a steam engine to prevent the stoppage of the works for want of 
water." 

"The spring of Combefoulat, in the commune of Seleate, was well known as 
one of the best in the country ; it was remarkably abundant, and sufficient, in 
the severest droughts, to supply all the fountains of the town; but as soon as 
considerable forests were felled in (Jombe-de-pre Martin and in the valley of 
Combefoulat, the famous spring, which lies below these woods, has become a mere 
thread of water, and disappears altogether in times of drought." 

"The Wolf spring, in the commune of Soubey, furnishes a remarkable 
example of the influence of the woods upon fountains. A few years ago this 
spring did not exist. At the place where it now rises, a small thread of 
water was observed after very long rains, but the stream disappeared with the 
rain. The spot is in the middle of a very steep pasture inclining to the south. 
Eighty years ago, the owner of the land, perceiving that young firs were shooting 
up in the upper part of it, determined to let them grow, and they soon formed a 
flourishing grove. As soon as they were well grown, a fine spring appeared in 
place of the occasional rill, and furnished abundant water in the longest droughts. 
For forty or fifty years this spring was considered the best in the Clos du Doubs. 






87 



A few years since, the grove was felled, and the ground turned again to a pasture. 
The spring disappeared with the wood, and is now as dry as it was ninety vears. 

ago." 

IMPORTANCE OF SNOW. 

The quantity of snow that falls in extensive forests far from the open 
country, has seldom been ascertained by direct observation, because there are 
few meteorological stations in or near the forest. According to Thompson, the 
proportion of water which falls in snow in the northern States does not exceed one- 
fifth of the total precipitation, but the moisture derived from it is doubtless con- 
siderably increased by the atmospheric vapour absorbed by it, or condensed and 
frozen on its surface. Though much snow is intercepted by the trees, and the quan- 
tity on the ground in the woods is consequently less than in open land in the first 
part of the winter, yet most of what reaches the ground at that season remains under 
the protection of the wood until melted, and as it occasionally receives new 
supplies, the depth of snow in the forest in the latter half of winter is considerably 
greater than in the cleared fields. Measurements in a snowy region in New Eng- 
land in the month of February, gave a mean of thirty-eight inches in the open, 
ground and forty-four inches in the woods, but the actual difference between the 
quantity of snow in the woods and that in the open ground in the latter part of 
winter, is greater than the measurements would seem to indicate. In the woods 
the snow, which remains constant, is consolidated by a pressure, while in the 
open ground, being blown off, or thawed several times in the course of the winter, 
it seldom becomes as densely packed as in the woods, except in the bottom of 
valleys or other positions where it is sheltered both from wind and sun. 

The water imbibed by the soil in winter sinks until it meets a more or less 
impermeable or a saturated stratum, and then, by unseen conduits, slowly finds 
its way to the channels of springs, or oozes out of the ground in drops, which 
unite in rills, and so all is conveyed to the larger streams, and by them finally to 
the sea. 

IMPORTANCE OF SUMMER RAINS. 

In countries like the United States (and Canada) where rain is comparatively 
rare during the winter and abundant during the summer half of the year, common 
observation shows that the quantity of water furnished by deep wells and by 
natural springs depends almost as much upon the rains of summer as upon those 
of the rest of the year, and, consequently, that a large portion of the rain of that 
season must find its way into strata too deep for the water to be wasted by evapo- 
ration. 

According to observation at one hundred military stations in the United 
States, the precipitation ranges from three and one-quarter inches at Fort Yuma 
in California, to about seventy-two inches, at Fort Pike, Louisiana, the mean for 
the entire territory, not including Alaska, being thirty-six inches. In the different 
sections of the Union it is as follows : 

IS! ortheastern States 41 inches. 

New York 36 

Middle States 4(M " 

Ohio , ...40 

Southern States 51 

S. VV. States and Indian Territories 39J " 

Western States and Indian Territories 30 

Texas and New Mexico 24i " 

California 1 8| " 

Oregon and Washington Territory 50 



ss 



The mountainous regions, it appears, do not receive the greatest amount of 
precipitation. 

Tin* average downfall of the Southern States, bordering on the Atlantic and 
tlii' Gulf of Mexico, exceeds the mean of the whole United States, being no less 
than fifty-one inches, while on the Pacific coast it ranges from fifty to fifty-six 
inches. 

INCREASED DEMAND FOR LUMBER. 

With increasing population and the development of new industries come 
new drains upon the forests from the many arts for which wood is the material. 
The vast extension of railroads, of manufactures and the mechanical arts, of military 
armaments, and especially of the commercial fleets and navies of Christendom, 
within the present century have incredibly augmented the demand for wood, and 
but for improvements in metallurgy and the working of iron, which have facili- 
tated the substitution of that metal for wood, the last twenty-five years would have 
almost stripped Europe of her last remaining tree fit for these uses. 

Let us take the supply of timber for railroad ties. According to Clave', 
France had in 1862, 9,000 kilometres of railway in operation, 7,000 in construc- 
tion, half of which is built with a double track. Adding turn-outs and 
extra tracks at stations, the number of ties required for a single track is stated 
at 1,200 to the kilometre, or, as Clave computes, for the entire net- work of 
France, 58,000,000. This number is too large for 16,000 + 8,000 for the double track 
half way = 24,000, and 24,000x1,200-28,800,000. Gandy states in 1863, that 
2,000,000 trees had been felled to furnish the ties for the French railroads, and 
as the ties must be occassionally renewed, and new railways have been con- 
structed since 1863, we may probably double this number. 

The United States had in operation on the first of January, 1872, 61,000 
miles, or about 97,000 kilometres of railroad. Allowing the same proportion as 
in France, the United States railraods required 116,400,000 ties. The number of 
ties annually required for these railways was estimated at 30,000,000. The 
annual expenditure for lumber, buildings, repairs and cars was estimated at 
^o8,000,000, and the locomotive fuel, at the rate of 19,000 cords of wood per day, 
at $50,000,000. 

The walnut trees cut in Italy and France to furnish gunstocks to the 
American Army, during the late civil war, would alone have formed a consider- 
able forest. 

The consumption of wood for lucifer matches is enormous, and thousands of 
acres in extents are purchased and felled, solely to supply timber for this pur- 
pose. The United States Government tax, at one cent per hundred, produced 
$2,000,000 per year, which shows a manufacture of 20,000,000,000 matches. 
Allowing nothing for waste, there are about fifty matches to the cubic inch of 
wood or 86,400 to the cubic foot, making in all upwards of 230,000 cubic feet, 
and as only straight grained wood, free from knots, can be used for this purpose, 
not less than three or four thousand well-grown pines are required. 

Add to all this the supply of wood for telegraph poles, wooden pavements, 
wooden wall tapestry paper, shoe-pegs, wooden nails, and wood-pulp and other 
recent applications which ingenuity has devised, and we have an amount of con- 
sumption for entirely new purposes, which is really appalling. Wooden field and 
garden fences are very generally used in America, and some have estimated the 
consumption of wood for this purpose as not less than that for architectural 
uses. 



Fully one-half our vast population is lodged in wooden houses ; and barns 
and country out-houses of all descriptions are almost universally of the same 
material. 

The consumption of wood in the United States as fuel for domestic purposes, 
for charcoal, for brick and lime-kilns, for breweries and distilleries, for steam-boats, 
and many other uses, defies computation, and is vastly greater than is employed in 
Europe for the same ends. For instance, in rural Switzerland, cold as is the 
winter climate, the whole supply of wood foi domestic fires, dairies, breweries, 
distilleries, brick and lime-kilns, fences, furniture, tools, and even house-building 
and small smitheries, exclusive of the small quantity derived from the trimmings 
of fruit trees, grape vines, and hedges, and from decayed fences and buildings, 
does not exceed two hundred and thirty cubic feet or less than two cords a year, 
per household. The annual consumption of firewood by single families in France 
has been estimated at from two and a half to ten Paris cords of 134 cubic 
feet. 

The report of the Commissioners on the Forests of Wisconsin, 1867, allows three 
cords of wood to each person for household fires alone. Taking families at an aver- 
age of five persons, we have eight times the amount consumed by an equal number 
of persons in Switzerland for this and all other purposes to which this material is 
ordinarily applicable. It has been estimated that in the cold climate of Sweden, 
144 solid, or 200 loose cubic feet of pine or fir are required per head of the popu- 
lation. The consumption in Norway is about the same. 

Evergreen trees are thoughtlessly destroyed in immense numbers for the pur- 
pose of decoration and on festive occasions. Thrifty young groves of ever- 
green of considerable extent have been completely destroyed in this reckless 
way. 

France employs 1,500,000 cubic feet of oak per year for brandy and wine 
casks, which is about half her annual consumption of that material ; and it is not a 
wholly insignificant fact that, according to Rentzsch, the quantity of wood used 
in parts of Germany for small carvings and for children's toys is so large that 
the export of such objects from the town of Sonneberg alone amounted in 1858, 
to 60.000 centner, or three thousand tons weio-ht. 

* a 

In an article in the Revue des Eaux et Forets for November, 1868, it is 
stated that 200,000 dozens of drums for boys were manufactured per month 
in Paris ; this is equivalent to 28,800,000 per year, for which 56,000,000 drum- 
sticks are required. The consumption of matches in France is given at 
7,200,000,000. 

EFFECTS OF FOREST FIRES. 

Only trees fit for industrial uses fall before the lumberman's axe, but 
the fire destroys, almost indiscriminately, every age and every species of tree. 
While, then, without fatal injury to the younger growths, the native forest will 
bear several "cuttings over" in a generation for the increasing value of lumber 
brings into use, every four or five years, a quality of timber which had been before 
rejected as unmarketable a fire may render the declivity of a mountain 
unproductive for a century. 

Aside from the destruction of the trees and the laying bare of the soil> 
and consequently the free admission of sun, rain, and air to the ground, the 
fire of itself exerts an important influence on its texture and condition. It 
cracks and sometimes even pulverizes the rocks and stones upon and near the 
surface; it consumes a portion of the half decayed vegetable mould which 



90 



served to hold its mineral particles together, and to retain the water of preci- 
pitation, and thus loosens, pulverizes and dries the earth ; it destroys reptiles,, 
insects, and worms, with their eggs and the seeds of trees and of smaller 
plants; it supplies, in the ashes which it deposits on the surface, important ele- 
ments for the growth of a new forest clothing as well as of the usual objects 
of agricultural industry ; and by the changes thus produced, it fits the ground 
for the reception of a vegetation different in character from that which had 
spontaneously covered it. These new conditions help to explain the natural 
succession of forest crops, so generally observed in all woods cleared by fire and 
then abandoned. There is no doubt, however, that other influences contribute 
to the same result, because effects more or less analogous follow when the trees 
are destroyed by other causes, as by high winds, by the woodman's axe, and 
even by natural decay. * 

When the forest is left to itself the order of succession is constant, and its occa- 
sional inversion is always explicable by some human interference. It is curious 
that the trees which require most light are content with the poorest soils, and 
vice versa. The trees which first appear are also those which propagate them- 
selves farthest to the north. 

The birch, the larch, and the fir, bear a severer climate than the oak or the 
beech. 

The difficulty of protecting the woods against accidental or incendiary fires- 
is one of the most discouraging circumstances attending the preservation of 
natural and the plantation of artificial forests. In the spontaneous wood the 
spread of fire is somewhat retarded by the general humidity of the soil, and of 
the beds of leaves which cover it. But in long droughts the superficial layer of 
leaves and the dry fallen branches become as inflammable as tinder, and the fire 
spreads with fearful rapidity, until its further progress is arrested by want of 
material, or more rarely, by heavy rains, sometimes caused, as many meteorolo- 
gists suppose, by the conflagration itself. 

* Trees differ in their power of resisting the action of forest fires. Different woods vary greatly in 
their combustibility, and even when the bark is scarcely scorched, trees are, partly in consequence of phy- 
siological character, and partly from the greater or less depth at which their roots habitually lie below the 
surface, differently affected by running fires. The white pine, Pinus Strobus, as it is the most valuable, is 
also perhaps the most delicate tree of the American forest, while its congener, the northern pitch-pine, Pinus-. 
Rigida, is less injured by fire than any other tree of our country. Experienced lumbermen maintain that 
the growth of this pine was Hven accelerated by a fire brisk enough to destroy all other trees. 



91 



UNITED STATES CONSULAR REPORTS ON EUROPEAN FORESTRY. 

There is a great deal of useful information respecting European systems of 
forestry contained in a volume entitled " Forestry in Europe," published at 
Washington, Government Printing Office, 1887, from which the following extracts 
have been made : 

COPY OF CIRCULAR. 

DEPARTMENT OF STATE, 

WASHINGTON, November 30, 1886. 

To the Consular Officers of the United States : 

GENTLEMEN : You are instructed to prepare a report covering the following 
questions on Forest Culture and Forest Preservation. I would as/c you to devote 
especial attention to the practical phases of the question, that your replies may 
serve as a basis for framing forestry legislation in this country, where the 
subject is of great and increasing importance. 

1. Areas under forests, distinguishing, where possible, between State and 
private areas. 

2. Common forests, if any, and privileges of the population in them. If 
pasture is permitted, how are the trees, etc., protected ? 

3. Organization and functions of government forest bureaus. 

4. Revenues from government forests, cost of maintaining or managing 
forests ; profits of forest cultivation. 

5. Forest planting and culture; methods; bounties, if any; schools, their 
organization and courses of study. 

6. Destruction of forests, causes and results 

7. Reclamation of sand dunes, or waste places by tree planting. 

8. Sources of lumber supply ; trade in lumber, bounties on importation, if 
any, and customs duties. 

9. Give the names of three reliable sellers of seeds and shoots in your 
district. 

10. Transmit to the Department copies and translations of the forest laws 
of the district in which you reside. (The general laws should be forwarded by 
the Consul-General ; the local laws, by the Consul.) 

I am, Gentlemen, 

Your Obedient Servant, 

JAMES D. PORTER, 

Assistant Secretary. 



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WEIGHTS, MEASURES AND CURRENCY. 

Cental Equals 220 pounds. 

Centner meter 221.5 pounds. 

Florin " 35.9 cents. 

Franc 19.3 cents. 

Hectare 2.471 acres. 

Joch 1.42 acres. 

Kilogram 2.2046 pounds. 

Mark 23.8 cents. 

AUSTRIA HUNGARY. REPORT OF CONSUL-GENERAL JUSSEN. 

GOVERNMENT CONTROL. 

The forest laws of Austria prescribe and control not only the culture of the 
forests belonging to the imperial domain, but also all woodlands which are the 
property of municipalities, private corporations or private individuals, and are 
based upon the theory of paternal government. 

If the law as it stands is enforced not a tree can be cut nor a load of dry 
leaves gathered in a forest which is situated in Austria except in accordance with 
certain rules and restrictions, and although there may be much in these laws 
which may serve for framing future forestry legislation in the United States, the 
greater portion of the enactment is in direct conflict with the American idea of 
home government and propert}^ rights. 

The Austrian Empire is unusually rich in forest lands. There is no lack of 
dense woods in any of its Provinces, except in Dalmatia and Istria and in the 
territory near Trieste, and the culture of forest lands may be called exemplary, 
especially in Bohemia, Moravia, Upper Austria, Silesia and Salzburg. 

The yield of these vast forests, although it is said to be on the decline, still 
far exceeds the home demands, and large quantities are exported. 

AREAS UNDER FORESTS, PUBLIC AND PRIVATE. 

The latest statistics place the total area of the productive land of the Empire 
at 28,406,530 hectares ; of these total numbers of hectares 9,227,061.20 hectares 
are forest lands, and these again are divided into imperial (State), municipal and 
private forests, as follows : Imperial forests, 952,689.96 hectares ; municipal 
forests, 1,297,238.21 hectares. The private forests, therefore, cover about 32 per 
cent, of the total area of the productive land of the Empire. 

COMMON FORESTS AND PRIVILEGES OF THE POPULATION IN THEM. 

As common forests of the Empire only the woodlands belonging to the 
several cities and villages can properly be denominated. The residents of these 
cities and villages undoubtedly enjoy certain privileges as to the use of these 
forests, by virtue of the local laws and regulations. I am not in a position, 
however, to have access to these local regulations, which undoubtedly differ in 
the different communities, but are one and all subject to the general law on 
forest culture and preservation hereinafter cited. This general law, if strictly 
enforced, furnishes the means of ample protection against any injury that may 
possibly threaten these common forests by the wasteful or careless exercise of 
any privilege granted by local enactment. 



ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS OF GOVERNMENT FOREST BUREAUS. 

The cultivation and preservation of the forests of the Empire of Austria 
and the administration of the laws with reference thereto are entrusted to the 
Ministry of Agriculture. The right of appeal, however, in certain contested cases 
to the Ministry of the Interior is reserved. 

Under the supervision of the Minister of Agriculture the several Provincial 
presidents (statthalters) are authorize 1 to execute the forest laws and regulations, 
and as next in authority to these statthalters the several district captains are 
empowered to enforce the laws in question, and to exercise a general authority, 
supervision and control over all the subordinate officers charged with the execu- 
tion of the forest laws, and forest police regulations. This subordinate class of 
forestry officers is composed of two classes : 

1. The officers who have entered the service permanently, after passing the 
requisite examination, and are in the line of promotion, like officers of the regular 
army. 

2. The volunteer officers who for the sake of pursuing their studies and 
adding practical experience to theoretical knowledge, accept the position in the 
forest service as an honorable distinction, but receive a salary in proportion to 
the extent of their field of action and responsibility. 

This latter class, however, like the first, must have passed certain examina- 
tions, proving their qualifications before they can enter the service as such volun- 
teers. 

The professional and regular forest officers in the Empire are classified as 
follows : 

A. Forest Inspectors. 

2. Chief forest counsellors (called oberforestrathe). 

5. Forest counsellors (or forestrathe). 

7. Chief forest commissaries (called oberforestcommissare). 

B. Forest Technicists. 
Forest inspection commissaries (called forestthechniker). 

G. Forest Wards Belonging to the Category of Servants. 

Forest wards, class I, salary per annum, 500 florins. 
Forest wards, class II, salary per annum, 400 florins. 
Forest wards, class III, salary per annum, 300 florins. 

The forest inspectors are charged with the duty of superintending the'execu- 
tion of all forest laws, of examining the condition of the forest, fostering and 
furthering instructions in forest culture and acting as adjuncts to the'Statthalter. 

From early spring until late in the fall the forest inspector should visit fand 
inspect the forests in his district and make a report of each inspecting tour'to the 
Statthalter. 

The Statthalter may also order the forest inspector to make special inspecting 
tours in addition to the regular tour. 

The forest inspector is required to inspect the offices of the district captains 
with reference to forest affairs. 



94 



The instructions to forest inspectors contain sufficient points, elaborately 
presented, to fill a moderate-sized pamphlet, and the gist of the whole matter is 
that the forest inspector acts as a paternal adviser, and if need be as an imperative 
commander to all owners of forests in the empire, as well as a superintendent of 
imperial forests. 

He controls and commands private owners as to the manner and order in 
which they should cut their timber, as to the necessity of replanting, the preventing 
of waste, the preservation of timber against floods, and as to the danger and injury 
threatening from insects, as to the fitness and capacity of the subordinate forest 
inspectors and hunters and forest wards to be employed by these owners ; in 
short, there is not a single act of ownership which the holder of the titled deeds 
of woodland could possibly exercise over his own domain which is not directly 
under the control, and which does not require the approval of the forest 
inspector. 

In the light of these instructions it is not at all paradoxical to say that the 
owner of forest land in Austria must exercise extraordinary care not to be guilty 
of trespass upon his own lands. There can be no question, however, that this 
paternal control has achieved most excellent practical results, though ic is said 
that the discipline of forest officials has been lax, and that the laws and instruc- 
tions have not been enforced with uniform strictness. The forest technicists and 
forest wards are the subordinate officers of the forest, instruments by which the 
duties above enumerated and imposed upon the forest inspectors are practically 
performed. 

FOREST REGISTER (WALDKATASTER). 

In pursuance of a decree of the Ministry of Agriculture, under date of 
July 3, 1873, the respective forest officers are required to keep a forest register of 
each district, which specifies the number of acres covered by forest, its condition, 
state of growth, etc. 

In connection with this register maps are prepared and kept open for 
inspection at the offices of the district captains upon which the condition and 
extent of the several forests in the districts are shown. 

At the close of each year a report about the progress of forest culture, etc., 
is to be made to the Ministry of Agriculture, which report is to be published in 
the Landes Zeitung. 

The total number of forest officers of all grades, public and private, employed 
in Austria, reaches the respectable figure of 31,826. 

REVENUES FROM GOVERNMENT FORESTS COST OF MAINTAINING OR MANAGING 
FORESTS PROFITS OF FOREST CULTIVATION. 

On the point of the profits of Government forests there are absolutely no 
statistics published in the Empire, so far as I have been able to ascertain, except 
those given in the budget under the head of forest revenues and expenditures. 
The last budget published places : 

The forest revenues, p. a. florins . 3,951,050 

The forest expenditures, p. a. florins 3,546,240 

Profit of State forests, 405,410 

These net proceeds of an area of government forest land, containing 
952,689.96 hectares, certainly seem very inconsiderable, but in order to estimate 



95 



the true value of these forests to the Empii^e, their influence upon the climate, the 
rainfalls, and the consequent benefit to agricultural land, as well as to the health 
of the population, should be taken into consideration. 

A direct benefit also results to the population from the employment of 
numerous officers attending to the cultivation and preservation of these forests, 
all of whom are paid and supported by the profits derived from the culture. 

It cannot be contended, therefore, that the people are taxed in order to 
support a small army of forest officers, who are actually producers, earning more 
than they expend. 

I find on an examination of the meagre statistics to which I have had access 
that the profits of forest land culture have materially increased during the last 
fifty years. 

The Kataster (Real Estate Register) shows that in Lower and Upper Austria 
the net profit per joch was estimated at 1.41 florins in the year 1830. while in the 
year 1880 this estimate rose to 2.62 florins per joch, an increase of almost 100 
per cent., an incontrovertible proof that the forest laws of Austria^which were 
passed in 1852, have been of great practical benefit to forest culture. 

This benefit is proven, not only by the increased net proceeds of a given area 
of forest lands, but also by the growth and greater extent of the area itself. 

FOKEST PLANTING AND CULTURE METHODS. BOUNTIES IF ANY. SCHOOLS, THEIR 

ORGANIZATION AND COURSE OF STUDY. 

The method of forest planting and culture prevailing in Austria are quite 
particularly prescribed in the forest laws. There are no bounties paid in the 
Empire for planting or replanting of forests. 

SCHOOLS. 

The schools for forest culture were transferred in 1878 from the Minister 
of Agriculture to the Minister for Culture and Education, but all organic order 
and appointments of professors are made by the Ministers of Culture and 
Education with the concurrence of the Minister of Agriculture. 

While there are undoubtedly numerous provisions of the forest culture law 
which cannot be applied or enforced in the United States, the system inaugurated 
in Austria to tit and educate young men for the duty of enforcing this law seems 
beyond all question worthy of imitation to the fullest extent. 

These Austrian schools for forest culture consist of : 

A. University (hochschule). 

B. Middle or preparatory schools. 

C. Elementary or lower schools. 

The university (hochschule) is situate in Vienna; it was founded in 
October, 1875. 

Its aim and purpose is the highest possible scientific education in land and 
forest culture, All expenditures are borne by the State. The semesters (terms) 
are limited to six that is, complete instruction is not perfected under six 
semesters. 



96 



THE STUDENTS. 

The students are either ordinary Tor extraordinary hearers. The ordinary 
hearer must produce a testimonial as a 'graduate of a gymnasium (college) or high 
school (oberealschule} a testimonial which would also admit the students to 
any university. 

Whoever does not possess the qualification of an ordinary hearer may be 
admitted as an extraordinary hearer if he is eighteen years old and has that 
degree of preparatory education which will enable him to understand the 
lectures. 

Guests may be admitted to single lectures on notice of the the'dean (rector). 
All hearers are subject to the dicipline regulations of the university. 

IMMATRICULATION, TUITION FEE, AND LABORATORIUM TAX. 

The immatriculation fee is five florins for all hearers. The ordinary hearers 
pay a tuition fee of twenty-five florins at the beginning of the semester (term). 

Extraordinary hearers pay 1.50 florins (per week)Jfor each lecture. 

Ordinary hearers, if poor, may, as a reward for greatMiligence, be released 
from the payment of tuition fees if the college of professors ^so decides. 

The laboratorium tax is five florins for fifteen hours. 

CERTIFICATES OF ATTENDANCE. 

The attendance at lectures is certified to at the end of each semester. In 
case of non attendance, the fact is stated on the certificate. The certificates are 
to be delivered to the dean for examination. 

EXAMINATIONS AND TESTIMONIALS. 

The examinations are public and conducted under the supervision of the 
dean (rector). 

In deciding the degree of succes in examinations, not only the written school 
examination, bit also the labor in the laboratory and the authenticated studies 
in chambers are to be taken into consideration. 

Every ordinary hearer has the right to be admitted to the state examination- j 
if he so desires. 

Regular and full diplomas are only issued to ordinary hearers. 

Extraordinary hearers can claim only a testimonial certifying to> their 
attendance at lectures, good conduct and general progress in their studies. 

TERMS OF EXAMINATIONS FOR DIPLOMAS IN FOREST CULTURE. 

First Group. 

1. Physics with climatology. 

2. Chemistry. 

3. General and special botany. 

4. Mineralogy and geology. 

5. Mathematics. 



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6. Geodesy. 

7. Mechanics. 

8. Geometry. 

9. National economy. 

Second Group. 

1. Forest culture. 

2. Forest felling with forest technology. 
3- Forest preservation with forest zoology. 
4. Forest laws 

5. Forest yield, regulation and management. 

6. Forest statistics. 

7. Forest engineering. 

The examinations are both oral and in writing, during which the use of, and 
reference to, books and memoranda are not permitted. 

Only ordinary hearers who have performed the three years' course in the 
university are admitted to examinations for diplomas. 

If the student desires to enter the service of the State as a forest officer, he 
must subject himself to, and pass two State examinations, after he has obtained 
his university diploma. 

The subjects of the first State examination are the following; Physics, 
climatology, chemistry, botany, geology > higher mathematics, geodesy, and 
national economy. 

The second State examination! embraces the subjects of culture, use and yield 
of forest lands, calculations on values of forests, forest machinery, and forest 
laws. 

These State examinations are conducted orally and in public. The State 
issues diplomas to the successful candidates. 

MIDDLE OR PREPARATORY SCHOOLS FOR FOREST CULTURE. 

Three of these preparatory schools have been established in the Empire, one 
at Eulenberg, another at Weisswasser, and the third at Lunberg. 

The conditions of admission to the Eulenberg school are the following : 

1. The applicant must be a graduate of a lower gymnasium (under gymna- 
sium, or unterrealschule, preparatory college.) 

2. He must have served with good success for two, or at the very least, one 
year, as the apprentice of a forest official. 

3. He must not be less than seventeen and not more than twenty-four 
years old. 

4. Must be in perfect health and vaccinated. 

5. Must furnish security as to means required for instruction, clothing and 
support. 

6. Must pass a preliminary examination by the teachers of the school. 

The scholars, whose numbers shall not exceed twenty to twenty-five per 
annum, reside at the institute. 

7 (F.) 



The branches taught embrace mathematics, field engineering, drawing, 
natural history, forest culture, forest laws, business coorrespondence, office routine 
business, and hunting. 

The conditions of admission to the other two middle schools are of about 
the same character, and nearly the same branches are taught there, all calculated 
to fit the student for admission at the university at Vienna. 

In all these schools excursions are made by the scholars under the guidance 
of the teachers, for the purpose of combining practical illustration with theoretical 
knowledge, in the branches of natural history, forest culture, preservation and 
valuation. 

Examinations take place at the end of each semester (term). 

ELEMENTARY (NIEDERE) SCHOOLS FOR FOREST CULTURE. 

The Ministry of Agriculture has established four of these lower schools, one 
in Tyrol, one in Styr, one in Galicia, and one in Agglsbach. 

Course of Study : Mathematics, geometrical exercises, field engineering, 
measuring of wood and timber cut and standing, measuring of arth and excava- 
tions, writing, drawing, natural history, geology, mineralogy, zoology, game as 
distinguished from other animals. 

Practical Works : Felling timber numbering, measuring and piling same, 
planting aud replanting forests, draining and irrigation, protection against insects 
and fires, charcoal making, sawing lumber and hunting. 

The scholars are also required to construe and explain the most important 
provisions of the forest laws and to commit them to memory. 

They are also taught the use, value, etc., of all building material, viz., wood, 
lime, bricks, stone, sand, etc., and are instructed in the building and clearing of 
forest roads, and the securing of the banks of forest streams, and repairing 
fissures in same, etc. 

As teachers in these elementary schools experienced forest officers are 
detailed. 

The discipline in these schools as regards the conduct and studies of the 
scholars, as well in school as in chambers, is very strict. 

No scholar is permitted to absent himself from the institution without leave 
the side arms and guns intrusted to the scholars for practise, must be cleaned in 
the presence of the teachers and delivered to their care ; all tools used by them 
must be cared for in the same mann'er. 

If an offence against the regulations is repeated three times, dismissal 
follows. 

Strict moral conduct is enforced, and the scholars are continually under the 
direct control and supervision of one of the teachers, who is also charged with the 
duty of visiting the scholars in their rooms. 

All moneys belonging to the scholars must be deposited with the teachers, 
who supply the depositors with the amount actually needed from the deposit 
funds, and the parents are advised of this regulation. 

The regulations of discipline are too voluminous to be cited here in full. 
They also differ some'what in the different schools, but on the whole they are 
framed in a strict military spirit, which looks upon obedience to rules of conduct 
.as a first requisite to a successful course of study. 



99 



A young man who has graduated from an elementary to a middle forest 
school, and from that to the university, or high school of forest culture, who has 
obtained his diploma at the latter, and has also passed the two State examinations, 
may be said to be thoroughly fitted for his profession, and besides undoubtedly 
clean, healthy, robust, and thoroughly manly in a physical as well as in a 
moral sense. 

EXTRACTS FROM GENERAL FOREST LAW OF AUSTRIA IN FORCE SINCE JANUARY 

1, 1853. 

Cultivation of Forests. 

m 

Sec. 1. Forests are distinguished as (a) State or Imperial forests under the 
control of the State authorities. (6) Common forests, belonging to the city and 
country communities, (c) Private forests, belonging either to private individuals, 
or to corporations, or to orders, monasteries, benefices or prebends. 

Sec. 2. No forest can be withdrawn from cultivation and used for other 
purposes except by consent. This consent can only be granted with reference to 
State forests by the proper authority, and if questions of strategy or military 
defence arise the concurrence of the Ministry of war is required. 

With reference to common and private forests the consent of the district 
authorities is required, and all parties interested are to be heard on the application, 
and in case of conflict of interests the matter is to be submitted to the proper 
civil judge. 

The arbitrary use of forests for other purposes is punished by a five of five 
florins per joch. (1 joch equals 1.42 acres). 

The area thus converted to improper use must be replanted within a certain 
time, to be fixed by experts. In case of default the fine is again imposed. 

Sec. 3. Newly-cleared tracts of State or common forests must be replanted 
within five years. A longer time may be allowed for the replanting of private 
forests, according to circumstances, and in pursuance of the provisions of 
section 20. 

Sec. 4. No forest should be devastated ; that is, so treated that the cultiva- 
tion is either jeopardized or made impossible. If the cultivation has only been 
jeopardized a fine will be imposed in accordance with section 2, and the replanting 
is to be enforced. If, however, cultivation has been impossible, a fine up to ten 
florins per joch will be imposed. 

Sec. 5. A cultivation which exposes neighboring forests to injury from winds 
is prohibited. A strip of woods at least twenty Vienna klaf ter wide must be left, 
when such danger exists, along the margin of the neighboring woods until the 
same is in full growth. In the meantime this wind-cloak can only be thinned. 

Sec. 6. On sandy soil and on steep mountain slopes the timber can only be 
cut in narrow strips or thinned out, and must be immediately replaced. The 
woods upon the summits of mountains must only be thinned. 

See. 7. On the shores of large rivers or lakes, if the shores are not composed 
-of rocks, and on the slopes of mountains where land slides are possible great care 
is to be exercised, and roots can only be dug if tho fissure is immediately 
repaired. 

Sec. 8. Violations of sections 5, 6 and 7, are punished with a fine of from 20 to 
500 florins. Damage accruing to others to be paid by offender. 



100 



Sec. 9. Provides for cultivation of common forests, and for limitation and 
official control of grazing 1 and other privileges and uses. 

Sec. 10. Grazing is not permitted in young timber, where it might injure the 
gnnvth, and no more cattle are to be driven into any woods than can find suffi- 
cient food within the area. Herdsmen must be employed, and the cattle shall 
graze together, and not isolated, as much as possible. The driving of cattle to the 
place of grazing to be done with due regard to the preservation f the forest ; if 
necessary a circuitous route is to be taken. 

Sec. 11, Bedding of dry leaves and moss must be gathered only with wooden 
rakes, without scratching up the soil. In young timber no gathering of bedding 
is permitted. 



Sec. 12. From felled trees all the branches may be cut ; from standing trees* 
selected for future cutting, the lower two-thirds of branches may be cut. The 
young shoots between the strong branches must be preserved. From trees which 
are not to be felled immediately the branches must be cut between the months of 
August and March, excepting only during severe frost. No climbing vines are 
permitted. 

Sec. 13. The gathering of bedding can only be permitted on the same ground 
every third year. Young shoots, may, however, be gathered with permission of 
owner. 

Sec. 14. Provides for regulating the exact time within which parties possessing 
the privilege may gather bedding. Time to be fixed by the owner. 

Sec. 15. Provides for the different marks on timber to be felled. 

Sect. 16. Where the preservation of young timber requires it the cutting and 
transporting of timber must take place in the fall or in winter during snow fall. 
Generally timber may be cut also in spring or summer, but in such case it must 
be taken out of the woods before the next ensuing spring. 

From trees felled in the green leaf the bark is to be peeled at once ; from 
these felled in the late fall the bark must be taken in strips before the next 
spring. The stumps must not be left too high. In felling trees, hewing and 
transporting timber, all injury to standing trees is to be avoided. The same rule 
obtains with reference to the gathering and transportation of bedding, which 
must be removed out of the woods within three months. 

Sec. 17. All products of the woods must be removed on the road designated 
by the owner. The time of removal as agreed between owner and purchaser 
of timber to be requested ; if not so requested owner may give fourteen days' 
notice and dispose of products if notice is not complied with. 

Sec. 18. Provides that forest officials (political authorities) shall decide all 
differences and disputes. Owners of forests who violate regulations to be fined, 
for each offence from 20 to 200 florins. 

Sec. 19. Provides that the State, in case of necessity, can take possession of 
forests for the purpose of protection against avalanches, land slides, etc. If claims 
for damages arise they are to be settled according to law. 

Sec. 20. Provides manner of proceeding for the purpose of taking such 
possession, examination of experts, etc. , 

Sec. 21. As a rule no partition of common forests can be made. 

Sec. 22. For the purpose of insuring the proper cultivation of forests all 
owners of forests of sufficient dimensions (which dimensions are prescribed by the 
authorities) are required to emplo} 7 only such forests officers as are considered 
qualified by the government. 



101 



Sec. 23. The political authorities are charged with the general superinten- 
dence of all forests in their respective districts. 

Transportation of Forest Products. 

Every land owner is required to permit forest products to be transported 
across his land if no other outlet is convenient, or if other transportation is too 
expensive. 

The transportation must be conducted with proper care, and all damages 
accruing must be paid. 

The political authorities decide whether such transportation across lands of 
third parties is necessary and also fix amount of damages, from which decision as 
to damages an appeal may be taken to the courts. 

Sec. 25. Provides for jurisdiction with reference to transportation over public 
roads, etc. 

Sec. 26. The transportation of wood by means of rafts and the building of 
booms require special permission by the authorities of the district. If the use of 
private waters is required proceedings must be had according to section 24. 

Sees. 27 to 43. Refer to the regulation of rafting, marking of timber trans- 
ported by rafts, use of rivers and other waters, public and private, for rafting, etc. 

Forest Fires and Damages by Insects. 

Sec. 44. The greatest care must be exercised in igniting fires or in using 
combustible materials in or near the forests. If dangers arise in consequence of 
neglect to use such care the offenders must pay all damages, and may according to 
circumstances, be either prosecuted under the general criminal code or fined from 
5 to 40 florins, or imprisoned from one to eight days. 

Sec. 45. Every person who finds a deserted and unextinguished fire in or on 
the edge of a forest is required to extinguish it if possible. If any person observes 
a forest fire he is held to give notice to the next inhabitants in the direction of 
the road which he travels. These parties so notified are required to give notice 
to the nearest local authorities and to the owner of the forest or to his forest 
officials. 

Sec. 46. All surrounding villages can be required by the owner of the forest, 
or his forest officials, or by the local authorities to extinguish the fire. The posse 
must at once repair to the place of the fire with the necessary fire-extinguishing 
apparatus. The local authorities and the forest officials must accompany the 
posse. 

Sec. 47. Unconditional obedience is to be paid to the superior officer com- 
manding the posse The other local officials must preserve order among the fire- 
men and cause the execution of the orders. After the fire has been extinguished 
the place where it occurred is to be guarded from one to two days, or longer, if 
necessary, and tie necessary number of men must be furnished for this purpose. 

Sec. 48. Local officers who neglect to perform their duty will be fined from 
5 to 50 florins, and all persons who refuse to obey their orders will be punished 
by a fine of from 5 to 15 florins or by imprisonment from 1 to 3 days. 

Sec. 49. Damages to property of third parties, caused by extinguishing these 
fires, are to be paid by the parties for whose benefit the posse was called, unless 
this third party was protected against still greater loss by the efforts of the posse. 



102 



Sec. 50. The damages caused to forests by insects are to be closely watched. 
The owners of forests and their employees are required, in case they cannot succeed 
in preventing the spread of such damage to adjacent woods, or on their own 
grounds, to notify the political authorities at once, or rti default thereof to pay a 
fine of from 5 to 50 florins. Every person is authorized to give such notice. 

Sec. 51. The political authorities, with the assistance of experts, must at 
once take the proper measures to prevent this damage by insects. All owners of 
forests whose woods may be in danger are bound to render assistance and to 
submit to the order of the authorities, who are herewith authorized to enforce 
their orders. 

The expense shall be borne by the owners of the forests in proportion to the 
dimensions of their respective tracts. 

Forest Preservation Service. 

Sec. 52. Provides for the organization of forest guards to be attached to the 
forest administration service. These guards, whether employed by the State, by 
communities, or by private individuals, to take the oath of office. (Form of oath 
general, with reference to performance of duties in preserving forests as law 
requires). 

Sec. 53. These sworn guards to be regarded as public guards, with all rights 
guaranteed to public officers by law, and authorized to carry the usual arms. 
Every persons is required to obey their orders given in the line of their duties. 

Sec. 54. The guards shall use their arms only in case of self-defence. To 

/ 

wear uniforms. 

Sec, 55. The guards are authorized to order suspicious persons to leave the 
forests and to confiscate all tools used for gathering forest products if the parties 
carrying them in the forest cannot give a satisfactory explanation. 

Sec. 56. Confiscation of forest products in possession of suspicious party" 
in the forest. 

Sec. 57. Offender who are strangers to the guards are to be arrested ; offenders 
known to the guard are to be arrested only in case they attack or abuse him, or 
if they have no fixed home. Persons arrested to be delivered at once to the 
competent authorities. 

Sec. 58. In case the offender was caught in the act and took flight he may 
be pursued beyond the forest and the stolen product attached. 

Miscellaneous. 

Chapter five contains an enumeration of minor forests offences not hereinbe- 
fore particularly mentioned, and fixes the punishment. 

These offences are : Gathering of loose wood and twigs, marking and barking 
of trees, using climbing irons, boring into trees, appropriating bark from felled 
timber, exposing the roots of trees, cutting or tearing off limbs or twigs or leaves, 
digging or cutting out young trees, grathering twigs for brooms, gathering tree juice 
of all sorts, gathering tree seeds or sponges or rotten wood or digging out roots, 
gathering bedding of all sorts, especially if gathered with hoes or iron rakes ; 
taking away earth, clay, turf, stones, and other minerals, or cutting sod, or mo wing 
grass and herbs. 

This chapter also provides for proceedings and estimate for damages to 
forests by cattle. Chapter six provides for mode of procedure and proper tribunal 
to fix damages:. Chapter seven provides for proceedings on appeal. 



103 



KINGDOM OF PRUSSIA ; REPORT OF CONSUL WAMER OF COLOGNE. 

FOREST AREA IN THE PRUSSIAN MONARCHY. 

The total area of the Prussian Monarchy amounts to 35,479,536 hectares.* 
Of this amount 8,124,521 hectares are forests, being an equivalent of 23.33 per 
cent, of the total area. It may be stated that this estimate includes all land 
devoted to the culture of wood. 

The apportionment of the forests is as follows : 

(a) 29.4 per cent., equivalent to 2,374,039 hectares belong to the State. 

(6) 11.9 per cent., equivalent to 983,727 hectares belong to the Communes. 

(c) 1.5 per cent., equivalent to 122,759 hectares belong to institutions. 

(d) 2.1 per cent., equivalent to 170,063 hectares belong to corporations. 

(e) 55.1 per cent., equivalent to 4,473,933 hectares belong to private 
individuals. 

Under the same heads the Rhenish Province and the district of Cologne have 
the following area respectively : 

RHENISH PROVINCE. COLOGNE. 

Hectares. Hectares. 

(a) 143,284 (a) 11,766 

(b) 321,019 (b) 7,358 

(c) 7,149 (c) 1,773 

(d) 15,303 (d) 1,201 

(e) 342,687 (e) 98,284 

The forests of Prussia stretch from the Baltic coast over the mountains of 
the Sudeten, Hartz, Thuringia, Teutoburg, Meissner, Taunus, Rhon, and the slate 
mountains of the Lower Rhine. 

According to a rough estimate, 4,043,800 hectares of forest area are level, 
2,089,500 hectares are hilly, and 1,991,200 hectares are mountainous. 

GOVERNMENT SUPERVISION OVER COMMUNAL FORESTS. 

Although the Communes are left free to manage the Communal forests, the 
State government reserves for itself certain rights over the general administra- 
tion in order to prevent any mismanagement or abuses. For instance, in West- 
phalia and the Rhineland, which embrace this consular district, the communities 
and public institutions are left free to administer their own forests, but at the same 
time the government gives certain instructions regarding the culture and 
utilization of the forests, which, the local authorities are bound to carry out without 
any alteration on their part not first consented to by the government. Whether 
it is considered best that the Commune should appoint the officials intrusted 
with the supervision of the forest is left to the discretion of the government. 
In leaving the election of the forest officials to the Communes, they are to elect 

*Consul Warner says : Considering the vast amount of technical knowledge required to fully com- 
prehend the whole system of forest culture in Prussia, I have found it extremely difficult in preparing 
a report on this subject, and I am greatly indebted to Oberforstmeister (head forest master) von Wurmb, 
chief sf the forest departmpnt oP the Governrrent district of Cologne for such information. 

One hectare is equivalent to 2.471 acres. 

The total area of forest in the Empire of Germany is 13,900,611 hectares, or 55 per cent, of the 
total land area. 



104 



such persons whose qualifications are approved by the government, to whom the 
election is submitted for consideration and confirmation. It is the duty of the 
government, either by virtue of its office or for some special reason, to examine 
into any changes made in the management of the Communal forest, and to proceed 
against all adverse administration by assuming special supervision or by insti- 
tuting any other judicious precaution. 

As technical organs for the supervision of the Communal forests, the 
government can make use of its foresters, who are generally bound to report to 
government any wrong done to the Communal forests that may come to their 
knowledge. The technical supervision is conducted by its technical foresters, 
namely, by the oberforstbeamte (head forest officers), and forstmeister (forest 
master). 

Each forstmeister has a special geographical district allotted to him, who has 
not only to superintend the State forests, but also, at the request of the govern- 
ment department of the interior, of which he is a technical member, to examine 
the management of all the Communal forests situated within his particular 
district. The oberforstbeamte (head forest officer), has general supervision over 
the administration of all the Communal forests situated within the government 
district of which he is the head, and by whom all orders are issued. The 
privileges of the Communes in their forests consist in their having sole benefit of 
all the income or any other profit derived from the forests. The use of the 
pastures, as well as the straw and grazing, is usually permitted to the consumers 
whenever such use is very necessary, but is so far restricted that the condition 
and value of the forests and the maintenance of the pastures may not suffer 
thereby. The Communes are bound to bring all sand dunes and waste lands 
under forest cultivation as soon as it is shown it can be profitably done. On all 
sales of Communal forest area the permission of the Government must first be 
obtained. 

ORGANIZATION AND FUNCTIONS OF GOVERNMENT FOREST BUREAUS. 

The State forest administration is under the Ministry for Agriculture, 
Domain, and Forest. The chief direction of forest affairs is divided into four 
heads : 

1. The central direction: Forest Department in the Ministry for Agricul- 
ture, Domain, and Forests. 

2. Local direction : Inspection and control by the district government under 
the Department of Taxes, Domain, and Forest. 

3. District administration by the chief forester (oberforster], respectively the 
Bureau of Eeceipts and Disbursements. ___^_^ 

4. Forest preservation and special superintendents over the management of 
the subordinate foresters (the so-called forstschutzbeamten). 

The revision of all forest accounts is done at the so-called Ober-Recknungs- 
kammer (Head Bureau of Accounts) of the Ministerial Department. The entire 
organization is based upon the division of the State forests into so-called ober- 
forstereien (forest districts). Every principal forest district is an independent 
administration, for whose administration a separate finance is kept, and the chief 
forester, who is the responsible administrator of the finance, submits all the 
accounts through the forest treasurer of his district to the Finance Department 
of the government, for auditing. 

The duty of the oberforster (head forester) is to watch and take care of the 
rvation of his forest district and to make his administration useful in every 



105 



^possible way. It is, therefore, the duty of the oberforster to possess the most 
exact knowledge of the working of the district confided tp his care, and not to 
neglect visiting the forest daily, if possible. 

The ober/orster is an independent officer, and is alone responsible for the 
duties and salaries of his assistants. 

The oberforster, on having passed the scientific examination required by the 
State, is appointed by the Minister of Agriculture, Domain, and Forest, and 
receives a definite salary, with the right of pension. His rank is that of a 
government assessor. The extent of each forest district varies. There are 679 
forest districts in Prussia, and the average size of each district is 3,496 hectares. 

The following table shows the area of State forests in the different Provinces, 
also the number and the average size of each oberforsterei : 



Province. 


Forest area. 


Oberforsterei. 


Average size of 
oberforsterei. 


East Prussia 


Hectares. 
359,241 


Number. 

74 


Hectares. 
4,855 


A>Vest Prussia . 


273,174 


47 


5,812 


Brandenberg 


369,510 


72 


5132 


Pomerania 


170,619 


42 


4 062 


Posen ... 


162,029 


28 


5 787 


Silesia 


151,325 


34 


4 451 


Saxony .... 


169 480 


55 


3 081 


Schleswig 


30 111 


16 


1 882 


Hanover 


235 074 


104 


2 260 


Westphalia 


57 189 


19 


3 009 


Hessen-Nassau 


253 003 


146 


1 7SS 


Rhine Province 


143,284 


42 


3 412 










Total 


2 374 039 


679 


4^ 47ft 











* 

There is a treasurer for each oberforsterei. He is an independent officer and 
is alone responsible for the administration of his bureau. The government 
appoints him, and he is required to give bond for the faithful discharge of his 
duties. 

The foresters under the supervision of the chief forester (oberforster), are of 
two classes, namely, those who protect and attend to the practical management 
of the forests, the so-called forsters (foresters), and waldwarter (forest attendant), 
and the assistant foresters, the so-called forsthulfsaufscher. The immediate head 
of the chief forester is the district government, especially its department of 
finance, and whose organs for the administration and supervision of the forests 
and the finances are in the person of the forstmeister (forest master), and oberforst- 
meister (head forest master). The former has control over a certain number of 
the chief forests within the government district, and the latter over all in the 
government district. 



106 



The forstmeister resides at the seat of the district government as a technical 
member of it. He has to personally inspect every part of the district at 
least three times a year, assist in carrying out the regulations of work and in 
adjusting the finance, in controlling and fixing the annual plans of culture and 
the felling of the forest, subject to the supervision of the (her forstmeister. 
Further, he has to examine all the work done in the forest and its protection, 
inspect the book of the dberforxter, and the accounts of the treasurer, check the 
forest cash account and the inventories, and inspect once in every five years all 
the forest boundaries of every forest district within his district and report as to- 
their condition. As a member of the district government he has to work out all 
business matters which directly concern his inspection district, except in cases 
where the work is specially provided for. All reports of the oberforster to the 
government must be sent through the hands of the forstmeister. 

The forstmeisters are appointed by His Majesty the Emperor and King, on 
the proposal of the Minister for Agriculture, Domain, and Forest, of the ober- 
forsters who have distinguished themselves by their superior technical education, 
and business management of forests. They have not to pass any special 
examination for this promotion beyond the forest scientific examination originally 
passed and required by the government for oberforsters. 

Forstmeisters rank as regierungs rathe (government councillors). The 
number of forstmeisters at present in Prussia is 92, which is on an average of 
about 6 to 7 oberforstereien (chief forest districts) to each forstmeister. This 
estimate, however, does not include the communal forests of Westphalia and the 
Rhineland nor the 80 royal ober/orstersien under the supervision of 2G oberforst- 
meisters who are the directors of the whole administration of the entire govern- 
ment district, and, as such, are the superior officers of the forstmeister. 

Accordingly, there is one ober forstmeister for each government district, who 
is, by virtue of his office, a member of its department. The ober forstmeister is 
selected out of a number of the most capable forstmeisters, who is proposed by 
the Minister for Agriculture, Domain and Forest, with the sanction of the 
State Ministry, and appointed by His Majesty, the Emperor and King. The 
ober forstmeister, having the entire forest administration of the government dis- 
trict, has to make annually, in conjunction with the forstmeister, an inspection 
tour and to see that the management of the forest is properly carried out. He 
has, under the direction of the government district president the appointment and 
arrangement of the pay of the forest police according to the general instructions 
issued by the Minister. He has, further, the regulating of the general business, 
the preparing of the budget, the super-revision and approval of the annual fell- 
ing and cultivation plans, the distribution of the means for the cultivation of the 
forests, and the disposition of the funds set apart for the entire district. 

The Ministry for Agriculture, Domain and Forest contains in its depart- 
ment for forest the central direction for the entire state forest administration, con- 
sisting of an oberland- forstmeister (head State forester) a ministerial director 
and four forest technical ministerial councillors, whose departments of business are 
arranged according to the Province. The general regulations for the mainten- 
ance and utilization of the State property, consisting in forests, are fixed by 
Minister, who also takes care that they are properly executed. 



107 



EEVENUES FROM GOVERNMENT FORESTS ; COST OF MAINTAINING OR MANAGING 
FORESTS ; PROFITS OF FOREST CULTIVATION. 

The estimated revenue and expenditure of the State forests for the years 
1886-87, according to official statement, are given as follows: 

Gross receipts M. 56,070 : 000 

Ordinary expenses M. 31,062,200 

Surplus M. 25,007,800 

Extraordinary expenses 2,450,000 



Net income M. 22557,800 

FOREST SCHOOLS. 

In Prussia there exist three kinds of forest schools. 

(a) Two preparatory forest schools for forstcr and forstschutzbeamte. The 
pupils, from 12 to 17 years of age, receive at these schools an elementary edu- 
cation and practical instruction in forestry under the direction of a forster. 
These schools are intended to take the place of the apprenticeship of two or 
three years which the student, on the completion of his elementary education 
elsewhere, would otherwise be obliged to serve at an oberforsterei under the 
direction of the oberforster. The advantage of the former is that it combines the 
elementary education with practical forest instruction. 

(6) Two forest academies, one at Eberwalde and the other at Minden, under 
the department of the Minister for Agriculture, Domain and Forest, and the 
immediate supervision of the oberlandforstmeister, one of the chief state forest 
officials in the Forest Department of the Ministry. These academies are in- 
tended to give a scientific education and to fit students for the forest adminis- 
stration service, that is to say, for the higher forest career, from oberjorster 
upward. 

The term of study is two years and embraces the following branches : 

* 

A. Fundamental Science 

1. Physics, including meteorology and mechanics. 

2. Chemistry, organic and inorganic. 

3. Mineralogy. 

4. Geognosy and geology. 

5. Botany. 

() General botany. 

(6) Anatomy, physiology and pathology of plants. 

(c) Special forest botany. 

(d} Anatomical and miscropical demonstration. 

6. Zoology. 

(a) General zoology. 

(6) Special zoology particularly with respect to the different kinds of 
forest animals and birds. 



108 



7. Mathematics. 

(a) Repertory and practice in arithmetic, planimetry, trigonometry and 
stereometry. 

(b) Principles of analytical geometry. 

(c) Principles of high analyses. 

8. General political economy, particularly with respect to forest affairs. 

B. Branch Science. 

1. History and literature of forest affairs. 

2. Forest statics. 

3. Forest planting. 

4 Forest preservation. 
5. Forest technology. 

0. Forest valuation, wood measuring, forest survey. 

7. Forest statistics. 

8. Forest administration, particularly with respect to the organization of 
forest affairs in Prussia. 

9. Forest administration. 

10. Redemption of forest claims. 

C. Adjunct Science. 

1. Jurisprudence, Prussian civil and penal code. 

2. Forest road construction. 

3. Game law. 

A.S aids to study, these academies have extensive collections relating to 
forest and natural science, botanical gardens, seed collections, etc. Each academy 
is under the direction of an oberforstmeister. The lectures are given by scien- 
tifically educated foresters and special professors. The student, before he is 
admitted to these academies, must produce a diploma showing that he has passed 
the course of studies required at a German gymnasium or at a Prussian 
technical school of the first class. He must be under 25 years of age. have a 
good character and show that he possesses the necessary means for studying. 

EFFECTS OF FOREST DESTRUCTION. 

The destruction of forests is caused mostly by parcelling off large forest 
estates, which leads to a careless felling of the trees and little disposition to 
restore the loss. An eminent authority on forestry science, Dr. Otto von Hagen, 
in writing on this subject makes the following observations : 

"The forest is a trust handed down to us from past ages, whose value con- 
sists not alone in the income derived from wood, but also in the importance 
which it exerts, through its influence on Climate and rainfall, on land culture. 
Its importance is not merely a question of the present day or of the present 
ownership, but is also a matter which concerns the future welfare of the people. 
This is a truism beyond contradiction, but nevertheless it is daily disregarded by 
those who are indolent and selfish. 



109 



" When such evils reach the stage of common danger, and this is in a great 
measure already the case, it then becomes a duty to interfere by legislation. 
Neither the decrease of the wood production nor the difficulty at times to meet 
the demand for wood, nor the rise in the price can confer upon the State the 
right to interfere with the freedom of private ownership or of private adminis- 
tration of forests, but this right and duty would devolve upon the State in case 
that any injury is done to the welfare and existence of the inhabitants of a cer- 
tain locality resulting from the destruction of the forest. How entire districts 
which flourished in the past have been reduced to poverty and want through 
forest destruction, has been seen in Prussia, where large tracts of land^s have suf- 
fered under such calamities. 

" By stripping the beeches of their forests in the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries, the sea coasts have become exposed to all winds and storms. Fields, 
once fertile, have been transformed into waste sand dunes, and whole villages, 
whose agricultural people formerly prospered, have ceased to exist. 

" In the middle and eastern Provinces light and undulating soil has been 
replaced by small or large sand hills, and places where forests once stood and 
served to carry off stagnant moisture, have been turned into marshes. In the 
western mountainous Provinces the fertile forest soil, the waste product of thou- 
sands of years of the trees, has disappeared. It has been dried up by the sun 
and wind, and washed into the valleys by rain and snow-water, and left the 
mountains bare and unfertile, whose soil is scarcely capable of supporting any 
vegetation save heath and broom-grass. 

" The rich meadows in the valleys have vanished, they have been again and 
again, after every rainstorm, washed and torn by the water rushing from the 
mountain tops. The high moors which have been formed by the destruction of 
the forest, emit at all times of the year vapors and fogs which kill vegetation 
far into the land. Thus the soil becomes directly impoverished, and the climatic 
conditions change and become worse. Instances of the injurious effect upon the 
culture of the soil caused by the destruction of the forests can be seen to a smaller 
or larger extent throughout Prussia." 

A BRIEF RETROSPECT. 

Early in the fourteenth century, in the more thickly populated sections 01 
Switzerland, the people appear to have been forced, through apprehension of a 
deficiency in their wood supply, to take some measures for the preservation of 
their forests. In the year 1314 Zurich forbade its foresters (vorsters) to " fell, 
raft or sell wood from the Sihlwald." In 1339 Schwyz issued a prohibition 
against charcoal burning, and in 1438 Freiburg decreed that no wood should be 
cut in the environs of the city. In Entlebuch it was forbidden in 1471 " to draw- 
wood from forests situated high up in the mountains," and in 1592 Berne called 
attention to the need of economy in the use of wood. Finally similar decrees 
became general, but while serving to preserve forest areas they proved a hindrance 
to the progress of agricultural and vine-growing interests. Zurich, for instance, 
in 1563, forbade the establishment of any new vineyards, and the prohibition 
was kept in force up to the beginning of the eighteenth century. At that period 
the dread of a deficiency of wood became so general that it was even forbidden 
to purvey or export any of it from one village to another. Contemporaneously 
with these prohibitions were issued others forbidding the pasturage of cattle, 
sheep and goats in the forests. The old law generally ran in some such homely 
text as this : Whoever keeps a cow at home in summer is allowed to drive no 
goats, and nCbody more than he actually requires for his house-keeping. 



110 



But spite of all these precautions and prohibitive measures the lack of com- 
bined action became painfully apparent. Moreover the individual owners were 
refractory, resented interference, and held on to their woodlands, so that, in fact, 
to-day the comparatively small forest area belonging to the State is what has 
principally been acquired by direct purchase, by inheritance or by the suppres- 
sion of monasteries, as in the Bernese Jura, in Thurgau and in Schaffhausen. 

With the advent, however, of the eighteenth century, Swiss forestry took 
on, in an official sense at least, a more active existence. 

In 1702 Zurich, always foremost in the work, appointed a commission to 
devise a general forestry system. In 1825 Berne followed suit, and later Frei- 
burg, Lucerne and Schwyz took action in the same direction. From this time on 
the several cantons managed their own forestry matters as they wished, and 
entirely independent of each other up to ten years ago, when the imperative 
needs of combined action having become apparent the matter was taken in hand 
by the federal authorities, whose attention had been called to the pressing 
demand for a legislative action to arrest the destruction of forests especially in 
the higher mountain regions. Accordingly on the 24th of March, 1876, a law 
was passed establishing federal control over the forests in all the mountain regions 
of Switzerland, embracing eight entire cantons, viz., Appenzell, Glarus Graubun- 
den, Schwyz, Tessin, Unterwalden, Uri and Valais, and parts of seven others, viz., 
Berne, 41.48 per. cent.; Freiburg, 32.70 per cent; Lucerne 53.50 per cent ; St. 
Gallen, 76.17 per cent ; Waadt, 22.98 per cent ; Zug, - - per cent ; Zurich, 6.86 
per cent. 

ZURICH FOREST SYSTEM. 

As will be observed from the foregoing, Zurich has always evinced an 
actual and especial interest in forestry matters, and the result is that her forestry 
system at the present day is a model one, and is so regarded throughout Switzer- 
land. Her forestry law, which has been in operation in its present form for over 
a quarter of a century, is so complete in every detail as to form a report in itself 
and it is therefore translated and incorporated in full herewith. 

1. ORGANIZATION. 

1. Cantonal, township, and corporation forests shall be subject to the con- 
trol of the government forestry system. Private forests come under the same 
provision, in so far as the safety of the others or regard for a common danger 
renders necessary. 

2. According to article 49 of the law pertaining to the organization of the 
government council, supreme control of the forestry system is vested in the 
direction of the interior. A yearly sum of 8,000 francs will be allowed it for the 
cost of management, and for the interests of forest culture, as, for instance, in 
the award of premiums for distinguished services, establishment of a course of 
instruction for foresters etc. 

3. The canton is divided into four forestry districts, the limits of which shall 
be fixed by the council. 

4. The cantonal forestry board shall consist of one overforest master and 
four district forest masters. The council is authorized to furnish an adjunct 
thereto. In said board is vested the duty of superintending all forestry affairs. 
The maintenance of the cantonal forest under control of the director of 
finance is also transferred to it ; the duties of its members will be especially deter- 
mined by official instructions from the council. 



Ill 



5. Only those who shall have passed a government examination, as prescribed 
oy the council, and have been declared competent by the direction of the interior, 
^shall be employed as forestry officials. 

G, The overforest master, the district forest masters and the adjunct, shall be 
chosen by the council on the simple, though not binding, nomination of the 
direction of the interior. 

The term of service of the over and district forest masters shall be for three 
years. The adjunct shall be chosen for a period to be fixed by the council. Retiring 
officers are eligible for re-election. 

7. The overforest master receives a salary of 3,500 francs. When travelling on 
'official business, his cash outlays will be reimbursed. The further sum of 1,000 
francs is allowed for clerk and office expenses. 

8. District forest masters receive an annual salary of 2,200 francs. While 
on official journeys on forest service, they receive a daily allowance of 10 francs, 
and while on official journeys, in the interest of cantonal forests, a daily allowance 
to be determined by the council. 

9. The council shall fix the sum to be paid to the adjunct out of the appro- 
priation provided in article 2. 

10. The daily allowances, when involving cash outlays, shall be paid from 
the cantonal forestry fund, or from the appropriation provided in article 2, 
depending on whether they concern business connected with the cantonal or non- 
cantonal forests. 

11. Forestry officials are required to give bonds in the amounts to be deter- 
mined by the council. 

12. Each corporation shall elect a board of overseers of not less than three 
members, for a period of three years, and shall give notice of such election to the 
directors of the interior. 

13. The employment of foresters is obligatory upon (a) the canton for all forests 
directly or indirectly belonging to it, (6) all forest-owning townships, and (c) wood 
corporations. Townships and corporations are directed to appoint an over- 
forester. Several townships or corporations may unite on one and the same 
person for this purpose. Forestry officials appointed by townships and corpora- 
tions, are, at the same time, subordinate to the cantonal forestry officials in 
matters pertaining to cantonal forests. 

14. Townships, corporations, and private owners are to pay the salaries of 
forestry officers appointed by them. Where the forests of a township or corpora- 
tion are so small that such salary does not amount to 100 francs, then the township 
or corporation in question shall unite with one or several neighboring townships 
or corporations to appoint a forester in common. The proper method of procedure 
in such cases shall be determined by the direction of the interior. 

15. Cantonal foresters shall be chosen by the direction of finance on the 
simple, though not binding, nomination of the overforest master. The choice of 
township and corporation overforesters and foresters is vested in the board of 
overseers, which may, for this purpose, be increased to six or eight members. 
The term of service for overforesters and foresters shall be three years. Elections 
shall always be held after the renewal of the board of overseers. Retiring 
members are eligible for re-election. This period of service takes effect in indivi- 
dual cases from the first election held after the promulgation of 'this law. 

16. The providing of foresters for private forests is left to the owners. But, 
in case a forest district is adjacent, the owner may decide upon the appointment 



112 



of a forester and be present at his election, at which the minority must submit 
and assume its proportional share of the salary. The proportional voice in voting, 
as well as in paying, shall be determined on a ratio of the area represented. 
Private individuals may, with the consent of the township or corporations, 
transfer to the Jatter's foresters the care of their forests, in which case they shall 
arrange with said township or corporation for what they are to pay. 

17. Applicants for the position of overforester must furnish proof of their 
competency in the form of an essay to be submitted to the overforest master. 
Special instructions as to the nature of such essay will be furnished in an order 
from the direction of the interior. As conditions of eligibility as forester, active 
citizenship, a good physical constitution, and a knowledge of reading, writing, and 
arithmetic will be required. 

18. Elections of overforesters and foresters by boards of overseers of town- 
ships and corporations, are subject to examination and confirmation by the direction 
of the interior. To this end, certificates, stating the manner of election, name, 
age, and former employment of the candidate, and the annual salary pertaining 
to the position, shall be forwarded, through the Statthalter's offices, to the direction 
of the the interior. The examination by the latter covers in part the validity of 
the election, and in part the existence of the lawful qualifications, and it is ordered 
that confirmation be withheld where a candidate has previously been convicted 
of serious violations of, or misdemeanors against, forestry regulations. After 
confirmation, the newly-elected candidate is ordered to be sworn (oaths are no 
longer administered, the " hand vow," as it is called, having been substituted), 
which duty is to be performed by the Statthalter's office. Private owners appoint- 
ing foresters must have them sworn by the Statthalter's office. 

19. Sworn forestry employees stand, in regard to the performance of police 
duties, on an equal footing with police employees. The same official credit is, 
consequently, to be accorded to their reports, made under the provisions of article 
96 and the following article of this law, as would be accorded to the same, if made 
by the police officers. 

20. It shall be the duty of foresters in the cantonal, township and corporation 
forests to attend a course of instruction on the subject of forestry, to be provided 
by the direction of the interior, and imparted by the forest masters. They may 
be required by the direction of the interior to attend a second course, when a 
previous examination shall have proved unsatisfactory. They receive their 
service instructions from the direction of the interior. Foresters in private forests 
shall be allowed to participate in the courses of instruction referred to. 

21. The consent of the direction of the interior is necessary whenever the 
overforest master, forest masters, or foresters, in cantonal forests desire to fill any 
other official position, or follow any other pursuit in conjunction with their position 
as stated. Overforesters, and foresters in township and corporation forests, cannot 
at the same time be members of their election boards. Before entering upon any 
other township office or service, they must procure the consent of the direction of 
the interior. 

22. The following of any business in wood, or manufactured wooden- ware, 
or of any industry in which wood is the leading material, is unconditionally 
forbidden for all persons in the cantonal, township and corporation forestry service. 



113 

FORESTRY IN FRANCE.* 
THE WOODS AND FORESTS OF FRANCE. 

In 1876, the last year for which anything like complete details are available, 
the total wooded area of France, exclusive of isolated trees, such as those growing 
in parks and on road-sides, which were not planted for the sake of the timber 
they produce, amounted to 35,464 square miles, or a little more than 17 per cent, 
of the entire area of the country. The proportion in other European countries is- 
as follows, viz.: 

Per cent. 

Russia 40 

Sweden 34 

Norway 29 

Germany .. - 26 

Turkey 22 

S witzerlan d 18 

Greece 14 

Spain, Belgium, and Holland, each 7 

Portugal 5 

The British Isles 4 

Denmark 3| 

The average of all European States taken together, is 29i per cent- 
The population of France being 181 per square mile, it follows that the 'area 
area of woodland per head is about three-fifths of an acre. 

Some changes, which will be noted in a subsequent chapter, have taken 
place in the area of the State forests since 1876, but in that year the woods and 
forests were owned in the following proportions by the different classes of pro- 
prietors, viz.: 

Square miles. Per cent 

The State 3,734 10.7 

Communes and sections of communes 7,949 22.4 

Public institutions 124 0.3 

Private proprietors 23,657 66.6 

Total 35,464 100. 

and these figures may be taken as fairly representing the actual position at the 
present time. 

Forests are not so exhausting to the soil as agricultural crops. In the case 
of the latter, the entire plant, except the roots, which are sometimes also taken, 
is removed, whereas with a crop of trees, the leaves, flowers and fruit, which are 
far richer in nutritive elements than the wood, are annually returned to the soil, 
and thus serve to maintain its productive power, as well as, by their protective 
action, to keep it in a good physical condition. Hence forests can flourish on 
comparatively poor soil ; some kinds of trees, notably most of the conifers, being 
able to grow on ground that would be quite incapable of producing a series of 

*By Major F. Bailey, R. E. Vol. XI. of the " Transactions of the Scottish Arboricultural Society." 
8(F.) 



114 



remunerative agricultural crops ; and it is, therefore, genei'ally speaking, out of 
place to keep rich fertile valleys under forests, which ought rather to be main- 
tained on ground which cannot be profitably cultivated. In well populated 
districts, matters naturally tend to settle themselves in this manner ; the better 
classes of ground being brought under the plough, while every acre of the rest of 
the country is kept wooded, in order to meet the domestic and agricultural wants 
of a dense population. But it is otherwise in less favored localities. Here vast 
areas might be devoted to the production of wood ; but while, from the nature of 
the case, the local consumption is, in such places, very small, the absence of com- 
munications frequently renders export very difficult. Hence wood has but a very 
small value, and the forests tend to disappear gradually before the excessive 
grazing to which they are subjected ; for the population of such regions, being 
unable to make its living by agriculture, is, generally speaking, driven to adopt a 
pastoral life. 

Forests grow in France at all altitudes up to about 9,000 to 9,500 feet above 
the sea, a much larger proportion of them being found at low than at high levels. 
Thus it has been calculated that, if the country were divided into altitude-zones 
of 200 meters each (656 feet), the lowest zone would contain 36 per cent, of the 
forests, while the highest would not contain more than .04 per cent, of them ; the 
fifth zone (2,600 to 3,300 feet) w T ould, however, on account of the extensive 
plateaus existing at this level, contain more than the fourth. Forests situated at 
high altitudes do not produce so much wood, and are, therefore, not so profitable 
as those grown lower down ; consequently the private owners, who have done 
their best to preserve their woods in the plains and low hills have, in the majority 
of cases, allowed the mountain forests they once possessed to be destroyed by 
over grazing Hence it arises that, while at altitudes below 4,000 feet, the pro- 
portion of State and communal forests is comparatively small, hardly any private 
woods are found above the level of 6,000 feet, such forests as exist there being, 
generally speaking, maintained by the State or communes in the public interest, 
as a protection against avalanches and the formation of torrents. The private 
forests are then, taken as a whole, more favorably situated than those which 
belong to the State and the communes, both as regards soil, climate, means of 
export, and proximity to the markets. It has been calculated that the distribution 
of the forest area by zones of altitude is thus proportioned : 





Forests under the 


* . 
o -g J2 -g 






forest dept. 


r C SH _| O . 




Altitude. 




<D*c8 2 ** +3 


Total. 








State. 


Com- 
munal. 


f -g 















M. M. Ft. Ft. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


Per cent. 


Plains , to 200= to 656 


41 


5 


45 


36 


Low hills 200 to 500 = 656 to 1,640 


32 


48 


25 


31 


Mountains above. . . . 500 = above 1,640 


27 


47 


30 


33 












100 


100 


100 


100 



115 



It is said that if the trees could be grouped together, so as to form a series 
of pure forest, the proportion of th 3 total area which would be occupied by each 
species would be as follows : 

Per cent. 

Oak (Q. sessiliflora and Q. pedunculata) 29 

Beech.' 19 

Hornbeam , 12 

Silver fir ., , 7 

Scotch pine 4| 

Evergreen oak (Q. ilex) 4 

Maritime pine 3 

Spruce * 3 

Larch 2 

Other kinds 



Total 100 

The small number of species which enters to any important extent into the 
composition of the French forests is very remarkable. Thus it appears that oak, 
beech, and hornbeam occupy 60 per cent, of the tree covered area, more than one 
half of the remainder being taken up with six other species ; but many other 
kinds are disseminated throughout the forests in various proportions according to 
circumstances. As a matter of course, however, the trees are not grouped 
together in the above manner, and, neglecting blanks, the crop on the ground is 
.actually constituted somewhat as follows : 

Pure forests Per cent. 

Broad-leaved (oak or beech) , 15 

Coniferous (silver fir, pine, spruce, or larch) 13 

28 

Mixed forests 

Broad-leaved (oak, beech, and hornbeam) 52 

Broad-leaved and coniferous (beech and silver fir, or 

oak and pine) 18 

Coniferous (silver fir and spruce) 2 

- 72 



Total 100 

Or separating the broad- leaved and the coniferous forests from those which con- 
sist of a mixture of the two, we have : 

Per cent. 

Broad -leaved forests, pure and mixed 67 

Coniferous forests, pure and mixed 15 

Broad-leaved and coniferous forest 18 

The State forests show a smaller proportion of pure crops than are found in 
those of the communes, but they also comprise a very much larger proportion of 
forests in which the crop consists of a mixture of broad-leaved and coniferous 
species. The first of these differences is due to the circumstance that a mixture, 
which is always desirable from cultural considerations, has been systematically 
maintained in the State forests from a remote period, whereas this has not always 
been the case in the communes. The second difference is chiefly accounted for 



116 



by the fact that those parts of the State broad-leaved forests, where, from various 
causes, the soil has become much deteriorated, have frequently been planted up 
with conifers, which are the only kinds likely, on account of their capacity to 
grow on poor soil, to succeed under such conditions ; but these are in such cases, 
only intended to act as nurses to broad-leaved species, which are subsequently to 
be raised under their shelter. But little work of this kind has yet been accom- 
plished in the communal forests from want of the needful funds. The private 
forests resemble those of the communes rather than those which are State property 
but a further comparison in this respect between them and the other classes of 
forests need not be made at present. 

Many circumstances combine together to influence the nature of the vegetable 
growth, which characterizes any particular locality. 

Thus, a " limestone soil," which is one containing more than four or five per 
cent, of carbonate of lime, is usually marked by a rich and varied vegetation ; 
while on a silicious soil the flora is much more simple and uniform, the under- 
growth being often formed of bilberry ( Vaccininm myrtillus), broom and 
heather. Forty-four per cent, of the French forests are on limestone. But the 
principal forest trees are not much affected by the chemical composition of the soil, 
the two deciduous oaks, the beech, the hornbeam, silver fir, spruce fir, the larch, 
being classed as " indifferent " to it The ever-green oak, however, shows a pre- 
ference for limestone ; and the Scotch pine flourishes best on a silicious soil ; but 
the maritime pine will not grow on limestone. The climate, which varies with 
the latitude, altitude, amount and distribution of the rainfall, proximity, or 
otherwise of the sea, and other conditions, is the principal factor in determining 
the distribution of trees, each of which finds its home in the locality which best 
suits its temperament. The hot region of the south, the temperate regions 
of the north and centre, and the mountains, are each characterized by the 
spontaneous vegetation to which they are adapted. Thus, in the south, are found 
the evergreen oak and the maritime pine ; while the spruce, the silver fir, and the 
larch inhabit the mountains ; and the five other species mentioned, grow chiefly 
in the temperate regions. The physicial condition of the soil also exercies an 
important influence on the growth and local distribution of trees ; for example.. 
Quercus pedunculata, and the hornbeam, will grow on moist soil, which does not 
suit either Quercus sessiliflora, the beech or the evergreen oak. 

Ouring the entire course of their development, trees of all kinds require 
light ; but during the early stages of their existence, some of them must be 
completely in the open, without any cover at all ; while for others, various degrees 
of shade are necessary. This quality of the young plants is, generally speaking, 
in direct relation to the abundance of the foliage of the adult tree from which 
they spring. 

Those which, when young, require much light, such as the larch, the pines 
and the oaks, are called the " robust," or trees of light cover, while others, which 
will not stand exposure such as the beech and silver fir, are called "delicate," or 
trees of heavy cover. The spruce and the hornbeam are classed intermediately 
between kinds of light and heavy cover. This is a very important question to 
the forester not only with reference to the method to be adopted for raising a crop 
of any particular kind of trees, but also with regard to their coppicing power, 
their effect on the soil, and other matters. Trees of light cover, generally speak- 
ing, coppice better than those of heavy cover, but the latter have a much greater 
effect than the former in improving the soil. 

It is estimated that the 35,464 square miles of woods and forests yielded 
the following produce in 1876, viz., 17,896,227 loads (50 cubic feet) of wood of 



117 



all qualities, 321,741 tons weight of tanning bark, 2,556 tons weight of cork, and 
31,539 tons weight of resin ; the whole being valued at 9,471,017. The average 
production of wood was therefore 39 cubic feet per acre ; and the gross revenue, 
omitting that on minor produce, which was very small, was equal to 8s. 4d. per 
acre. 

But in addition to this, it is calculated that the isolated trees, not grown for 
the sake of their timber, and vines yield together three and one-hali' million loads 
per annum, valued at 1,000,000 ; so that the total production of wood in France 
is raised to about twenty-one and one-half million loads, and the value of the 
wood, bark, and resin to about 10,500,000. This gives the amount of wood and 
the money value of the forest produce per head of the population as 29^ cubic 
feet, and 5s. 9d. respectively. 

Of the twenty-one and one-half million loads of wood produced, about four 
million loads were timber and the rest firewood. The latter sufficed for the 
national requirements, but the former was far from doing so ; for the imports of 
wood of this class exceeded the exports by 2,062, 432 loads, valued at 6,408,000 
that is to say, that it was less than two-thirds of the amount required. The 
question of foreign timber supply is, therefore, a very important one, even for 
Prance, which has 17 per cent, of its area under forest. 

FORESTS MANAGED BY THE STATE FOREST DEPARTMENT. 

The forest law of 1827, which is still in force, confirmed the previous legisla- 
tion, under which all woods and forests which form part of the domain of the 
State, all those which being the property of communes or sections, or of public 
Institutions, are susceptible of being worked under a regular system, and finally 
all those in which the State, the communes, or public institutions possess a 
proprietary right jointly with private persons, are administered directly by the 
State Forest Department in accordance with the provisions of the forest law. 

The areas thus administered at the commencement of 1885 were as follows, 
viz., 





Hectares 


Square 






miles 


State forests 


1 012 688 


3 910 


"Communes, sections, and public institutions 


1,967,846 


- 7 598 








Total 


2 980 534 


11 508 









These figures, which include the dunes, represent about 5J per cent, of the 
entire area of France, and nearly one-third of the total wooded area. An 
additional 144 square miles of barren land had, up to the end of 1884, been 
purchased by the State in connection with the project for the consolidation of 
bare and unstable slopes on the great mountain ranges ; and this area is also 
administered by the department under the forest law. About 40 per cent, of the 
State forests are situated in the plains, while the rest of them, together with 
nearly the whole of the communal forests, are found in about equal proportions 
on low hills, up to an altitude of 1,700 feet, and on the higher mountain ranges. 
About one half of them stand on limestone rock, 92 per cent, of their entire area 
being actually under wood. 



118 



The principal object of the following pages is to sketch in a brief and 
summary manner the system of management adopted for these forests, so that 
some general idea may be formed of what the business of the French forest 
department consists in, and what the results of their labors have been, up to the 
latest date to which information is available under each head. The organization 

of the professional staff of the department, and the manner in which it is recruited,, 
will then be explained 

STATE FORESTS. 

The forests now belonging to the State owe their origin to one or the other of 
the following sources : They either formed part of the ancient royal domain, as it 
was consituted at the time of the ordinance of 1669, or of the sovereign domains- 
united to France since that year ; or else they were ecclesiastical property 
confiscated at the time of the revolution in 1790, or they have been more recently 
acquired by purchase, legacy or gift. About one-half of them are ancient roya 
domains. 

The State forests were formerly of much greater extent then they are at 
present. In 1791 they covered an area of 18,166 square miles, which was reduced 
to 3,792 square miles in 1876, the i eduction being almost soleby due to sales- 
effected for the benefit of the exchequer ; but the loss of territorty after the war 
of 1870 was the cause of a diminution of 374 square miles. The records show 
that, between 1814 and 1870, 1,362 square miles of State forests were sold for 
nearly twelve and one-quarter million pounds sterling ( or about .14 per acre; 
but since 1870 no such sales have taken place, and since Ib76 the area has been 
somewhat increased by purchases and otherwise. It now includes 33 square 
miles of lorest owned jointly with private persons, and 450 acres are temporarily 
held by the families of some of Napoleon I.'s generals, whose right will in the 
course of time either lapse or be commuted. The remainder of the area is owned 
absolutely by the State, but the enjoyment of the produce does not belong 
exclusively to the treasury, for, as will be explained hereafter, certain groups of 
rightholders participate in it. 

In the next section, the principal points of laws relating to the communal 
forests, and of their management by the State Forest Department, will be brought 
to notice ; while in the subsequent sections of this chapter the work of the depart- 
ment in connection with the State and the communal forests will be briefly 
treated of in such a manner as to bring out and compare the results obtained in. 
the two classes of forests. 

FORESTS BELONGING TO COMMUNES, SECTIONS AND PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS. 

The territory of France is divided into 39,989 communes or village com- 
munities, of which about one-third are forest proprietors. Certain groups or 
sections of the inhabitants have, however, rights and own property, apart from 
the commune in which they reside, and these are also owners of considerable 
areas of woodland. Those forests belonging to communes or sections, which are- 
susceptible of being worked on a regular system, are managed directly by the 
State Forest Department for the benefit of their owners, the principal features of 
this management being as follows, viz. : The laws relating to State forests are,, 
generally speaking, but with certain exceptions, applicable to them ; they cannot 
be alienated or cleared without the express and special sanction of the govern- 
ment in each case ; they cannot be divided up among the members of tne com- 
munity ; the annual sales of produce are effected by the State forest officers, and 



119 



the money realized is paid directly by the purchasers into the communal treasury; 
before the sale takes place the quantity of timber and firewood required by the 
inhabitants for their own use is made over to them usually standing in the forest, 
and it is subsequently worked out by a responsible contractor ; three-quarters 
only of the total annual yield is available for distribution or sale, the remaining 
quarter being left to accumulate, and thus form a reserve fund or stock of timber 
from which exceptional necessities either in the way of wood or money can be 
met ; the distribution of firewood is made according to the number of heads of 
families having a real and fixed domicile in the commune ; the entry of goals into 
the forest is absolutely prohibited, while the grazing of sheep is only permitted 
temporarily, and under exceptional circumstances, with the special sanction of the 
government in each case ; no grazing of any kind can be carried on in the forests, 
except in places declared out of danger by the forest officers who have the power 
to limit the extent to which it can be practiced with reference to the quantity of 
grass available ; the forest guards are chosen by the communal authorities, 
subject to the approval of the forest officer, who delivers to them their warrants ; 
the State defrays all expenses of management, including the officers' salaries, the 
marking of trees, notifying of sales, office charges, and the prosecution of offences ; 
the State is reimbursed by the payment from the communal treasury of a sum 
equal to 5 per cent, on the sales of principal produce, including the value of the 
wood, made over to the inhabitants ; but this payment, which forms a first charge 
on the forest revenue, can never exceed the rate of one franc per hectare (about 
four pence an acre) of the total area thus managed ; the communes pay the guards' 
salaries, the taxes, and all charges for the maintenance and improvement of the 
forest, including planting, sowing, and road-making, as well as those for extra- 
ordinary works, such as demarcation, survey, and the preparation of working 
plans. In all this the forest officers are bound by law, to act on the principle 
that they are managing the property for the benefit of its owners, who must be 
consulted through their representatives, the mayor and municipal council, in all 
matters affecting their interests, and whose wishes must be acceded to when they 
are not opposed by the legislation, or contrary to the recognized principles of 
scientific forest management. 

The principal public institutions are hospitals, charitable associations, 
churches, cathedral chapters, colleges, and schools ; and the forests belonging to 
them are subject to administration by the State Forest Department on precisely 
the same terms as are those of the commune and sections. 

Of the area of 7,598 square miles shown as being thus managed on behalf 
of these bodies at the commencement of 1885, about 100 square miles belong to- 
public institutions, and about 7,500 square miles to communes, including sections. 
Of the remainder of their forests, about 410 square miles owned by the latter 
and about 27 square miles by the former are managed respectively by the com- 
munes themselves under the municipal laws, and by the administrative councils 
of the institutions. 

Changes in this respect frequently take place ; for every year a certain 
number of applications to free forests from the restrictions which State control 
involves are granted, while in other cases the owners demand or consent to their 
imposition. The records show that sanction has, since the year 1855, been 
accorded to the clearing of thirty-five square miles and to the alienation of forty 
square miles of the forests belonging to these bodies, but it is probable that the 
permission has not, in all cases, been acted on. 

For the sake of convenience the forests belonging to communes, sections and 
public institutions will in future be spoken of collectively as " communal forests.'^ 



120 



DEMARCATION AND SURVEY. 

Up to the end of 1876 the work of demarcation had made good progress in 
the State forests, only 13 per cent, of which then remained to be completed, 
while 30 per cent, of the communal forests had still to be dealt with. The 
demarcation is indicated by dressed-stone pillars, with intermediate ditches or 
dry-stone walls, according to the custom and resources of each locality. The 
ground is usually resurveyed after the demarcation has been completed, and at 
the end of 1876 about three-fourths of the State forests and one-half of the 
communal forests had been thus re-surveyed and mapped, the prevailing scale 
be i n g MTinr ( 12 2/3"= = 1 mile) and lT ^ (6 1/3" = -] mile). Pending the completion of 
this work, the old maps are used for such of the forests as have not yet been 
resurveyed. In the communal forests the work of demarcation and survey is 
less advanced than it is in the State forests, because the charges for such work 
have to be defrayed from the communal treasury, and the needful funds are not 
always forthcoming. 

SYSTEMS OF CULTURE. 

The climate of France is singularly favorable to the natural regeneration of 
forests, which is, generally speaking, relied on planting and sowing being only 
resorted to in the comparative!}^ rare instances in which success cannot otherwise 
be achieved, such cases including, of course, the stocking of extensive blanks. 

There are two main systems of culture one known as "high forest," and the 
other as " coppice." 

A high forest, which is usually destined to produce timber of large size, is 
one composed of trees that have been raised from seed, its regeneration being 
effected by means of seed, generally speaking, self-sown. There are two methods 
of treating the forest in order to produce this result. In one of these the trees 
of each age-class are grouped together, and are subjected to periodical thinnings, 
nntil the time arrives for regeneration, which is effected by a series of fellings, 
the first being a more or less light thinning, intended to promote the formation 
of seed and the springing up of the young seedling plants. The seed-felling, as this 
is called, is followed at intervals by a series of secondary fellings, usually three 
or four in number, which are made in order to meet the gradually increasing 
requirements of the young growth in the way of light ; and ultimately the 
remainder of the old stock is removed by a " final felling." In this manner the 
marketable steins are gradually cut down and disposed of, the young crop being 
left to go through the same stages as its predecessor, and so on throughout 
successive generations of trees. In the selection method (known as jardinage), 
on the contrary, the trees of all ages are mixed over the whole area of the forest ; 
there are no regular thinnings of the kind made under the first method ; and the 
annual cuttings are effected by taking marketable trees here and there within a 
certain area of the forest, the blocks composing which are successively treated in 
the same manner, so that the entire forest is worked over within a fixed period of 
time. When treated by the first method, the forest is grown under very artificial 
conditions ; for the aged classes are never in nature found thus grouped together ; 
but by the selection method, on the contrary, a more or less near approach to a 
natural forest is obtained. 

In the coppice system the regeneration is principally effected by means of 
coppice shoots. 

There are two methods of treatment, sivfiple coppice, in which there are no 
reserve trees, and the crop is clean-felled over successive portions of the forest : 



121 



and coppice under standards, in which standard trees are selected and reserved, 
with a view to their remaining throughout several generations of coppice shoots, 
generally at least three, but often four or five. Many forests are now undergoing 
conversion from the system of coppice to that of high- forest. 

The following statement shows the extent to which the two systems were 
applied in the State and communal forests in 1876, since which year no important 
changes have taken place. The areas are given in square miles : 





High forest 


Under con- 
version. 


Coppice. 


Pastures. 


Total- 




State forests 


1,648 
2,229 


1,121 
54 


740 

4,808 


225 
92 


3,734 
7,183 


Communal forests 


Total . 


3,877 


1,175 


5,548 


317 


10,917 





It will be seen that there is a marked difference between the State and 
communal forests in this respect. In the former nearly three-quarters of the 
total area are either now under high-forest or under conversion to that system ; 
while in the latter two-thirds of the total area are under coppice, and less than 
one third is either under high forest or under conversion. 

High forest being usually destined to produce large timber, the trees must 
be left standing until they have attained a considerable age ; and the capital, 
both in timber and money, which is locked up in it is therefore much larger than 
that in a forest under coppice. Other conditions being equal, the quantity of 
wood produced annually is, however, much the same under both systems ; but 
owing to the greater value of the produce obtained from the high-forest, its 
money revenue is greater than that of the coppice, while on the other hand, it is 
found that coppice yields a higher rate of interest on its smaller capital value than 
than high forest, and on this account it is a more suitable system for adoption by 
communes. Coppice possesses, also, a further advantage for them, in that it yields 
for the use of the inabitants timber and other produce more varied in kind and 
dimensions than are obtainable from high-forest, and it thus satisfies their 
requirements, which are chiefly in fuel and small-sized timber, much better than 
forests managed under the latter system. But even in cases where the conversion 
of communal coppice to high-forest is deemed advisable, it is always found diffi- 
cult to reduce the annual fellings to the quantity necessary in order to allow the 
growing stock to accumulate to the required extent ; while the small size of the 
greater part of these forests renders them unsuited to the treatment which they 
would have to undergo in order to effect their conversion. The coppice system, 
including coppice under standards, is therefore in vogue in almost all communal 
broad-leaved forests, such high-forests as the communes possess being found chiefly 
in mountainous regions, and being composed of coniferous trees, which will not 
coppice. The area of communal forest shown a? under conversion, consists princi- 
pally of tracts in which the coniferous trees are spontaneously taking possession 
of the ground and driving out the broad-leaved species. It follows from what 
lias been said above, that the Sbita alone cm, generally speaking, raise broad- 
leaved high-forest on a large scale, or undertake the conversion of coppice to high 
forest. 

A further difference between the systems of culture generally adopted for 
the State and the communal forests may be noted, viz., that whereas in the former 



122 



less than one-fifth of the high forest is treated by the selection method, three - 
fourths of the communal forest are so treated. In mountainous regions, where, 
as has just been said, the greater part of the communal high-forest is found, the 
selection method possesses incontestable advantages, in consequence of the continu- 
ous cover which it affords to the soil ; but although the respective merits of the 
two methods, as applied to coniferous forests situated in such regions, are much 
disputed at present, there has of late years been an undoubted tendency to return 
to selection, which has for some time past fallen into discredit, and, taking the 
State and communal forests together, somewhat more than one-half of the total 
area of their high forest is now treated in this manner. 

Two variations of simple coppice are sometimes practised, (1) that known 
in the Ardennes as sartage, in which, after the wood has been cut and removed, 
the twigs and chips are burnt on the ground, in order that their ashes may give 
to the soil sufficient manure to permit of the growth of a crop of cereals during 
the year immediately following the cutting. This system, which, as carried out 
in France, seems to be practised rather for the sake of obtaining the crop of corn 
han as a method of forest culture, is gradually dying out. It is not adopted in the 
areas under the State forest department. (2) That known as furetage, in which 
instead of clean cutting the coppice, those shoots only are taken which have 
attained to certain fixed dimensions, the operation being repeated annually, or after 
intervals varying from two to five years. Furetage prevails chiefly in the valley 
of the Seine, in the forests from which the fuel supply of Paris is drawn ; but it 
is also employed in the mountainous districts of the south, in the case of forests 
maintained for the protection of steep slopes, which it is undesirable to denude 
entirely. 

It it is impossible here to enter into anything like full details regarding 
these sylvicultural questions. To study them completely, as they are taught and 
practised in Frence, reference must be made to the books on the subject, among 
which may be mentioned " The Manual of Sylviculture," by G. Bagneris, (trans- 
lated into English by Messrs. Fernandez and Smythies), Ryder & Son. London ; 
and " Le traitement des bois en France," by C. Broillard, Berger-Levrault, Paris, 

WORKING PLANS. 

Working plans or schemes, will, in course of time, be prepared for all forests 
administered by the forest department. The law provides that all these forests 
shall be subjected to the provisions of such plans, and that no fellings which are 
not provided for therein, and no extraordinary cuttings, either from the communal 
reserve, or in the blocks destined to grow from coppice to high forest, shall be 
made without the express sanction, in each case, of the government, by whom all 
plans must be approved before they can be adopted. 

Subject to due provisions being made for the exercise of rights of user, the 
working plan provides for the management of the forest in the way that will best 
serve the interests of the proprietor. Unlike an agricultural crop, which ripens 
and is gathered annually, trees take many years to grow to a marketable size,, 
the actual period that they require being dependant not only on their species and 
the natural conditions under which they are grown, as climate, soil, etc., but also 
on the use to which they are to be put. Thus a coppice being required to yield 
wood of small size only, may be cut every twenty-five to forty years, whereas a 
high forest, which is destined to produce large timber, must stand for a much 
longer time. It would be excessively inconvenient if the entire crop of such a 
forest were felled only once in every 100 or 150 years; and it is chiefly to avoid 
this that a working plan is required, which prescribes the arrangement necessary 



123 



in order to allow of the produce being taken out annually, without intermission 
and in equal quantities, so that a regular and sustained income may be drawn 
from the forest. For example, a simple coppice thirty acres in extent, of which 
the crop is to be felled at the age of thirty years, might either be entirely cut 
down at one time, and then allowed to grow up again for thirty years, or, which 
would be found much more convenient, it might be divided into thirty one-acre 
compartments, each of which is to be felled in succession, so that by taking one 
plot each year, the whole area would be worked over in thirty years. The 
working plan must then, in the first place, prescribe the age at which the trees 
are to be felled, with reference to the average number of years that they take to 
arrive at maturity, or to attain the required size, and it must then fix the yield, 
or the amount of wood to be annually removed, this quantity being expressed 
either in the form of an area to be cut over, or a number of cubic feet of wood 
to be taken out. But in the case of a high forest managed under the selection 
method, it is suffiicient to fix the number of trees of a minimum size to be cut 
out annually. 

The provisions of a working plan vary according to the nature of the forest 
to which it relates. In the case of the simple coppice instanced above, the 
first thing to do would be to obtain a map showing the principal features of the 
ground, such as the edge of the plateau, the stream, and the road. The area 
would then be broken up, for purposes of examination and description, into tem- 
porary plots, each plot comprising a portion of forest more or less homogeneous 
in its composition. This study of the crop would enable the area to be divided 
into the thirty permanent compartments above alluded to, and it would also 
determine the order in which they should be numbered, so that the older portions 
might be cut first. It is evident that if one of these be cut every year the series 
of compartments will, after the lapse of thirty years, contain forest of all ages, 
from one to thirty years ; and if the annual felling be invariably made in the 
oldest compartment, it is evident that the age of the crop cut will always be 
thirty years. 

To make a working plan for a regular high forest, to be treated by successive 
thinnings, is not quite such a simple matter. If the forest is of great extent, it 
is, first of all, divided into two or more series or sections, each of which is dealt 
with separately. .After the examination and description of the temporary plots, 
the section is divide I into a number of equal compartments called affectations 
and when the ground has once been completely worked over the crop on each of 
these will always be, within certain limits, in the same stage of development, and 
subjected to the same kind of treatment. Thus, if the trees are to be felled at 
the age of 120 years, and there are six compartments, the sixth may contain the 
young growth, aged from one to twenty years ; the fifth young poles from 
twenty-one to forty years old, and so on ; the first containing the old trees which 
are to be felled. The compartments having been formed, each of them is 
then sub-divided into compartments usually corresponding in number with the 
years over which the fellings within it are spread (twenty in this case), and 
while the trees are being cut in the first compartment, clearings and thinnings, 
of various recognized degrees are going on in the compartments of the others, until 
each in its turn arrives at the age at which the trees are to be removed ; and it is 
clear that in this case also the forest will ultimately contain a due proportion of 
trees of all ages, from one to 120 years, which is an essential condition. 

The working plan prescribes the order in which all this is to be done, and it 
lays down the number of cubic feet of timber of the oldest class which are to be 
taken out annually from the first or oldest compartment, so that the entire stock 
on it may be removed within the first period of twenty years, windfalls and dead 



124 



or dying trees being always taken first ; each of the remaining compartments is 
similarly dealt with when its turn to be felled arrives. The quantity of wood to 
be removed !>y thinnings cannot be prescribed by the working plan, as they must 
be made to the extent which is judged necessary in order to develop the trees 
which an- leit. The forester's art is to do this skilfully, and ultimately to remove 
the old trees in such a manner that they may leave behind them a young self- 
sown crop to take t>heir place, and so on throughout successive generations. 

For a high forest to be managed under the selection method the arrange- 
ment is different. Here it is, of course, equally" necessary that all the age-classes 
should be represented in clue proportion, but instead of the trees or poles of each 
class being grouped together in separate compartments, all classes are mixed 
indiscriminately over the entire area of the forest, and there is thus no necessity 
for the formation of affectations, or compartments, of the kmd just described. 
After the main features, such as the streams, ridges and roads, have been laid 
down on the map, the temporary plots, and the descriptions of them are made as 
before. The forest might in the present case be divided into three sections, the 
upper of which being on the crest of the hill, is required to be kept as dense as 
possible, and will not be dealt with in the working plan, as dead or dying trees 
alone will be. removed from it Suppose that the annual yield of the central 
section which is 150 acres in extent, has been fixed with reference to the 
estimated rate of growth and degree of completeness of the stock, at 50 cubic feet 
per acre, and the trees of marketable girth within it contain on an average 100 
cubic feet of timber, it follows that the number of such trees which may be 
removed annually from the section is 1 -^5? == 75. Theoretically this number 

s hould be taken one here and one there over the whole area ; but this would be 
very inconvenient, so the forest is divided into twelve or any other convenient 
number of equal or nearly equal blocks, from each of which, in succession, the 
entire number of trees is to be cut ; after taking windfalls, the choice falls on the 
ripest trees, those which are dead or dying being selected first. The section 
below the road is in another zone of vegetation ; it is 100 acres in extent, and its 
annual yield is calculated at the rate of 60 cubic feet per acre. Suppose, then, 
that the trees of marketable girth contain on an average 110 cubic feet of timber, 
the number of such trees to be cut annually i!L?J>? 54. ^ ne sec ti O n will then be 
divided into blocks, from each of which in succession the entire number of trees is 
taken. In this manner each zone of altitude may be dealt with on its own 
merits, while at the same time, the annual fellings being localized, are easy to 
supeivise, and the wood can be disposed of more readily and more profitably 
than if the trees had been felled here and there over the entire area. The work- 
ing plan for a forest under conversion would, of course differ from any of the 
above ; but this somewhat complicated question will not oe dealt with here. It 
is only bv an arrangement similar to one of those above briefly sketched that a 
permanent annual yield of a particular class of produce can be assured, and that 
the forest can be secured against the risk of gradual extinction. 

A special branch of the forest department is charged with the preparation 
of working plans, which are not made by the local officers, except in the case of 
small forests, the plans for which they can frame without interference with their 
ordinary duties ; but they undertake the revisions, which are made every ten or 
fifteen years in order to guard against errors, and to allow for changes in the 
rate of growth, or other causes of disturbance. Pending the preparation of such 
regular plans the forest department draws up provisional rules, which must 
accord with local usages, where these are not opposed to the recognized principles 
of sylviculture. Up to the beginning of 1877 regular working plans had been 



125 



completed for more than two-thirds of the total area of the State forests, and for 
somewhat less than one-half -of the communal forests. The work progresses more 
slowly in the latter than in the former, because in their case the funds have to 
be provided by the communes, and the money is not always available ; but as a 
matter of course the most important forests were taken in hand first, and these 
have tor the most part been completed. 

The question of working plans has only been dealt with above in an 
extremely superficial manner. In order to gain anything like a complete idea of 
the systems pursued in France the following works, should, among others, be 
studied, viz., " Amenagement des Forets," by C. Broillard, Berger-Levrault, Paris, 
1878, and " Amenagement des Forets," by A. Puton, A translation of the latter 
work has appeared in vols. VIII. and IX. of the " Indian Forester." 

PRODUCTS OBTAINED FROM THE FORESTS. 

The yield in wood of various classes having once been fixed by the working 
plau it is the business of the department to realize it as nearly as circumstances 
will permit. 

As to tanning bark, all that the felled trees or poles will yield Is utilized. 
Cork bark is taken from the living trees, which will not bear the removal of a too 
large proportion of their protecting covering, and hence care has to be taken not 
to overwork them. Resin is collected on a large scale in forests of maritime 
pine (Pinus maritima), which only yields it freely on the hot and damp c >asts of 
the south-west. 

The yield of minor produce, such as grass, moss, litter, and other things, 
being small, and details regarding it not being available, this class of products 
cannot receive more than a passing mention. Neither can account now be taken of 
the numerous advantages which the forests undoubtedly render to the population, 
but which cannot be expressed in the bulk or weight of the products drawn from 
them. 

The latest available statement of yield relates t-> 1876, in which yeir the 
state and communal forests taken together gave 5,620,663 loads (50 cubic feet) of 
wqpd, or an average of about 40 cubic feet per acre ; also 50,742 tons of tanning- 
bark, 292 tons of cork bark, and 1,967 tons of resin. 

The yield of wood per acre of the State forests somewhat exceeded that of 
the communal forests ; but while, in explanation of this, it must be said that the 
greater extent to which grazing is practiced in the latter affects their wood pro- 
duction unfavorably, it must also be admitted that a large proportion of their 
produce is made over to the inhabitants for their own use, and that this is 
estimated at a low figure, so as to reduce as far as possible, the charges against 
them on account of management by the forest department ; and the apparent 
difference is largely due to the latter cause. Of the total yield in wood 1, 364,84-0 
loads were timber and 4,255,817 loads were firewood; and as might be expected 
from what has been said before regarding the different systems of culture 
adopted, the State forests give the larger proportion of timber, one-third of the 
wood from them being of that class, while in the case of the communal forests, 
the proportion of timber was only one-fifth. A still more striking result would 
follow a comparison of the nature of the produce obtained from the State and 
from private forests ; and since timber is a more useful and valuable product 
than firewood, the advantage to the country from this point of view, of consider- 
able areas of forest land being owned by the State is apparent, and the more so 
when it is remembered that France does not grow more than two-thirds of the 
amount of building timber that she consumes. 



12(1 



The communal high forest is for the most part situated in the mountains, 
and is Composed of coniferous treej, which explains the fact that the greater part 
of the timber derived from the communal forests is fir and pine, whereas only 
about one-third <>f that coming from the State forests is of those kinds. 

SALES AND EXPORT. 

rrti'cifxd produce (luood, bark and resin). With the exception of the 
produce made over to right-holders, and of that delivered to the inhabitants of 
the communes from their forests for their own consumption, as well as of compara- 
tively small quantities of tiaiber cut in the State foiests for the war department 
and admiralty, the whole of the annual produce is sold by public auction, and no 
other mode of sale is permitted. There are three principal systems of disposal, 
viz.: Fiist, sale of standing trees ; second, sale at a rate per cubic metre, or other 
unit of the produce, cut, converted, and taken out by the purchaser ; and third, sale 
of produce cut and converted by departmental agency. The first of these systems 
necessitates a previous marking, either of the trees which are to be removed. <>r 
of those which are to be reserved. There is no guarantee o-iven either as to the 
number of trees, or as to their species, size, age or condition; but they are bought 
and sold on the best estimate that either party can make of their value as thev 
stand. The purchaser, as a matter of course, cuts up and exports the wood at 
his own cost, and in the form which bests suits him, being bound under seveie 
penalties to carry out this work in the manner prescribed by the conditions of 
sale. It has been urged that this system needlessly introduces a middle man 
between the producer and the consumer, and that thus the profits of the former 
are reduced, while the regeneration of the forest may be compromised by felling 
and exporting the trees in a careless or ignorant manner ; but in reply to this it 
may be said that the wood merchant must always exist, as it is but rarely that 
the actual consumer can himself go to the forest to get what he wants, and that 
by strictly enforcing the conditions of sale, which are framed with special regard 
to this object, interference with the regeneration of the forest is practically 
avoided. 

The second method differs from the first only in that the auction sale deter- 
mines the rate at which each of the various classes of produce is to be paid for ; 
but it is open to the objection that the classification of the produce is difficult, and 
it thus leads to frequent disputes, in the settlement of which the interests of the 
proprietor (State or Commune) may be allowed to suffer. This method is rarely 
adopted, except in the case of thinnings, when the quantity of wood cannot well 
be accurately estimated beforehand. 

The sale of timber, cut and fashioned by departmental agenc\~, is rarely 
resorted to. It has certainly the advantage that the work is better done, and 
that more complete precautions can be taken to secure the regeneration of the 
forest ; but on the other hand, the State or the commune, as the case may be, 
must advance all the money for the work, and the forest officers become charged 
with a large amount of supervision and accounts, while a number of purchasers 
are admitted to the forest, and offences of various kinds are from time to time 
committed by them. But the chief objection to the system is that the wood is 
n}t always cut up in the manner which best suits the requirements of the market 
at the moment, a matter with which the forest officer can never be so well 
acquainted as the professional timber merchant, and th'.is not only do the general 
interests of the country suffer by failure to supply wood in the form in which it is 



127 



most required by the consumers, but the prices realized are not always so good as 
those which the produce might have been made to fetch, had it been cut up in 
some other manner. 

Timber sold standing, usually commands a higher rate than it does when 
disposed of in any other manner, and for this and the other reasons that have 
been given, the lir>t of the three systems is the one generally adopted in both the 
State and the communal forests. This method of sale is not generally followed 
in other European countries ; but the French system has stood test of experience; 
and it is greatly facilitated by the honesty which, as a general rule, prevails in the 
tiade to which it has given rise. In consequence of the absence or insufficiency 
of export roads in Corsica, and of the difficulty experienced in getting purchasers 
who are willing to take the produce for a single year only, a law was passed in 
1840, which enacted that the timber to be cut in any part of that island during a 
-fries of years not exceeding twenty, might be sold at one time to a single 
purchaser, the State, at the expiry of the term, becoming possessed of all works 
erected by him without liability to the payment of compensation for them. A 
few of such contracts exist to the present day : but both the system of roads 
and the timber trade having largely developed during the last forty-live years, 
the practice of entering upon such engagements is gradually dying out. 

Minor product:. Receipts on account of minor produce form an insignificant 
portion of the gross revenue derived from the French forests, the most important 
item being that which is due to the sale of hunting and shooting permits. Produce 
of this class is not sold so much as a source of revenue, as to enable the agricul- 
tural population to make use of it, without giving rise to the idea that they are 
entitled to it by right. It is sold by private contract, the price being tixed by 
the conservator, or by the prefect, or the mayor, in the case of the State and 
communal forests respectively. The conditions under which such sales are 
effected in the State forests are determined by each conservator, with reference to 
local circumstances, and he retains the power to forbid the sale from the com- 
munal forests of any classes of produce, the removal of which would, in his opinion, 
be detrimental from a cultural point of view. Payment for minor produce is 
often accepted, especially by the communes, in the form of days' work done in the 
forest. 

Wood supplied to the admiralty. Every year a notice is sent by the forest 
department to the admiralty, showing the localities in which trees suitable for 
naval purposes are to be felled ; and the latter department then notifies the 
number and description of those which it desires to have reserved in each forest. 
The purchaser of the timber sold from these blocks, fells, barks and conveys the 
trees marked for the above purpose to an appointed place in the forest, where 
they are inspected and taken over by the admiralt}' officials, who cut from them 
what they want, the rest of the wood being sold by the forest department in the 
ordinary manner. The forest officer and the marine engineer then agree upon 
the sum to be paid as the price of the wood removed, and as compensation, to 
cover losses caused by the depreciation in value of that rejected, and the account 
i> subsequently adjusted in the financial department. Up to the year 1837 the 
admiralty had the light to select trees everywhere, including the private forests ; 
but the -ysu'in was not found to answer, and it was abandoned in that year. 
Even under existing regulations a very .small proportion of the wood used by the 
admiralty is obtained directly from the forests, the greater part of it being bought 
in the open market. 



128 



.^applied to the war department. The requirements of the war 
department are met, as far as possible, from the State forests, the trees being: 
marked and felled by the forest department,and removed either directly by the mili- 
tary authorities, or by the forest department at their cost. The account is adjusted 
in the financial department. But the amount of wood so supplied is very small, as r 
except in cases where the State forests lie near the fortifications or garrison 
towns, it is found more convenient and cheaper to purchase what is required in 
the market. 

ROADS AND BUILDINGS. 

Without roads, which are required in order to render the forest accessible 
and to facilitate the export of produce, this form of the natural riches of a country 
cannot be utilized ; the construction of good export roads being one of the most 
important means than can be adopted for raising the forest revenue., Thus in 
Corsica, where, before 1850, the State forests did not produce more than 200 a 
year, the annual revenue derived from them was raised in 1868 to 8,000, the 
improvement being due almost entirely to the development of the communications. 
At the end of 1867 there were 2,440 miles of metalled, and 5,380 miles of unmet- 
ailed, roads in the State forests, and since that year their length has been at least 
doubled. 

The great importance of accommodating the forest guards in suitable houses 
within the forests is fully recognized; and out of 3,200 guards, 1,400 are lodged 
in 1,213 houses, the remainder of them being granted allowances to lodge them- 
selves in neighboring villages. The proportion of roads and buildings in the 
communal forests is much less than in the State forests, partly because the com- 
munes have to pay for their construction, and funds are not always available, but 
partly also because the average size of these forests, being smaller, roads and 
guards' houses within them are not needed to- the same extent. 

At the end of 1867 there were 126 saw-mills in the State forests, all worked 
by water-power. 

Timber-slides, sledge-roads, wire-rope tramways, and such like means of 
exporting the wood, are very little used in France. A great deal of timber is 
required for their construction and maintenance, and, considering the price that wood 
of all kinds can command, it is found better and cheaper, even in mountainous 
regions, to make permanent roads suitable for timber carriages and carts. They 
are to be found on)y in a few localities where the conditions are exceptional. 

Portable iron tramways have not yet. come into general use as a means of 
exporting timber from the forests, and it is believed that there is only one in use 
in France at the present time, viz., that at Baccarat at the base of the Vos^es ; 
but the advantages which the employment of this means of transport affords will 
doubtless shortly be better understood than at present, and a development of the 
system is to be anticipated, at any rate, in the forests of the plains. The floating 
of large timber is almost unknown ; but firewood for the supply of Paris is still 
floated from the hills of Morvau down to the railways. 

FINANCIAL RESULTS OF WORKING. 

The profit derivable from a forest is dependent on a number of causes, among- 
which may be mentioned the species of which the crop is composed, the depth 
and nature of the soil, the climate, the system of culture, the proximity of great 
centres of consumption of produce, and the existence of good lines of export. 



129 



Taking the average of the last three years for which the accounts have been 
.audited, it is found that the receipts, expenditures, and surplus of the State 
forests were as follows, viz.: 

Revenue 1,297,748 = 10s. 6d. per acre. 

Expenditure 571,347= 4 

Surplus 726,401= 5s. lid. per acre. 

But if the money spent on the afforestation of mountain slopes and dunes, 
and on the purchase of additional areas, be excluded, the expenditure on the 
existing forests is reduced to about 480,000, and the surplus is raised to 6s. 8d. 
per acre. The actual profit is indeed slightly more than this ; for the figures 
include both expenditure by the State on the management of the communal 
forests, and the contributions paid by the cummunes on this account. The 
receipts are supposed to cover the payments, but the} 7 rarely do so, and some 
allowance may be made for this fact when calulating the net profits derived from 
the State forests, which, during the years referred to, probably fell little short o 
7s. an acre. Recent information relating to the receipts, expenditures and surplus 
resulting from the working of the communal forests is not available. 

The latest year for which full details regarding the gross revenue per acre 
of the State and communal forests are obtainable is 1876, when the figures were 
as follows, viz. : 





t!f Qt- 


Com- 








munal. 




Principal produce (wood, bark, resin) 


s. d. 
12 6 


s. d. 
7 5 


s. d. 
10 


Minor produce 


7 


3 


5 










Total 


13 1 


7 8 


10 5 











The revenue from the State forests was then, in 1376, considerably higher 
than that above given as the average of the last three years ; and this was due 
to two causes, of which the first is the exceptionally large number of windfalls 
wllich occurred in that year, and the second the comparatively high rates which 
timber than realized. All but a small fraction of the revenue on the principal 
produce was obtained by the sale of wood arid tanning bark, cork being pro- 
duced only in the forests near the Mediterranean and in Corsica and resin 
almost exclusively on the shores of the south-west. The figures relating to the 
State forests show the results of actual sales, but this is not so in the case of 
communal forests, as a large proportion of the produce from them is made over 
to the inhabitants for their own use, and its value is estimated at a low rate, in 
order to keep down the amount of their contribution for the services of the 
State forest department, which is levied in proportion to the sum of their gross 
revenue and the value of the wood delivered to them. In addition to this it 
should be said that the revenue on minor produce shows cash receipts only, no 
credit being taken for the payments made chiefly in the communes by means of 
days' work done in the forests. These circumstances account to some extent for 
the smaller revenue obtained from the communal forests ; but the true explana- 
tion of this result is to be found in the important influence exercised by the 
system of culture adopted. In 1876 it was observed that the highest rate of 
gross revenue was obtained from high-forest, and the lowest from simple coppice, 
while coppice under standards occupied an intermediate place. It was also found 
9 (p.) 



130 



that in the case of high-forest, the area under coniferous trees yielded a much 
higher revenue than those under broad leaved species, chiefly on account of the 
form of their stems, which enables a very large proportion of sawn timber to be 
obtained from them, but partly also from the greater value of the thinnings 
taken from them during the early stages of their growth in the form, for 
example of telegraph and hop-poles, etc. The revenue from forests composed of 
coniferous and broad-leaved trees mixed together lay between these two. But, 
of course, this is not an universal rule ; for a high forest of beech might yield a 
better return than a coppice with oak standards, and a similar comparsion 
might be made between forests stocked with other trees of different relative 
values, and managed under various systems. The following figures, showing the 
results of sales in the Nancy conservatorship, will serve to illustrate what has 
been said : 

Per acre. 

Simple coppice Yielded 4s. 4d. 

Coppice under standards 11s. 8d. 

High forest of broad-leaved species 13s. Id. 

High forest of coniferous and broad-leaved species.. .. 23s. lOd. 

High forest of coniferous species 51s. 6d. 

Looking, then, at the large proportion of the communal forests, which is 
under coppice and at the relatively greater proportion of firewood and timber of 
small size that they consequently produce, the smaller gross revenue per acre 
that they were able to yield is no longer surprising. Taking the State and the 
communal forests together, it was found that their gross revenue was 22 per 
cent., per acre, higher than that of the private forests, notwithstanding that 
these latter are as a rule, on better soil and are frequently grown under other 
more favourable natural conditions. 

The average all-round rate actually realized in the State forests per load 
of wood of all sorts, including tanning bark, was 14s. od. ; while that obtained 
in the communal forests was only 9s. 8d. The corresponding rate for the whole 
of the French forests, including those belonging to private proprietors, was 
10s. 7d., so that the rate of the State forests exceeded the general average by 
37 per cent., while that in the communal forests fell to 9 per cent below it. 
The revenue obtained by the sale of minor produce was derived principally 
from shooting leases and permits. 

It is not an easy matter to determine the capital value of a forest, but in 
1873 an estimate was made, which put that of the State forests at nearly fifty 
and one-half million pounds sterling, which is equivalent to a little over fifty 
pounds per acre. The gross revenue derived from them in that year represented 
a return of 3.15 per cent., but the net profit did not much exceed two per cent., 
on the estimated value. The capital value of the communal forests is certainly 
less per acre than that of the State forests, on account of the younger age at 
which the trees are, generally speaking, cut ; and notwithstanding that their 
revenue is smaller, it is probable that they pay a higher rate of interest than 
the State forests. 

It has been estimated that the relative rates of interest on their capital 
value, paid by forests in which the main crop is removed at various ages, is 
something like the following, viz. : 

Per cent. Per cent. 

25 years 4 60 years 2 

30 3i 100 ' " 1 

40 3" 200 " 



131 



These figures are intended to give a general idea of the manner in which, 
notwithstanding the increased value of the produce the relative rate of interest 
declines as the age to which the trees are left standing is prolonged. They 
have no claim to absolute accuracy, even as representing the average of French 
forests, and still less can they be assumed to apply to the forests of other 
countries. They serve, however, to explain what has been previously said, viz., 
that on account of the higher rate of interest which coppice, generally speaking, 
yields, as well as for other reasons, it is a more suitable system for communes 
than hio-h forest ; and this remark applies with equal and even greater force 
to private forests. 

RIGHTS OF USER. 

The principal rights of user are those relating to timber, firewood and 
grazing ; but there is also a small number of others, such as those which 
permit the cutting of turf, the collection of dead leaves, and the like injurious 
practices. In the State forests the right-holders are, almost without exception, 
village communities ; the instances in which private persons possess rights in 
them being extremely rare. The communal forests are, comparatively speaking, 
free from such burdens. 

The law of 1827 provided for the investigation and disposal of all claims 
to exercise rights in the State forests, and barred the acquisition in them of any 
fresh ones. Hence those only have now to be dealt with which have been 
formally admitted and recorded in favour of the communities or persons who 
possess them. 

The aim of the department has always been to free the forests from such 
claims as far as possible, and the law provides for this being done in the 
following manner, viz., all rights of wood may be commuted by surrendering a 
portion of the forest itself in lieu of them, the terms being arranged by mutual 
consent, or in case of disagreement by the courts ; but the State alone can 
demand such a commutation, the right-holder cannot do so. Other rights, 
including those of pasture, cannot be got rid of in the above manner, but the 
State can buy them out by the payment of a sum of money, the amount of 
which is either settled by mutual agreement or by the courts. The sale of 
pasture rights cannot, however, be enforced in places where their exercise is 
absolutely necessary for the inhabitants, the question of such necessity being, in 
case of dispute, referred to the conseil de prefecture* subject to an appeal to the 
conseil d'etat.^ The law also provides that the exercise of all rights which have 
not been got rid of in either of the above ways, may be reduced by the forest 
department with reference to the condition of the forests and the mean annual 
production of the material in respect of which they exist ; and none can be 
exercised otherwise than in accordance with the provisions of the law and the 
rules based on it. 

The principal features of the legislation regarding the exercise of wood- 
rights are the following, viz. No wood can be taken which has not been formally 
made over by the forest department ; persons who possess a right to dead fallen 
wood cannot employ hooks or iron instruments of any sort in its collection ; 
when firewood is made over standing in the forest, it is felled, cut up and taken 
out by a contractor, selected and paid by the right-holders, but previously 
approved by the forest department ; the partition of the wood among the inhabit- 

* An administrative tribunal, established in each department of France. 

t The central administrative tribunal, established at Paris for hearing appeals from the decisions of 
the conseils de prefecture. 



132 



ants cannot be made until the work is entirely completed ; the contractor is 
responsible in all respects as if he had been the purchaser of the produce, but he 
acts under the pecuniary guarantee of the body of right-holders, who can- 
not barter nor sell the wood made over to them, nor put it to any use other than 
that for which it is given to them ; timber made over in satisfaction of a 
right, but not used in a period of two years, may be reclaimed by the forest 
department. 

No right can exist to take goats into either the State or the communal 
forests, as the grazing of these animals is considered incompatible with the 
maintenance of the ground under wood. The old law suppressed without com- 
pensation to the right-holders, the practice of grazing sheep in the forests of the 
ancient royal domain of France, and the law of 1827 suppressed it also, on pay- 
ment of compensation, in those State forests which are of more recent origin ; 
but the government has the power to permit sheep grazing in certain localities 
as an exceptional and temporary measure. No right to pasture any kind of 
animals can be exercised in any part of the forest not declared out of danger by 
the forest department, which has also the power to limit the number of animals 
to be admitted, and the period during which they may graze, with reference to 
the condition of the forest and the quantity of grass in it. Right-holders 
can only pasture animals which they keep for their own use, not those which 
they keep for sale. 

On the first of January 1877, about one half of the total area of the State 
forest was burdened with rights of the estimated annual value of 38,400, 
while only three per cent of the communal forests were so burdened, the annual 
value in their case being estimated at 6,700. The commutation and purchase of 
rights, which was commenced in a systematic manner in 1857, is effected by the 
officers of the ordinary service, as well as by those who are charged with the 
framing of the working plans. As a general rule, the arrangement with the 
right-holders is made by mutual consent, appeals to the courts being of rare 
occurrence. The State is in no hurry to spend large sums in the purchase of 
grazing rights which will probably disappear with the progress of agriculture ; 
a result which has alredy been realized in the north of France, where the greater 
portion of these rights has lapsed through failure to exercise them. 

GRAZING. 

Goats, sheep and cattle have always been the emenies of forests, and they 
are indeed the principal agents of their destruction, especially in hot and dry 
climates, where the vegetation is not sufficiently vigorous to resist the effects of 
over-grazing. 

Animals are admitted to the forests under three different conditions, viz : 

(a) In virtue of a right of user. 

(b) As a means of raising revenue and of utilizing the grass. 

(c) By tolerance, as a temporary arrangement. 

Grazing by right. This has been treated of in the preceding section. 

Grazing as a means of revenue and of utilizing the grass. Neither goats 
nor sheep are admitted into the State or communal forests with this object. In the 
State forests it is sometimes the custom to allow cottagers living near the forest to 
graze their cattle in exchange for a number of days' work, but this is not done to 
any important extent. In these forests in fact very little grazing is sold, for 
the practice can only be permitted in the imwooded portions, which are rarely 



133 



available for the purpose, because, althoagh they are of considerable extent 
(about 450 square miles) they are either required as grazing grounds for the 
cattle of right-holders, or they are being planted up, and hence the revenue from 
this source is insignificent. It was only 360 during the last year for which 
the record is available, but it is otherwise in the case of the communal forests, where 
local custom often necessitates the maintenance as pasture land of blanks, which 
could otherwise be most advantageously filled up ; and some communes derive 
almost their entire revenue from this source. The receipts by them amounted in 
the .same year to nearly 15,000. 

Grazing by tolerance It has been said that no right can exist to graze 
either goats or sheep in the State or communal forests ; and the inhabitants of 
the communes are specially prohibited by law from admitting their own goats 
and sheep into their forests ; but the government has the power to sanction the 
grazing of sheep (not goats) in certain localities under exceptional circumstances. 
Permission to drive sheep into the State forests is, however, very rarely accorded, 
except in seasons of extraordinary drought, when the flocks of the neighborhood- 
ing communes are sometimes admitted for a single season. But in the case of 
the communal forests, such temporary sanction is, of necessity, more freely 
accorded, for the forests belong to the inhabitants, and even through their true 
interests might be better served by keeping out their sheep entirely, it is not 
found possible to change their pastoral habits all at once ; and on this account, 
permission has frequently to be granted them to graze their sheep in their 
forests, eitheir for a single year or for periods up to five years. They can, how- 
ever, graze their own horned cattle, horses, ponies, donkeys and pigs there with- 
out special permission ; and they usually do so on payment of a fee into the 
communal treasury. According to the latest available record, the number of 
animals of all kinds, thus admitted in a single year, was as follows, viz.: 

Horned cattle, horses, ponies and donkeys 359,164 

Pigs 48,388 

Sheep (by special sanction) 936,960 

The animals can, however, only be grazed in places which have been declared 
out of danger by the forest officers, and their numbers can be limited with refer- 
ence to the quantity of grass available ; but it is not always possible to enforce 
these restrictions rigidly ; and the forests in certain regions, have much to con- 
tend with from the extent to which grazing is practised. The receipts by the 
communal treasury on this account have been estimated at 4s. 6d. per head of 
large cattle, 3s. lid. per pig, and Is. for sheep ; but this only represents an average 
revenue of lOd. per acre of the area grazed over, whereas wood yields, on an 
average, about 8s. 4d. per acre ; and it seems probable that this consideration 
may gradually lead, in the agricultural districts, at any rate, to the abandon- 
ment of the practice of pasturing cattle, on forest lands. There is no doubt that 
when the grazing even of large cattle, is permitted, it is carried on at the 
expense of the crop of wood ; and that where it is practised to any considerable 
extent the forest, properly so called, tends to disappear ; and this is notably the 
case where, for the time being, local circumstances, such as the absence of export 
roads, renders wood a less profitable crop than grass. Here the forests, gradu- 
ally become almost unproductive, and finally succumb from excessive grazing. 

About four-fifths of the total area of the communal forests are still used as 
grazing grounds, nearly one-half of the latter being open each year ; and the 
average area provided for each class of animals is about three acres per head of 
large cattle, two acres per pig, and three-fifths of an acre for sheep. Separate 



134 

grazing grounds are allotted for each class, and these figures represent the average 
of all qualities of pasture land ; they could not therefore, even supposing that the 
grazing were not excessive, be taken as a guide to the area which should be pro- 
vided per head in any particular locality, even in France, and still less so in other 
countries. 

OFFENCES. 

Until the year 1859 persons who were charged with offences against the 
forest laws had always to be tried by the courts ; but in that year a law was 
passed which enabled the forest department to take compensation from offenders 
instead of bringing them before the tribunals, and this method of dealing with 
them is now largely practised. The department has alwa} 7 s the power to charge 
the delinquents before the courts, while they, on the other hand, have always the 
right to refuse payment of the compensation demanded, and thus bring about their 
formal trial. Officers of lower rank than that of conservator are not. however, 
authorized to deal with cases in this manner, and the power of the conservator is 
limited to the acceptance, by way of compensation, of sums not exceeding 40 ; 
if it is desired to exact a larger amount, the sanction of the government must be 
obtained. 

This system has many advantages. For while it is necessary in the public 
interests that infractions of the forest rules should be checked, a large proportion 
of them are usually of a petty nature, and in many cases the persons who commit 
them hardly deserve the severer penalties that must be inflicted on their being 
found guilty by the courts. The system of taking compensation, on the other 
hand, permits the adoption of a scale of punishment more suited to this class of 
offenders, while it at the same time enables the means of the delinquents, and 
the attendant circumstances of. each case, to be taken into account. The punish- 
ment can also be made to follow promptly the committal of the offence, without 
the necessity for dragging the accused and the witnesses from their occupations 
to attend before a tribunal, the time of which is thus not occupied in the trial 
of these petty cases. The present system is easy and simple for the forest 
department ; and that it acts very leniently on the population living near the 
forests will be seen, when it is stated that the amount of compensation exacted 
during the last year for which the record has been prepared, amounted to only 
one-fifth of the sum which the courts must have awarded had the offenders been 
proved guilty before them. Occasionally the compensation is allowed to be paid 
in the form of a number of days' work, done in the forest. 

With the advancing prosperity ot the country, forest offences become lest 
frequent, and the number committed annually is very much smaller now than is 
used to be a few years ago. It is worthy of remark that they are more than 
twice as numerous in the communal as in the State forests, probably because 
individual inhabitants of the communes think that there is not much harm in 
committing minor depredations on property which they doubtless regard as their 
own. During the year 1876, the number of offences was 26,377, there being 
three per thousand acres in the State forest, and seven per one thousand acres in 
those belonging to the communes. More than half the offences were connected 

O ^j 

with the theft of wood or injury to trees, and nearly a quarter related to pasture 
and cattle trespass, 31,281 persons being involved in the charges. As might be 
expected, wood stealing is more, prevalent in winter than in summer, while the 
reverse is the case with regard to breaches of the grazing laws. Of the total 
number of charges made in 1876, 7 per cent, were abandoned, either owing to 
the trivial nature of the offences, or owing to want of sufficient evidence ; 70 per 



135 



cent, were dealt with under the compensation law, and the remaining 23 per cent, 
were taken into court, convictions being obtained in 99 per cent of these cases. 

In addition to clauses dealing directly with wood thefts, illicit grazing, and 
other fraudulent practices, the forest law provides that no person having cutting 
instruments in his hand can leave the ordinary roads which pass through the 
forests, and that no fire can be either lighted or carried within, or at a less 
distance than two hundred yards from any forest boundaries. A regular tariff 
exists, which fixes tho penalties for damaging trees of various ages and species. 
The law also prohibits the erection, without permission, of brick-works, or lime- 
kilns, carpenters'-shops, timber-yards, or saw-mills, within certain distances of 
the forest. At the time that the law was passed, it was much more necessary 
than it is at present to check the erection of such buildings, and applications for 
permission to construct them are now usually accorded on suitable conditions. 

INJURIES CAUSED BY WILD ANIMALS AND INSECTS, STORMS AND FIRES. 

Wild animals and insects. The principal wild animals which cause injury 
to forests, either by devouring the seed or the young seedlings, or by peeling the 
bark off the young plants, are deer, pigs, hares and rabbits. The insects which 
attack the leaves, the bark, and even the wood of trees, belong chiefly to the 
families Goleoptera, Lepidoptera,&nd Hymenoptera. But the damage done is not 
excessive, and it is, in fact, far less than that produced by the same causes in 
many other countries. It is of course exceedingly difficult to put a money 
value upon injuries of this sort, which include not only the actual death of 
a certain number of old and young trees, but also a reduction in the growth 
of others. An estimate was, however, made regarding the damage done in 
1876, and it is said to have amounted to about 4s. per 100 acres, taken on the 
entire area of the State and communal forests. The coniferous trees generally 
suffer more than the broad-leaved species, as they are more exposed to the attacks 
of insects which do not infrequently kill them outright, whereas the latter species 
more often suffer merely a diminution in their rate of increase. 

Storms. The damage done by storms of wind is a much more serious matter. 
Injuries are caused to the forest by them which it is not always possible either 
to prevent or even to modify. In the first place, the windfalls interfere with 
the arrangements laid down in the working plan, and the considerations which 
guide the execution of felling are thus thrown out ; they remove too large a pro- 
portion of the seed-bearing trees, and consequently it is sometimes necessary to 
substitute a difficult and artificial process fur the natural regeneration which 
would otherwise have been effected ; while in addition to this they break or 
otherwise damage neighboring trees by their fall. In the second place, the value 
of the windfalls themselves is, speaking generally, small, as they are frequently 
broken or otherwise injured, while most of them have probably not attained the 
age or dimensions at which it was intended that they should be felled. They are 
also specially liable to attacks by insects, which often appear in large numbers in 
forests where many trees were blown down, particularly in case of the coniferous 
species. Even uninjured windfalls fetch a lower price than trees felled in a regu- 
lar manner, because they are usually found scattered here and there, instead of 
being concentrated in one part of the forest. 

The year 1876, which is the last for which figures can be obtained, was a 
disastrous one, the amount of windfalls being exceptionally large, probably 
double of that which occurs during an average year. The number was put 



136 



at 1,145,708 trees, and the damage caused was estimated at 10,300, or about 
3 4s. per 100 acres in the State forests, and 12s. per 100 acres in those belonging 
to village communities. 

The latter being, for the most part, coppice under standards, suffered less- 
than the former, while the proportion of windfalls in the coniferous forests was 
greater than that in those composed of broad-leaved species. The windfalls were 
sold for nearly 021,000. 

The forest officers, when arranging the annual felling, are careful to provide, 
as far as possible, against the effect of storms, by leaving a protecting belt of 
trees standing on the side of the forest from which the dangerous winds blow, 
and in other ways ; but much depends on natural conditions which are beyond 
their control, such as the configuration of the ground, the shelter afforded by 
neighboring hills, the nature of the soil and its physical condition, the kinds of 
trees and their root development, as well as their size, age, and the system of 
treatment to which they have been subjected. 

It may be added that hailstorms often do great damage by stripping the 
tiees of their foliage, and by breaking or otherwise injuring the young plants. 

Fires. The penal code provides for the punishment of persons who cause 
forest fires, either intentionally or through carelessness ; and the forest law- 
prohibits the lighting or carrying of fire either inside the forest or within 200 
yards of their boundaries, but the ordinary laws do not prevent proprietors from 
lighting fires in their own forests to the danger of their neighbor's property. 
This an important question in the Maures and Esterel,* where the bad practice 
is followed of systematically lighting fires in the forests, in order to burn up the 
heather and other shrubs which interfere with the regeneration of the crop of 
trees; and in 1870 a special law was passed prohibiting the proprietors of those 
districts from lighting tires in their forests except at seasons fixed by the prefect ; 
and also compelling them to clear fire-lines around all woods and forests which 
have not been completely freed from all inflammable shrubs. 

In 1876 there were 290 fires in the area managed by the forest department* 
nearly all of them being the result of accident. The surface burnt over 
measured 2,350 acres, or about j~ part of the entire area, and the damage was 
estimated at 3,280 or 28s. per acre of forest burnt. The proportion of fires was 
greater in the broad-leaved than in the coniferous forests, but on the other hand, 
the amount of damage done per acre in the latter was three times as great as in 
the former, the resin in the trees themselves and in the dead needles on the 
ground rendering the fir and pine forests excessively inflammable. It is also 
worthy of remark that, although as a general rule, fires were of more frequent 
occurrence in the spring than at any other season of the year, the autumn fires 
were, on account of the recently fallen leaves, by far the most destructive. But this 
is by no means true of all regions and the general result may be mainly ascribed 
to the great damage done by fires occurring during the autumn in the south of 
France. In the north, forest fires are of small importance, and occasion little 
damage. 

HUNTING AND SHOOTING. 

The right to hunt and shoot in the State forests is, generally speaking, let 
out on nine years' leases, which are sold by public auction under the rules for 
the sale of timber and other forest produce ; but when this is not possible, it is 
sold by means of annual permits issued under the direct authority of the Minister 

* Low mountain ranges in the south of France. 



137 



of Agriculture, the sport being always carried on under the surveillance of the 
officers of the forest department. No forest officer can become a lessee of the 
shooting within the limits of his own charge, and the forest guards are never 
permitted to shoot in the forests under any circumstances. 

The municipal councils are, subject to the approval of the prefect, free to 
dispose of the right to hunt or shoot in their forests in any manner that they 
wish. 

DESTRUCTION OF WOLVES. 

The destruction of wolves, boars, and other animals which are considered 
dangerous or harmful, is entrusted to a corps of 410 lieutenants de louveterie 
(wolf -hunters). These officers, who are unpaid, but have the right to wear a 
handsome uniform, are under the control of the conservator of forests, and are 
appointed by the prefect on his recommendation. They are as a rule landed 
proprietors, who accept their appointment for the sake of the sport it affords 
them. They are obliged to keep bloodhounds and packs of dogs, and are charged 
to organize and direct, in communication with the local forest officers, the battues 
which are, from time to time, ordered to take place in the forests. But as this 
system has not been found a very efficient one, a law has recently been passed, 
under which a reward, varying from 1 12s. to 7, is payable to anyone who kills 
a wolf ; and the mayors are authorized, when the snow is on the ground, to organize 
battues for the destruction of wolves, boars, and other animals, anywhere within 
the limits of their respective communes, on condition only that they give due 
notice to the proprietors of the lands on which the beat is to take place. 

The rewards paid for killing wolves amount to about 4,000 a year. 

AFFORESTATION WORKS WORKS UNDERTAKEN FOR THE CONSOLIDATION 
AND PROTECTION OF UNSTABLE MOUNTAIN SLOPES. 

Excessive grazing, both by local herds and flocks principally of sheep and 
goats, as well as by vast numbers of these animals which are annually driven up 
from the plains to the hill pastures, have produced complete denudation over 
very large areas, and have thus caused incalculable damage in the great mountain 
regions of France, principally in the southern Alps, and in the level country 
below them. They eat down the grass to the level of the ground, and then teai 1 
out the very roots, breaking up the surface of the soil, and rendering it liable to 
be washed down by the rain. These hills are of a loose formation, the strata 
being contorted and dislocated to a remarkable degree, and as soon as the soil is 
deprived of its protective covering of trees, shrubs and herbs, whose roots hold 
it together, the slipping and falling of the mountain sides are produced with a 
constantly increasing intensity. The rain-water, no longer interrupted in its fall, 
retained by the spongy, vegetable mould, nor hindered in its downward flow by 
the thousands of obstacles which a living covering would oppose to its progress, 
flows off the surface of the ground with extraordinary rapidity, and carrying 
with it large quantities of loose soil, suddenly fills up the torrent beds. These 
latter, scoured out by the rush of water, charged with mud, stones and rocks, 
cut their way deeper and deeper into the mountains, and their banks, deprived of 
their support at the base, fall inward, the debris being borne onward to 
level ground below. The cracks and slips occasioned in this manner extend to a 
great distance on either side of the torrent, especially on the side on which the 
strata slopes toward it, and the effect is much increased when the upper layer of 
rock is loose, and lies upon an impermeable bed ; the water then saturates 



138 



the loose rock, and penetrating through it, and through the cracks and fissures, 
flows over the hard surface, the superincumbent mass being precipitated, either 
suddenly or by slow degrees into the valley below. The same effect is produced 
in the whole net-work of water-courses, both principal and tributary, which 
traverse the mountain side ; the upper strata over enormous areas, with fields, 
houses, and even entire villages, being carried down into the valleys, and the 
whole region, which presents litttle to the eye but a series of unstable slopes of 
black marl, has an indescribably desolate appearance. It may be added that 
when the hillsides are covered with trees, the snow, which has accumulated 
during the winter months, disappears gradually under the influence of the milder 
temperature which accompanies the advancing spring ; but when the trees have 
been removed, and the masses of snow are consequently exposed to the full force 
of the sun's rays, they melt rapidly and produce results on the mountain sides 
similar to those which follow the occurrence of heavy storms of rain. 

But the damage does not stop here ; for on reaching the comparatively level 
valleys which form the main lines of drainage of the mountain range, the stones, 
gravel and sand transported by the numerous torrents are deposited. These 
valleys being usually very fertile, are occupied by fields, villages, and towns, 
which are connected by roads and sometimes by railways, constructed with many 
bridges, retaining walls and other masonry-works, and as, by degrees, enormous 
areas become covered with debris sometimes this result is produced suddenly 
without warning the buildings are either thrown down or overwhelmed, the 
railways and roads are blocked, and the bridges are overthrown, while the fields 
are completely and irretrievably destroyed. The damage thus caused is most 
serious, both i'n its nature and extent, and to it must be added the great incon- 
venience and loss occasioned by the interruption of traffic on the roads and rail- 
ways. But this is not all. If the debris transported by the torrent is carried 
into the river before it can be deposited, it is either borne on at once and thrown 
on to the level country lower down, or it remains and turns the course of the 
stream over the fields and buildings on its opposite bank. Occasionally the 
deposit temporarily blocks up the valley and causes the inundation of villages 
and fields on the upper side of the barrier, and when this latter ultimately 
gives way, the most disastrous results ensue, both in the lower part of the 
valley and in the open country at the foot of the mountain range. It is to 
mitigate these terrible evils that the vast enterprise of afforesting the mountains 
has been undertaken as the only means of dealing with them. But, owing to 
the enormous cost of the work, it cannot be hoped that the forest thus raised 
will ever prove directly remunerative, and their creation, with a view to their 
ever becoming so, could not for a a moment be justified. 

The works are of two classes, viz. : Firstly, the treatment of the torrent beds 
by a series of weirs and other structures, destined to bring them gradually and 
by successive stages to a normal slope, and thus not only prevent " scour," but by 
the filling up and widening of the beds behind the weirs to afford support to the 
unstable ^sloping sides, and thus gradually to consolidate them with a view to 
their being ultimately planted up. Secondly, the immediate planting up of all 
areas, the surface of which does not seem likely to be washed down within the 
period occupied by the construction in that locality of the first class of works. 
A commencement was made in 1860 ; but the law passed in that year not having 
been found sufficient, a new law came into force in 1882 which provides both for 
the works to be undertaken directly by the State, and for those to be executed 
by the proprietors of the ground, with or without State aid, as well as for simple 
measures of prevention. 



139 



Works undertaken by the State. The proposal to take up ground for this 
purpose emanates from the forest department, and is followed by a formal 
inquiry, under the direction of the prefect, into the circumstances of the case, 
regarding which a special commission, with a forest officer as one of its members, 
makes a 'report. If the proposal is approved, a law is passed declaring the work 
to be one of public utility, and under it the ground with all existing rights, either 
of the proprietor or other persons in it, is bought by the State, either by mutual 
agreement or by expropriation. The area is then under the forest law, and the 
works are undertaken at the public cost. 

Works undertaken by the proprietors. If, however, the proprietors, who 
are for the most part village communities, do not desire to part with the land 
they must, before the expropriation has been ordered, agree to execute the 
specified works themselves, within a fixed time, and to maintain them, under the 
control of the forest department. In some cases, but not always, pecuniary aid 
is then afforded to them. If the proprietors of land outside the areas which are 
taken up for treatment as works of public utility, desire to undertake measures 
for the consolidation of the soil, or for the improvement of their pastures, they 
can obtain assistance from the State in the way of money, seeds, plants, or of 
work done for them ; but when any such aid is afforded, the operations are 
under the surveillance of the forest department, and in certain cases the money 
so advanced has to be refunded. 

Preventive measures. When the condition of the ground is not such as to 
warrant its being dealt with in the above manner, it may, after the same 
preliminary formalities as before, be closed against grazing for any period not 
exceeding ten years, in which case compensation is paid annually to the proprie- 
tors for their loss of the use of it. During this interval the State has the power 
to execute works, in order to promote the more rapid consolidation of the soil, 
but the nature of the property cannot be changed thereby, and the proprietor 
cannot be called upon to pay anything for the improvements thus effected ; while 
if, after the lapse of ten years, it is found necessary to continue the exclusion of 
cattle, the State must buy the land either by mutual agreement or by expro- 
priation. 

But none of the measures above described would deal effectually with the 
situation unless the source of the evil were at the same time attacked, by bringing 
the pastoral arrangements on the neighboring hills under control, so as to avoid 
over-grazing; and the law therefore provides that in 313 village communities, all 
those in which works are undertaken being included, as well as many others, the 
grazing must be carried out in the manner approved by the forest department. 
The communes are therefore obliged to submit to the prefect annual proposals on 
this subject, showing the nature and extent of their pasture lands, the portions 
that they propose to use during the year, the number of animals of each kind 
that are to graze, the roads by which they are to reach and return from the 
pastures and other matters. These proposals are considered by the forest 
department, and modified if necessary. In addition to this, with a view to 
encourage the pastoral population of the mountains to take care of their grazing 
grounds, and to put a stop to abuses resulting from ignorance and from the 
continuance of injurious customs, the forest department is empowered to grant 
money rewards to fruiteres (associations of cattle-owners for the manufacture of 
cheese) for improvement made by them to their pastures. It is also desired to 
encourage, as far as possible, the substitution of cows for sheep ; but the popula- 
tion of the mountains does not like the afforestation of their grazing grounds, 
and the principal reason for the offer of rewards by'the State is that it is con- 



140 



sidered politic to do something to aid them in their industry, as some set-oft 
against the inconvenience to which individual communities are sometimes put 
by these operations. 

Scope and progress of the entire work. The total surface to be treated as 
a work of public utility in the Alps, Pyrenees, and Cevennes, is estimated to 
amount to 1,035 square miles, in addition to about 1,900 linear miles of torrent 
beds. Up to the end of 1885, 152 square miles of this surface and 373 miles of 
torrent beds had been completed, the expenditures having amounted to 819,320, 
and the rates having varied from 3 2s. 6d. per acre, and from 2s. to 7s. 6d. per 
linear yard of torrent bed. There remain to be treated, therefore, about 883 
square miles of surface, and 1,500 miles of torrent beds. In addition to the 
above, the State has paid 138,000, or hall the cost of treating 212 square miles, 
as "permissive works," under the old law, and 12,000 toward pastoral improve- 
ments. 

DRAINING AND PLANTING OF SWAMPS AND WASTE LANDS. 

Measures of the nature above described for the consolidation and protection 
of mountain slopes are undertaken in the interest of the population generally, 
In the case of sterile unproductive wastes or swamps, not requiring to be dealt 
with on these grounds, the government has thought it better, as a general rule, 
to leave each proprietor free to do what he considers most to his own advantage, 
confining it to the exemption from taxes for thirty years of all lands planted up. 
But the State has the right to force the communes to drain their swamps and 
wastes, with a view to rendering them suitable either for cultivation or for the 
growth of trees ; and when this is done advances of funds may be made under 
certain conditions, one of which is that the commune has the right to surrender 
to the State in satisfaction of all claims, a portion of the area not exceeding one- 
half. 

THE DUNES OF THE WEST COAST. 

The winds that blow continually from the ocean on to the west coast, carry 
with them enormous quantities of sand, which, advancing steadily over the 
country at the rate of some fourteen feet per annum, in the form of moving 
hills called dunes, bury under them the fields and villages they reach. It has- 
been calculated that nearly ninety cubic yards of sand per yard of coast line are 
thus annually transported inland. Works to arrest the destructive effects of this 
invasion of sand have been in progress since 1789 ; they were originally carried 
out under the Department of Public Works, but since 1862 they have been placed 
under the forest department. The total area of the dunes is said to be 224,154 
acres, a part of which belongs to the State, and a part to private owners, while a 
much smaller portion is communal property. 

In exposed situations the protective works consist of a wooden palisade, 
erected at a short distance above high-water mark, and destined to promote the 
formation of an artificial dune, with a view to prevent fresh arrivals of sand from 
being blown over the country. Under its shelter, seeds of various kinds, princi- 
pally those of the maritime pine (Pinus maritima), broom, gorse, and gourbet 
(Arunde arenaria), are sown ; and the seeds being covered with brush- wood to- 
prevent the sand in which they are sown from moving , and the sowing is thus, 
continued inland, in successive belts, until a crop of trees is raised on the entire 
area. In less exposed situations a wattled fence is substituted for the wooden, 
palisades. In the Departments of Gironde and Landes, forests of the maritime 
pine have been most successfully raised in this manner, the trees being tapped for 



141 



Tesin, and the wood of those which have been exhausted being sold for railway 
sleepers and other purposes. But north of the Loire the maritime pine is not 
sown, as in that region it does not yield a sufficient quantity of resin to repay the 
cost of its introduction, and here it is sought merely to establish a crop of grass 
on the ground. 

The law of 1810 relative to the treatment of the dunes, which is still in 
force, provides that the government can order the planting up of any area which 
in the public interest requires to be so dealt with. When the land or any part 
of it belongs to communes or private proprietors, who cannot or do not wish to 
undertake the work, the State can execute it, reimbursing itself with interest 
from the subsequent yield of the forests. As soon as the money so advanced 
has been recovered, the land is restored to the proprietors, who are bound to 
maintain the works in good condition, and not to fell any trees without sanction 
of the forest department. This system of raising forests on private lands would 
not be likely to succeed elsewhere ; but here the extremely profitable cultivation 
of the maritime pine, due to the large quantity of valuable resin that it yields in 
the hot and moist climate of the south-west littoral coast, renders it a safe transac- 
tion for the State to engage in. 

Before the forest department took over the work in 1862, 111,787 acres had 
been dealt with ; and the entire area has now been completed. The works have 
to be most scrupulously maintained, in order to prevent a recurrence of the evil. 



ADMINISTRATIVE ORGANIZATION AND DEPARTMENT STAFF. 

Administrative Organization. In order to carry out the work which 
has been briefly described in the preceding chapters, a corps of professional 
foresters, composed as follows, is maintained, viz. : 

1 Director of the forest department. j 

9 Inspectors-general. 

39 Conservators. Superior staff. 

24o Inspectors. j 



234 Assistant-inspectors. 



308 Sub-assistant-inspectors (gardes generaux) 
3532 Brigadiers (head guards) and guards, subordinate staff. 

This body of officials is employed, partly in the ordinary duties of the 
department, as being in administrative, executive, or protective charge of the 
units into which the forests (including those of Algeria) are grouped, for their 
more effective and covenient control ; partly in special branches, such as those which 
-are charged with the preparation of working plans with the treatment of unstable 
mountains, and with the communal grazing arrangements ; and partly also in the 
central offices at Paris. The following statement shows the number of officers of 
the superior staff employed on each kind of duty : 



142 





h 


.'i 


g 


g 

o 
.u 

cS 


m 
(H 

O 


to 

(H 

, O 

S| 


2 
J5 

01 O 






5 

s 

Q 


"S tc 

0) 

ft 

O) 

M 


h 

y> 
m 

3 
o 


-S 
o 

ft 

09 

1 1 


II 

00 

<J 


'ia 

U 

e 
02 


Is 

-*J 
1 


Central offices 


I 


8 




10 


19 




^ 


Ordinary duties 






35 


180 




9no 


P.M 


Working 1 -plans branch . 








15 






QK 


Consolidation of mountain slopes 








15 


12 


4Q 


7(5 


Communal grazing .... 








2 


o 


1 




Schools 




1 


1 


3 


c 




n* 


Algeria . 






3 


17 


in 


Q7 


R7 


Detached duty 








3 


i 


of 


D< 


















Total on active list 


1 


9 


39 


245 


234 


308 


836 



* Exclusive of two forest officers who have been removed from the active list as professors and three 
professors who are not forest officers. 

THE CENTRAL OFFICES AT PARIS. 

Since 1877 the forest department has been under the Minister of Agriculture 
instead of, as formerly, under the Minister of Finance. And the change has 
proved a most beneficial one ; for the forests are now regarded more from the 
point of view of their utility in augmenting the general prosperity of the country, 
than from that of the money revenue they can be made to yield ; and they are 
no longer looked upon as available for sale whenever the low state of the exchequer 
may seem to suggest this course, which was not seldom in olden days. The 
Minister of Agriculture is the president, and the director of the forest department 
is the vice-president, of a council of administration formed by the eight inspectors- 
general, which considers all questions submitted for the orders of government. 
The central office is divided into seven sections, each of which deals with certain 
branches of the work, and is presided over by an inspector-in-charge, who is- 
assisted by two or three other forest officers and a number of clerks. 

Ordinary duties in the forests. The unit of administrative charge is the 
division (inspection) which is held by an inspector ; but for purposes of executive 
management this charge is split up into sub-divisions (cantonments), under 
assistant or sub-assistant-inspectors, who are also at the disposal of the inspector 
for any special work that he may require of them. Occasionally, when the 
division is a small one, the inspector himself holds charge of a sub-division. The 
divisions are grouped into conservatorships, and these again into six circles 
(regions') each of the latter being assigned to an inspector-general. The forests, 
State and communal, managed by the forest department are 11,508 square miles 
in extent, and they are divided into 414 sub-divisions, 192 divisions, and thirty- 
five conservatorships ; consequently, the average area of each of these charges'is 
as follows, viz., sub-division, twenty-eight square miles ; division, sixty square 
miles ; conservatorship, 329 square miles. The average area of an inspector- 
general's circle extends over 1,918 square miles. 

The sub-divisional officer is essentially an out-of-doors man, who personally 
directs all work going on within the limits of his charge, in accordance with the 
instructions given to him by the inspector, whose assistant he is, and who can at 
his discretion employ him on special duties outside his sub-division. The divisional 
officer is the manager of the forest estates. He prepares projects for the various. 



143 



works that are to be undertaken, and directs the subordinate officers in their 
execution ; he is also the prosecutor in all cases taken into court for the suppression 
of forest offences. The conservator exercises a general control over the divisional 
officers employed under him ; and it is his duty to see that all work is directed 
in accordance with the views of the government, as they are from time to time 
communnicated to him from the central office. He alone has control of the 
expenditure, and has power to issue oi'ders on the public treasury. As regards 
his circle, the inspector-general is not an administrative officer, but he makes an 
annual tour and is required to become personally acquainted with all the work 
going on, and with the qualifications of all ranks of officers employed within it, 
seeing that each fulfills his duties properly. During the remainder of the year 
he is at head-quarters, where he is able to make use at the council-board of the 
information collected during his tour, by advising the government both in the 
issue of orders for works and in the selection of officers and subordinates for pro- 
motion to fill the vacancies that may occur. 

It may here be mentioned that in addition to the charge of the State and 
communal forests, the officers of the department are called upon to exercise certain 
functions in the private forests, which will be explained hereafter. 

Working plans. A separate branch of the department is charged with the 
framing of working plans for the most important forests, those for the smaller 
ones being prepared by the local officers. The thirty-five inspectors, assistant 
Hiid sub-assistant-inspectors, who are thus employed, are divided into nineteen 
sections, which are at present working in twenty-four conservatorships. As the 
operations are concluded in one locality, the sections are moved to another. The 
officers are under the orders of the local conservator, who transmits their proposals 
to head-quarters with his own opinions and recommendations. 

Consolidation of mountain slopes. The branch of the department to which 
this vast under-taking is intrusted, is presided over by an inspector-general and 
is composed of seventy-six officers of the superior staff, working in eighteen 
centres. These officers are under the orders of the conservator within whose 
charge they are employed ; and he transmits their projects and proposals to the 
inspector-general, who is thus enabled, by the exercise of his supervision, to utilize 
the experiences gained in the various localities for the benefit of the entire work. 
The inspector-general reports to the director of the department all matters 
relating to this undertaking which are to be laid before the council of adminis- 
tration. 

Communal grazing arrangements. The five officers who are employed in 
the three great mountain regions to prepare projects for the control of the 
communal grazing arrangements, and the issue of rewards for improvements to 
the pastures effected by the fruitieres (associations for cheese-making), are placed 
in the same relation to the conservators as are the officers employed on the 
consolidation of mountain slopes. 

Accounts. It is a fundamental principle of the French system of forest 
administration that the forest officers have nothing to do with either the receipt 
or the payment of money. They sell the produce by auction, or by the gran ti no- 
of permits, as the case may be ; but the sums realized on account of such sale's 
are paid by the purchasers directly into the public or communal treasury. The 
inspector prepares a budget estimate for his proposed expenditure on works, and 
when this has been sanctioned the various undertakings are commenced. Towards 
the end of each month he submits to the conservator an estimate of his proposed 
expenditure for the following month, during the last days of which that sum is 
paid to him, and he disburses it at once, transmitting the vouchers, together with 
the unexpended balance, should there be any, to the treasurer-general ; he keeps 



144 



no money in his hands, In exceptional cases, however, the conservator can grant 
orders for advances to the officers employed under him ; but in this case they 
must, at the end of each month, adjust the advance by vouchers handed in to the 
treasurer-general, along with any balance of cash that may remain unexpended in 
their hands. The treasurer-general thus keeps all accounts, both of receipts and 
expenditure of the department. 

Departmental staff'. Members of the forest department are ineligible for 
any other office, either administrative or judicial ; they are prohibited from 
engaging in trade, or in any industry connected with wood, and they must 
be regularly sworn in before they can enter upon the exercise of their functions. 
They have as regards forest offences, the powers of police, including the right 
to make domiciliary visits for purposes of investigation and to arrest suspected 
persons ; but these powers are exercised chiefly by the members of the surbordi- 
nate staff. Officers of the superior staff act as public prosecutors in forest cases. 
Superior staff. Candidates for the superior staff are, as a rule, trained at 
the national forest school at Nancy ; but one-third of the appointments to the 
lowest grade (Garde general) are reserved for the promotion of deserving 
subordinates. A young forest officer on leaving the school is employed for a 
time ; usually about a year, in learning his duties under an inspector ; and his 
advancement from this probationary stage, as well as his further promotion 
through the higher grades depends on his own qualifications and exertions, as 
reported by his immediate superiors. 

A promotion list is drawn out every year by the council of administration 
and published for general information. On it are inscribed the names of those 
officers of each grade who are considered to be the most deserving of immediate 
promotion, the number of names on the list being limited to three times the 
number of the anticipated vacancies. 

The minister of agriculture makes all promotions up to and including 
the grade of inspector, but the conservators, the inspectors-general, and the 
director of the department are nominated by the president of the republic. No 
officer can, however, be selected for promotion whose name is not found on the 
list and who has not served at least two years in the lower grade. 
The yearly pay of the various grades is as follows : 



Director of the forest department 800 

Inspectors-general, three classes 480 to 600 

Conservators, four classes 320 to 480 

Inspectors, four classes 160 to 1^40 

Assistant-inspectors, three classes 120 to 152 

Sub-assistant-inspectors, three classes 80 to 104 

Sub-assistant-inspectors, on probation 60 

In addition to their salaries, the officers receive travelling allowances, usually 
a fixed sum per annum, at various rates according to local circumstances. 

A pension, at a rate which varies according to the grade of the retiring 
officer, is obtainable after the age of sixty years ; but no inspector can become a 
conservator after he has passed the age of fifty-five years. Conservators are 
usually pensioned at the age of sixty-two and inspectors-general at sixty-five. 

Subordinate staff. All members of the subordinate staff must have served 
in the army, and as a general rule, they must have attained the rank of non- 
commissioned officers; they cannot be less than twenty-five or more than thirty-five 
years of age at the time of their appointment. They receive their first nomination 
from the minister of agriculture, who promotes them from a list similar to that 
which is annually prepared for the superior staff. The scale of annual salaries 



145 



is as follows, viz., head guard, three classes, 36 to 44 ; guard, two classes, 
28 and 30 with an additional 2 after fifteen years service. 

They must live in or near the forests, where they are provided, as far as 
possible, with accommodations for themselves and their families in houses specially 
built for them ; but if such houses are not available, they receive a lodging 
allowance. In addition to their pay, they are given a fixed quantity of firewood 
per annum and they are allowed to cultivate a plot of ground not exceeding two- 
and- one-half acres, and to graze two cows in the forest. 

Each guard has a beat which he is bound to visit daily, the average size of 
such charge being about 1,200 to 1,300 acres, or say two square miles. The head 
guard has four or five guards under his orders : he superintends their work, and 
communicates to them the instructions received by him from the sub-divisional 
officer. 

The duties of the subordinate staff are chiefly those of protection ; they act 
as forest police, and have the power to serve summonses as well as to arrest delin- 
quents. They are bound to report all offences committed within their beat : and 
should they fail to do so, they become responsible for the payment of any fines or 
compensation money which might be levied from the offenders. Acting under 
the orders of the sub-divisional officer, they superintend all work going on within 
the limits of their charge ; and in addition to this they, under his direction, 
tend the young plants, prune the stems of the reserve trees, fill up small blanks 
in the forest, and perform such like minor operations with their own hands. 
Rewards are given annually to men who have specially exerted themselves in 
this manner ; but they are forbidden to accept without special sanction, any 
gratuity from " communes " or private proprietors for services rendered by them 
in the execution of their duties. They are entitled to a pension when they have 
attained the age of fifty-five years, and have completed twenty-five years' service, 
including the time spent in the army. 

As above stated, one-third of the appointments to the grade of sub-assistant- 
inspector are reserved for the promotion of deserving members of the subordinate 
staff. Ordinarily men so promoted must have at least fifteen years' service,- and 
be less than fifty years of age ; but they can be promoted after four years' service, 
if they have passed successfully through the secondary school at Barres. 

Military Organization. Under the law which provides that all men belong- 
ing, in time of peace, to regularly organized public services can in time of war, 
be formed into special corps, destined to serve with the active or with the terri- 
torial army, the members of the forest department form a part of the military 
forces of the country ; and the officers of the superior and the subordinate staff are 
organized by conservatorships into companies or sections, according to their 
numerical strength. In case of the mobilization of the army, the forest corps is 
at the disposal of the war minister, and its various units assemble at previously 
determined points. The students of the forest school at Nancy receive military 
instruction and are drilled, the time passed at the school counting as service with 
the colors. The officers of the superior staff hold rank as officers of the reserve, 
or of the territorial army, and in time of war may be employed either in com- 
mand of the companies and sections of the forest corps, or otherwise as may be 
ordered. From the day that they are called out, the companies form an integral 
part of the army and enjoy the same rights, honors, and rewards as the other 
troops which compose it. They are inspected by their own officers annually in 
time of peace, and the head guards, and guai'ds who form the the non-commis- 
sioned officers and rank and file of the companies enjoy at all times certain privi- 
leges as soldiers. 

10 (F.) 



146 



In virtue of this service, a military uniform is prescribed for all grades, 
including the students at the schools. The subordinates wear it always ; and the 
officers do so on all ceremonial occasions, including official inspections of the 
forests by their superiors. 

FOREST SCHOOLS. THE HIGHER SCHOOL AT XANCY. 

The forest school at Nancy is the only one existing in France for the train- 
ing of officers of the superior staff. It was founded in 1824, before which year 
the department was recruited either by means of young men, often of good fami- 
lies, who worked gratuitously in the inspectors' offices in the hope of ultimately 
obtaining an appointment, or by means of retired officers of the army. Very few 
forest officers received under the old system, a professional training sufficient to 
enable them to discharge their duties satisfactorily ; and it was to remedy this 
state of things that the school was established. The arrangements were modest 
at first ; but a great development has taken place during the sixty -two years 
that have elapsed since 1824. The present organization of the school will now be 
briefly described. 

The controlling and teaching staff is composed as follows, viz.: 

1 director, with the rank of inspector-general (professor of political economy 
and forest statistics). 

1 deputy-director (professor of forestry). 

1 assistant professor of forestry. 

1 inspector of studies (professor of law). 

1 assistant-professor of law. 

1 professor of natural history. 

1 assistant-professor or natural history. 

1 professor of applied mathematics. 

1 assistant-professor of applied mathematics. 
1 professor of agriculture. 

1 professor of German. 

1 professor of military science, 

1 assistant-inspector for experiments. 

All these are forest officers except the professors of agriculture, German, and 
military science ; and none of them, except the professor of agriculture, who is 
dean of the faculty of science at Nancy, have any other duties. 

The salary of the director rises from 360 'to 480, with 80 a year sump- 
tuary allowance. The professors of forestry, natural history, law, and applied 
mathematics, receive, on first appointment 80 a year in addition to the pay of 
their grade, whatever it may be ; but if, after some years, they desire to be 
permanently attached to the school, they may be removed from the active list, 
on a salary rising from 280 to 360 a year, when they are entitled to a higher 
rate of pension than they would otherwise receive. The assistants take part in 
the instruction under the control and guidance of professors, whom they are in 
training to succeed ; they receive 40 a year in addition to the pay of their 
grade. The salaries of the professors of agriculture, German, and military 
science are fixed from time to time, the maximum rate being 240. The 
appointment of deputy-director and inspector of studies do not entitle their 
holders to any extra pay ; but these officers, as well as the director, have free 
quarters at the school. The staff is completed with an accountant, two adjutants 
(corresponding to sergeant-majors), a librarian, a gate-keeper, and other sub- 
ordinates. 



147 



The director of the school is the president, and the professors and assistants 
are the members of a council of instruction, which assembles at the school from 
time to time to consider any matter which may be brought before it by the 
director. 

A ceuncil sits at Paris at least once a year for the consideration of such 
general questions as may be brought before it, relative both to the instruction 
given at the forest schools at Nancy and Barres, and the conditions of admission 
to, and the regulations in force at, those institutions. President ; the minister of 
agriculture : members ; a senator, a member of the conseil d'etat, the director of 
the forest department, the director of agriculture, the agricultural hydraulics, and 
inspector-general of forests, the directors of the forest schools at Nancy and 
Barres, a conservator of forests, a retired forest officer, the director of the agro- 
nomic institute, a member of the national agricultural society, an inspector- 
general of mines, a chief engineer of naval construction, the professor of surveying 
from the military school, and an officer of the army. 

Admission to the school is obtained by public competition. Candidates must 
be between the ages of eighteen and twenty -two years ; they must be in sound 
health, and hold a certificate showing that they have completed their course of 
general studies at the lycee (high school). The subjects in which they are 
required to pass the entrance examination are as follows, viz. : 

Arithmetic, elementary geometry, algebra, trigonometry, analytical geometry, 
descriptive geometry, natural philosophy, organic and inorganic chemistry, cos- 
mpgraphy, mechanics, the German language, history, physical and political 
geography, and plan-drawing. Two passed students from the agronomic institute 
and two from the polytechnic school, can if otherwise qualified be admitted every 
year without further examination. The number of candidates admitted annually 
is, as a general rule, from fifteen to eighteen, and the course of study extends 
over two years, so that there are from about thirty to thirty-six regular students 
at the school at one time. The young men while at Nancy are housed in the 
school building, but take their meals in the town. Their parents deposit 60 a year 
for their maintenance including the purchase of books and instruments, but they 
do not pay anything for their instruction, or toward the annual expenses of the 
school, which may be estimated as follows, viz.: 

Salaries, scholarships, tours and examinations 4,170 

Maintenance of the buildings, library, museum, etc 742 



Total annual payments by government 4,912 

If the number of students passed annually through the school be taken as 
sixteen and a-half, the actual expenditure per head, for the entire period of two 
years' residence is 298 ; but if interest at four per cent, on the estimated capital 
value of the buildings and collections (22,000) be added, the annual expenditure 
becomes 5,702, and the amount spent by the State on each student during the 
period of his training is raised to about 350. 

Each year of study at the school comprises six and a-half months of theo- 
retical and two and a-half months of practical instruction ; one month being 
devoted to examinations, and there being two months of vacation. During the 
period devoted to theoretical instruction, the following subjects are taught, viz. : 
First year, sylviculture in all its branches ; botany, including vegetable anatomy 
and physiology, as well as the classification of plants and their geographical 
distribution, special attention being paid to forest trees and shrubs ; political 
economy with special reference to forests ; forest statistics ; law, including forest 
laws and rules ; together with such general knowledge of the common law of the 



148 



country as is judged necessary ; surveying and the construction of roads ; the 
German language ; military science ; riding. Second year, working-plans or 
schemes of forest management ; mineralogy and geology, with special reference 
to the chemical and physical properties of forest soils ; zoology, especially the 
branch relating to the insects which attack trees ; agriculture ; buildings, includ- 
ing houses, saw-mills and bridges ; the treatment of torrent beds, including the 
construction of masonry and other weirs. The teaching of surveying, law. the 
German language, military science and riding is continued. During the last 
month of each theoretical course weekly excursions are made into the forest, but 
with the exception of this and the riding drill the whole of the instruction is 
given in the class rooms. 

The practical course which occupies two-and-a-half months of each year, or 
five months in all, consists of tours made into the forests in the neighborhood of 
Nancy as well as into those of the Vosges and Jura, and occasionally to other 
localities for the purpose of studying forestry, natural history and surveying, a 
part of the time being devoted to military exercises. An area of 7,500 acres of 
forest situated near Nancy and placed under the director of the school is used as 
a field of practical instruction as well as for various experiments and researches, 
to carry out which an assistant-inspector is attached to the staff. The subjects 
dealt with by him are principally meterology, the growing of plants in nurseries, 
various methods of pruning, the effects of different systems of thinning, the rate 
of growth of various kinds of trees living under different conditions and many 
other thing's. 

O * . 

The school is well equiped in every way. Besides commodious buildings to 
accomodate the director, the deputy-director, the inspector of studies, the students, 
the adjutants, and other subordinates, there is a spacious amphitheatre with halls 
of study ; a recreation room, and an infirmary are also provided. The museum 
contains very complete collections, illustrating the courses of mineralogy, geology, 
palaeontology and botany, with woods, fruits, seeds and carefully arranged dried 
specimens of the foliage and flowers of trees and other plants, as well as raw 
forest products. There are also stuffed mammals, birds, reptiles and fish, and a 
collection of insects, with sections of wood showing the damage done by them to 
the trees. The school possesses an excellent professional library, comprising 
about 3,350 volumes and a number of maps, It has also a chemical laboratory, 
in which many interesting researches are made either at the instance of the 
professors or of forest officers of the ordinary service who may desire the inves- 
tigation of questions which have arisen in the course of their work. There is a 
collection of models of saw-mills, of torrent beds treated with weirs, and of sand 
dunes, etc., as well as a fencing hall and a botanical garden. It is estimated that 
the buildings are worth about 12,000, and that the library and other collections 
are worth 10,000 ; total 22,000. 

The students having passed out of the school at the end of their course of 
instruction are appointed to the forest department as Gardes generaux (sub- 
assistant-inspectors), and are employed on special duty for a time before being 
instructed with the charge of a sub-division. 

Both Frenchmen and foreigners can obtain permission to follow the course 
of the school as " free students " without the payment of any fees. Since the 
foundation of the school in 1824, 1,334 regular students, candidates for the 1'rench 
forest service, have been received ; and complete or partial training has been 
afforded to 239 free students of whom 30 were Frenchmen, 73 Englishmen and the 
remainder were foreigners of other countries. 

The Englishmen are sent by the Secretary of State for India to be trained 
for the Indian service, under a special arrangement made with the French 



149 



Government. Ordinarily the free students merely attend the lectures, and as a 
matter of course, are not examined ; but the English students have to pass all 
the school examinations. 

THE SECONDARY AND PRIMARY SCHOOLS AT BARRES. 

The secondary school was established in 1883, in order to train a class of 
men who should occupy an intermediate position between the officers of the 
superior and those of the subordinate staff. Of the students who entered in that 
year, seventeen passed out as head guards, and one of these has been promoted 
to the superior staff as a sub-assistant-inspector. But the school was reorganized 
in 1884, and it is now maintained in order to facilitate the entrance of subordi- 
nates into the superior staff, by completing the education of such of them as may 
be deemed otherwise fitted for advancement. Candidates for admission to the 
school are selected by the conservators from among those of their head guards 
and guards who are thought to possess the needful qualifications, and to be 
capable of passing the required educational tests ; ordinarily, they must have 
completed four years' service in the forests, and be under thirty-five years of 
age, but passed students of the primary school can be admitted after two years' 
service in the forests. They are subjected to an entrance examination in the 
following subjects, viz., Dictation, elementary geometry, French history, French 
geography, timber measurement, the selection and marking of trees to be felled 
or reserved, and the duties of forest subordinates generally. 

The director of the school is a conservator of forests, who receives the pay 
of his grade and free quarters ; he is aided in the administration and teaching by 
two assistant- inspectors, each of whom receives an allowance of 40 a year in 
addition to his pay. Teachers who are not forest officers can be employed when 
their services are required. As is the case at Nancy, the director and the 
professors form a council of instruction and discipline. The students all hold the 
rank and wear the uniform of a head guard. They are lodged at the school, and 
receive an allowance of 2 a month to provide themselves with food and clothing. 

The instruction, which extends over two years, is both general and special 
or technical; the object being to improve the general education of the students, 
and also to give them such a professional training, theoretical and practical, as 
may fit them for the position they are to occupy. The course is arranged as 
follows, viz. : 

First year, Sylviculture, the cutting up and export of wood, estimates of 
quantity and value of timber, sales of forest produce, arithmetic and geometry , 
the elements of algebra and trigonometry, surveying and map drawing, levelling, 
forest law, the elements of forest botany, (including vegetable anatomy and 
physiology, and the classification of the principal forest trees), planting and sow- 
ing, and geography. 

Second year, Working plans, buildings and roads, the elements of mine- 
ralogy, geology, and zoology, the treatment of torrents and dunes, forest law and 
administration, the elements of inorganic chemistry, agriculture and agricultural 
chemistry, literature and the geography of France. Most of the above subjects 
are taught not only in the class room, but also practically in the forest. The 
school is established on a property purchased before 1873 for the primary school 
from M. Vilmorin, who had raised on it a large number of exotic trees of many 
kinds. There is also on the estate, a small forest treated as a coppice under 
standards, which, with the State forest of Montargis, situated at a short distance 
from the school, is used for the practical instruction of the students. The buildings 
comprise the residence of the director, the class-rooms, and students' quarters, as 
well as a museum, containing collections to illustrate the various courses of study. 



lod 



The examinations are conducted before the director of the forest department, 
or an inspector-general deputed by him for this duty, and the students who pass will, 
under the new organization, be appointed to the superior staff as sub-assistant- 
inspectors. Like the officers trained at Nancy, they will be employed for about a, 
year in learning their duties under an inspector, after which they will become 
eligible for further promotion on their merits, as are the other officers of the depart- 
ment. Subordinates from the communal forests are permitted to pass into the 
superior grades of the government service through this school. Nine students 
entered it during 1884 and 1885, and are still under instruction, eight of them 
having previously passed through the primary school. One free student followed 
the courses for a short time in 1883. 

The primary school is a branch of the establishment at Barres, the instruc- 
tion being given by the director and professors of the secondary school. It was 
established in 1878 for the training of young men who desired to enter the 
service of government as forest guards, or that of private proprietors as guards 
or wood managers, there being no restriction as regards their parentage. Up to 
the year 1883, 148 students had passed through it into the government service, 
and eight of these have since entered the secondary school. But in 1884 the 
primary school was reorganized, and it is now reserved solely for the education 
of the sons of forest officers and subordinates who may desii-e to enter the 
government service as forest guards, with a view in most cases, of their ultimately 
gaining the ranks of the superior staff through the secondary school. 

Candidates must be between twenty-four and twenty-seven years of age ; 
they must have completed their military service and be of good character, with 
a sound constitution. They are obliged to pass an entrance examination in 
dictation, French composition, arithmetic, elementary geometry, and French history 
and geography. While at school they are styled " Student-Guards " ; quarters 
are provided for them, and they receive from government a part of their uniform, 
and an allowance of 1 16s. a month, to provide themselves with food and 
clothes. 

The course occupies eleven months, and embraces the following subjects, 
viz. : Arithmetic, plane geometry, algebraical signs, surveying and levelling, the 
French language, French history and geography, the elements of sylviculture, the 
elements of forest botany (including vegetable anatomy, physiology, and the 
classification of the principal forest trees), and the elements of forest law, and 
adminstration. The instruction is given partly in the class rooms and partly in 
the form of practical work done in the forests. 

Passed students are, as vacancies occur, admitted to the government service 
as forests guards of the second class ; and after two years passed in the forests 
in that capacity they are eligible for entrance into the secondary school. During 
1884 and 1885, however, only three students entered the primary school, two of 
whom are still there and one has received his appointment. 

Free students can be admitted with the sanction in each case of the director 
of the forest department, but as yet none have entered the school. 

THE PRIVATE WOODS AND FORESTS OF FRANCE. 

Those woods and forests which are neither State nor communal property- 
belong principally to private proprietors, of whom the number is very great, but 
also partly to civil, religious, commercial and other societies. Their extent 
varies of course from year to year, according as clearances are made for cultiva- 
tion or planting work is undertaken. No very exact record of the area is avail- 
able, but the latest figures show it to be 23,657 square miles, or about two-thirds 



151 



of the total wooded surface of France. It is probable that at the present time 
the private woodlands are being somewhat added to, rather than reduced, for it 
is believed that the areas annually planted up or sown exceed in extent those 
which are cleared. The private forests are not entirely free from State control ; 
while at the same time they are protected by the legislation almost in the same 
manner and to the same extent as are the State and communal forests. For 
instance, private owners, in common with the government and the communes, 
enj*>y the power to free their forests from wood-rights by making over a portion 
of the ground to the right-holders in lieu thereof. Grazing rights can only be 
exercised in those parts of them which are declared by the forest department to 
be out of danger from the entrance of cattle, and the number of animals can be 
limited with reference to the supply of grass, while no right can exist to graze 
sheep or goats in them. Owners have also the power to free their forests of all 
rights, except those of wood, by the payment of compensation ; and speaking 
generally, it maybe said that the}'' have the same protection against injury to 
their prope-ty by right-holders as is enjoyed by the State and the communes. 
The law also places them in the same position as regards the punishment of 
forest offences, including trespass by persons carrying cutting tools, cattle tres- 
pass, and the lighting or carrying of fire in or near the forests, with a claim to 
damages for injury caused. Proprietors can obtain for their forest guards, if 
they have them regularly sworn in, the same powers for the protection of their 
property as are exercised by the State and communal guards. 

On the other hand, private owners cannot cut down and clear their forests 
without notifying their intention to do so at least four months beforehand, and 
the forest department can, with certain exceptions, successfully oppose the 
clearance if the maintenance of the woods is desirable on any of the following 
grounds, viz. : 

1. To protect mountain slopes. 

2. To protect the soil from erosion, and to prevent encroachments by rivers, 
streams or torrents. 

3. To preserve springs and water-courses. 

4. Tc protect coasts against the erosion by the sea and the encroachments 
of moving sand. 

5. For the defence of the national frontier. 

6. For sanitary reasons. 

The minister of agriculture decides whether the clearance may be made or 
not. Between the years of 1828 and 1884 sanction has been accorded to the 
clearing of 1,795 square miles of private woodlands, but there is no record 
showing what proportion of this area has actually been cleared ; and it is known 
that sanction is sometimes obtained merely to give an enchanced value to the 
property by the removal of restrictions on it. It is worthy of remark, however, 
that while the average area of which the clearance was annually authorized 
during the whole period above mentioned, amounted to 20,lfiO acres, the average 
during the last ten years was 5,404 acres, and during the last five years it was 
only 3,731 acres. These figures seem to show that woods are acquiring an 
increased value in France, and that they are cleared for cultivation to a less 
extent than formerly. 

It has already been said that there is a special law relating to the forests of 
the Maures and Esterel, where fires are systematically lighted in order to get 
rid of the injurious undergrowth, and that under it private proprietors in 
those regions are only permitted to light forest fires at certain seasons, while 
they are compelled to cut fire-lines round all woods which are not completely 
cleared of inflammable shrubs. 



152 



The manner in which the laws relating to the consolidation of mountain 
slopes and the planting of the dunes affect private owners has also been briefly 
explained in a previous chapter. 

What has already been said regarding the systems of culture generally 
adopted for the State and communal forests respectively, will lead to the correct 
conclusion that those belonging to private owners are, as a rule, treated as simple 
coppice, or coppice under standards, private high forests being usually composed 
of coniferous trees, and situated in mountainous regions. But many of the 
forests that have been planted in the plains of the Landes, Salogne and 
Champagne are stocked with coniferous species, which are frequently more 
suited to the local conditions, under which they yield a better revenue than could 
be derived from other kinds of trees. Notwithstanding that the private forests 
are, as a rule, more favourably situated than those owned by the state or by 
communes, the gross revenue per acre derived from them is considerably less; 
because the trees, being cut down at a young age, yield a large proportion of 
timber of a small size and firewood. On the other hand, their capital value is less, 
and when they are properly managed they should give a higher rate of interest. 

But, unfortunately, although there are exceptions to the general rule, and 
some of the private forests are maintained in an excellent condition, it cannot 
be said that, generally speaking, they are so. For while coppice, and particularly 
simple coppice, is exhausting to the soil, from the young age at which the crop 
is cut and removed, and, in consequence of the comparative frequency with 
which the ground is denuded, tends to its physical deterioration, working plans 
are rarely prepared, and there is consequently no guarantee that the cuttings are 
confined within proper limits. The fellings are, in fact, too frequently regulated 
according to the financial requirements of the owner, rather than by the 
considerations which ought to govern such operations ; and hence it -follows 
that the condition of the private forests is not always such as could be desired. 
This is found to be the case in all countries ; but it is probably especially so in 
France, where the laws relating to the division of the land on the death of its 
owner, and the custom of the country tend constantly to diminish the number 
of large properties, and to leave in the hands of each proprietor an area of 
woodland too small to admit of its management on a regular system. 

The produce derived from the private forests is, however, large in amount, 
and of very great value. Exact figures are not obtainable ; but it is probable 
that the 26,657 square miles yield annually over 12,000,000 loads (of 50 cubic 
feet) of wood, with about 270,000 tons of tanning bark, 2,250 tons of cork bark, 
and 30,000 tons of resin worth altogether, more than 6,000,000 ; while the 
isolated trees and vines yield another three and a half million loads of wood, 
valued at 1,000,000. The number of foresters and guards employed in these 
forests, is, however, comparatively speaking, very limited ; this being due, in a 
great measure, to the small size of the individual properties, which are con- 
sequently in a very large number of cases, managed directly by their owners. 
There are no private institutions for the training of foresters and woodmen ; 
and although the State forest schools are open to receive " free students " very 
little advantage is taken of this privilege. The Nancy school has only trained 
thirty such students since it was established in 1824, and the secondary and 
primary schools have only received one student between them. Neither the 
owners, nor their managers or guards, have then, as a rule, had any professional 
education, notwithstanding that the means of obtaining it is open to them ; and 
it is not to be wondered at if grave mistakes in the management of their forests 
are of frequent occurrence. In some places they have the means of getting a 
certain amount of advice from the State forest officials, who are occasionally 



153 



permitted to render assistance in this manner ; but they frequently attempt to 
imitate what is being done in the State forests, without knowing the reasons for 
what they see; and they are thus led to commit serious mistakes, as, for 
example, when, in treating a forest which is to be permanently maintained as 
coppice under standards, they follow the procedure adopted in a neighboring 
State forest which is undergoing conversion into high forest. In many cases, of 
course, the private woods are too distant from the State or communal forests to 
permit of their owners obtaining any advice or assistance from the officials of 
the forest department, and they are then thrown entirely on their own 
resources. 



154 



THE TIMBER RESOURCES AND TIMBER TRADE OF CANADA.* 

From the geographical position of Canada and the United States, and the 
natural and artificial routes of transportation that exist along the line, and 
across the boundary between them, it is reasonable to expect that the interests 
of trade will, in the future as in the past, draw from the timber resources of 
both countries for their respective wants, so long as either of them has these 
commodities to supply Besides this common interest in the forests, for meeting 
the demand for consumption, both countries have, for a long period, been com- 
petitors in the foreign lumber and timber trade, and have shared alike in the 
vicissitudes that have attended it. 

It therefore appears proper to present in connection with the statistics already 
given concerning our foreign commerce in forest products, as full information as 
can be derived from official and trustworthy sources, as to the nature and extent 
of this business in Canada, extending back to the date of the present Dominion 
Government, and in some instances to an earlier period. The series of tables 
that we present will sufficiently represent the tendencies of the trade during the 
years they embrace, and its extent as compared one Province with another, and 
in different years. 

The great prominence of the timber interest of Canada has in recent years 
led to thoughtful inquiries into the extent of these resources, a synopsis of 
which will be first presented. 

INQUIRIES CONCERNING THE TIMBER INTERESTS OF CANADA. 

A Select Standing Committee on Immigration and Colonization, appointed 
by the Dominion Parliament, has at recent sessions thought proper to institute 
inquiries having reference to the condition of the forests of the country, and 
the extent, value, and prospects of the lumber trade. The chairman in the 
session of 1878, ^Mr. James Trow,) in introducing the subject remarked: 

That the actual condition of the timber supply of the Dominion was a 
subject of the utmost importance, and one that deserved the special attention of 
the committee. It involved not merely the prosperity of the greatest of the 
manufacturing industries of the country, and the main staple of its foreign 
commerce, but exercised also a controlling influence in regulating the extent of 
future settlements, in as much as the forests tempered the climate by rendering 
it more equable maintained the regular flow in rivers by preventing inunda- 
tions, and furnished new settlements with the cheapest building material and 
fuel. 

Mr. Stewart Thayne, an English journalist of some years' experience, who 
had for the last five years been engaged in researches having reference to the 
lumber interest, and who had been for two and a half years exclusively engaged 
in studying this subject of timber resources in Canada, appeared before the 
committee, and gave in substance the following information : 

' The advantages which Great Britain derives from the Canadian supply of 
timber are numerous, the principal being : 

1. The best quality of Canadian pine is the most valued of the soft woods, 
used in the United Kingdom. 

2. The dimensions of the soft woods shipped from Canada are larger than/ 
can be procured from the timber-producing countries of Europe 

*F. B. Hough : Report upon Forestry (U. S.) 1878-79. 



155 



3. The colonial supply maintains a healthy competition in the trade, 
decidedly favorable to the interests of the British consumers. 

This trade affords employment for a large amount of British and colonial 
tonnage. 

The kinds of wood exported are, among the hard woods, oak, elm, ash, 
birch, etc., and of soft woods, the white and red pine, and spruce. 

" The dimensions now exported are less than formerly. It was quite usual 
for the square-timber shipped from the St. Lawrence about thirty years ago to 
average from 70 to 75 cubic feet per log, whereas, at the present day, the aver- 
age of the season's log crop does not range beyond 55 cubic feet. Then, in 
regard to the quality, it was no unusual thing at the period just referred to, for 
the pine rafts to yield from 70 to 80 per cent., of first quality of wood. I 
think it would be within the mark to state that the pine at present sent to the 
Quebec market does not furnish 20 per cent , of first quality. About two years 
ago I took the trouble to ascertain the qualities of the stock wintering at 
Quebec, and the estimate I then found was lower than the one just quoted ; 
indeed, the deals, in my opinion, did not show 15 per cent. Perhaps however, 
some allowance should be made for the fact that this stock was that which was 
left after the season's shipments. 

" The quantity of lumber that passes through the lakes and down the St. 
Lawrence is comparatively small, and I am not of opinion that it is all of the 
first quality. The British Board of Trade returns estimate the value of the 
Canadian wood imported during the year 1877 as something like $26,000,000. 
The total imports of hewn timber, during the year, amounted to 103,980,650 
cubic feet, of which quantity British North America furnishes 24,286,000 or a 
little less than one-fourth. This included every description of wood not sawn 
or split. Of sawn wood there was imported during the same period 228,637,4-00 
feet, of which the Dominion supplied 62,810,600 cubic feet. So that in rough 
numbers it may be said that Canada supplied the United Kingdom with one- 
fourth of its timber imports. The total estimated value of these imports, 
exclusive of furniture wood, is set down at 19,705,447, and the value of the 
Canadian goods at 5,500,000 sterling. It may be gathered from these figures 
that a higher value is given to the Canadian produce than to that received from 
other countries. 

' In respect to the present timber trade of Canada, as compared with that 
of thirty or forty years ago, there is a very great difference in the proportion. 
For instance, in the year 1831 the total importation of hewn wood into Great 
Britain amounted to 28,109,950 cubic feet, and of this quantity 20,943,950 cubic feet 
were sent from British North America, 

" In 18^2, 1833, 1834 and indeed up to 1840, Canadian shipments held their 
position ; the total quantity imported by Great Britain is gradually increasing, 
but the exports from this country do not bear the same ratio to the general 
trade. Thus in the latter year, the total importation of hewn wood reached 
40,858,150 cubic feet of which Canada contributed 32,497,650. 

' The square timber trade of Canada held its position in the English market 
up to the change in the tariff, during Sir Robert Peel's administration. The imme- 
diate result of the reduction of the duty on foreign wood was to increase the importa- 
tion of the latter very considerably, during the years 1845, 1846.. 1847 and 1848. 
During these years the exports from Canada increased also, but not in the same 
ratio as the foreign. In 1850, the figures representing the then volume of trade 
are as follows : Total imports of hewn wood, 43,408,950 cubic feet ; from Canada, 
30,901,950 cubic feet; sawn wood, total, 39,708,900 cubic feet; from Canada, 
21,740,900 cubic feet. 



156 



" The following table shows the expansion of the trade in recent years, the 
quantities being cubic feet : 















1872 Total imports 


89,131,650 


154,167,450 


From British North America 


22,174,200 


39,414,400 


(i^ercentage from British North America) 


24.7 


25.6 


1873 Total imports . . 


103,569,500 


170,786,150 


From British North America) . . . . 


18,293,750 


47,717,800 


(Percentage from British North America) 


17.6 


27.9 


1874 Total imports 


122,369,700 


190,262,350 


From British North America 


23,818,750 


53,809,400 


(Percentage from British North America) . . 


19.5 


28.3 


1875 Total imports 


84,396,950 


164,891,500 


From British North America .... 


16,843,350 


47,661,400 




19.9 


28.9 


1876 Total imports 


107,914,750 


205,130,900 




23,527,450 


55,367,350 


(Percentage from British North America) 


21.8 


27.0 


1877 Total imports . 


103,980,650 


228,637,400 


From British North America . 


24,286,000 


62,810,600 




23.3 


27.4 









" A 11 the timber-producing countries of Europe have participated in furnish- 
ing these immense supplies of wood ; but the most notable increase apparent, 
during the past few years, has taken place in the quantities of pitch-pine 
imported from the Southern States. A few years back the demand for this wood 
in England was limited, being used only for a few special purposes. Immense 
quantities have been shipped to Europe during the last few years, and, having 
been sent on speculation, it was sold frequently at very low prices, in some cases 
at rates that did not cover the freight and expenses, hence it has been intro- 
duced into many districts where it was formerly unknown, and competes with 
the lower grades of Canadian pine, but more particularly with the red pine. 

" Sweden and Norway supplied the United Kingdom with from 4,000,000 to 
6,000,000 cubic feet of hewn wood during the last few years more than Canada. 
" But a very large proportion of the goods under this heading consists of pit- 
props, and spars, and other small wood of little value. In the matter of sawn 
wood, these countries furnish Great Britain with some twenty or twenty-five 
million cubic feet more than the Dominion. The best Swedish deals do not compete 
with the best quality of Canadian pine, but find a readier sale than the second 
and third qualities of the latter. 

" This trade must be of great value to the shipping interests of Canada and 
Great Britain, but I have no means of ascertaining the exact number and tonnage 



167 



of the vessels engaged in this trade during the last few years. The quantity of 
timber shipped to the British Islands alone must require a carrying capacity of 
something like 1,500,000 tons. The timber carrying of Europe is confined almost 
exclusively to foreign bottoms, and though these latter figure largely also in the 
colonial trade, still British shipping finds in it a source of profit, particularly 
since the construction of so many new iron vessels has deprived the wooden ones of 
the carriage of much valuable freight over long sea voyages. Another advantage 
the shipping interest derives from this trade is the fact that the vessels can be 
employed in it for a longer period than in almost any other. 

" As a matter of fact, there is no other soft wood imported into Great Britain 
that finds more favor, or that can command a higher price than the first quality 
of Canadian pine. The consumption is increasing (as shown by the figures above 
quoted,) at a rapid rate. In 1831 the import of hewn timber amounted to 28,000,- 
000 cubic feet, while in 1877 it exceeded 100,000,000 cubic feet. The increase 
in the import of sawn wood is still more extraordinary. The trade has never 
ceased to expand. No doubt the annual returns show occasionally very serious 
reductions in the quanties imported. The timber trade has experienced seasons 
of depression, but they have always followed periods of inflation. Such vicissi- 
tudes are inevitable in any branch of commerce where the speculative element 
has full play. The averages for any given series of years prove, however, that 
the consumption has advanced with remarkable regularity. 

" The common pine and spruce from Canada are used in England for general 
purposes, but the best quality of pine is now extensively employed in the finishing 
work of the higher class of dwelling-houses. This wood, when very clear and 
soft, commands a high price among engineers, metal founders, etc. Its advan- 
tages are : that it is easy to obtain a remarkably smooth surface, and the wood is 
susceptible of being worked to the highest degree of finish, and to the finest 
edge, without the risk of chipping or breaking like other woods, rendering it very 
useful to moulders, and I understand that the quantity purchased by them for 
this purpose is very considerable. 

"As to its preference over other woods for finishing purposes I should consider, 
judging from its frequent appearance in architects' specifications that it is a 
favorite wood with the profession, but its merits are so transparent that I do not 
consider this surprising. No doubt very strong prejudices existed against Cana- 
dian wood in England at one time. A constructor of the royal navy stated 
before a parliamentary committee that a ship constructed of colonial timber 
could not be depended on for more than twelve months on accounts of its 
partiality to the dry-rot. Builders came forward on the same occasion to allege 
that a house having a covered beam of Canadian pine was dangerous to human 
life, because it might cave in at any moment, while there were some who did not 
hesitate to maintain that a building containing any portion of this despised wood 
would speedily become uninhabitable owing to its tendency to breed bugs. One 
gentleman who boasted of his experience, said that the pine in its native woods 
harbored myriads of these insects ; that they might be seen swarming the logs at 
Quebec ; that they infested the ships that brought this kind of timber to Europe, 
and finally thronged the woodyards of Liverpool." 

. To an inquiry as to the quantity of first quality of pine now at Quebec, as 
compared with that of former years, Mr. Thayne replied : " I saw only a small 
proportion of the stock that could be considered first quality, and should imagine , 



15<S 



therefore, that it must be much less than in former years. By quality, I mean 
not the size but the texture of the wood."* 

In answer to the question as to why the importation of timber into England 
from Canada had fallen off, it was replied : " T imagine that the reason why the 
export of square timber from Canada has not kept pace with the home demand, 
is your inability to supply the description of it that is most particularly wanted. 
I think also that your profits have diminished because so much of your timber is 
of poor quality. I think it is safe to contend that the reason why more of your 
best pine is not purchased is that it cannot be had, and I fear that your power of 
producing it is not likely to flood the home markets.-f- 

" No doubt there is still some excellent timber in Canada. What I have been 
attempting to explain is, that however good the produce of certain sections may 
be, or however well some portion of the present supply may compare with that 
of former years, still the total quantity of such wood brought to market is 
small when compared with that of former years, perhaps not one-fifth of a 
season's manufacture." 

With respect to the probable duration of timber supply, at the present rate 
of consumption, exportation, and waste, Mr. Thayne did not like to give a 
definite opinion for the following reasons : 

1. Because he could not find data sufficiently reliable to guide him to a safe 
conclusion ; 

2. Any calculation that would ignore the quantity of young timber standing 
in the woods, but which may become available in the course of twenty or thirty 
years, would rest on an unsound basis ; and, 

3. Because there are so many sections of timber-producing land in these 
Provinces which, though not extensive when considered separately, still form, in the 
aggregate, no mean source of supply, and which, though now lost sight of, would 
soon be opened up, provided a profitable demand should spring up. Having 
made this statement, he added : " I feel bound to say that every test I have 
applied to ascertain the quantity of merchantable timber actually standing in 
any section of the country has convinced me that the resources available are 
much smaller than public opinion supposes them, particularly those woods 
adapted to the export trade." 

In reply to a member, the witness said : " No doubt the duration of the 
timber suppty of the United States is a point of much interest to this country. 
Any interruption of the supplies now drawn by the eastern States from the west 
would at once compel the former to resort to your markets. Under such circum- 
stances it is easy to foresee that Canadian lumbermen would seek an outlet nearer 
home for their produce. It would, moreover, be easy for the New England dealer 
to compete with the English buyer, burdened, as the latter will always be, by a 
heavy ocean freight." 

* To this statement Mr. Cockburn, a member of the committee said : " I must join issue with you on 
this point, as the quality we are getting now is very fine. In fact, I believe that the soft pine now is of 
better quality than that formerly dealt with. The pine growing in the free grant lands, or in Northern 
Ontario, meets with a very ready sale. The quality is found by experience to be very fine. A.t one time it 
was supposed to be very inferior, but happily, experience has shown it is of a very superior quality, al- 
thought not so large. Though smaller it can take its place beside the larger Michigan pine. " Another 
member remarked that formerly the difference in price between first quality and fair average was less than 
now, but that at present regard is had, not so much to size as to quality, a small log being sometimes worth 
more than a large one. 

t It was here remarked, by a member, that large pines came from Michigan, up to 22 inches. Good 
pines were obtained from Laurentian range region of Ontario, of a size that only goes to 18 or 19 inches, 
strong and clear, which sells as fast or faster than the Michigan, though smaller. Another member re- 
marked that the texture of Canadian wood is not so open as the American ; it is closer in grain. But we 
should bear in mind that these woods, although competing favorably with Michigan timber of the present 
day, do not compare with the larger timber produced in Canada some years ago. We produced as good a 
<1 uality of a larger size, fifteen years ago. 



159 



With respect to principal lumbering districts, the Ottawa valley, so far as the 
export trade is concerned, was by far the most productive, the area drained by 
the Ottawa and its branches being about 8,000 square miles. Over four-fifths of 
the square white pine shipped to the United Kingdom is manufactured in this 
valley. 

The chairman remarked that altogether the average area of timber lands in 
the Dominion is about 280,000 square miles, The river Saguenay and St. Maurice 
drain large regions extensively timbered. 

Great Britain imports masts and spars from Puget Sound, and some splendid 
pine boards from British Columbia find their way to the workshops of furniture 
manufactories in London ; but the cost of freight is so great that it will effectually 
preclude importation from that quarter on a large scale. There is not sufficient 
freight outward to occupy a small fleet, and the journey is too long and costly to 
entice vessels merely for a return cargo. 

Of the $30,000,000 to $35,000,000 worth of soft woods imported annually by 
France during the five years preceeding the late war, only a very small proportion 
was obtained from Canada a few cargoes of spruce and red pine. The French 
do not seem to value the white pine. This may arise from the fact that the native 
hard woods are used very extensively in household construction. Of birch, a very 
fair quantity enters into consumption in England, large shipments being made 
from the Maritime Provinces. 

It has been computed that the lumber trade of the Ottawa valley alone 
affords employment to upwards of 25,000 men. 

In regard to the duration of timber supply in the north of Europe, a definite 
answer could not be given. Russia is credited with a large forest area, that 
might be made available by railroads. Austria likewise possesses some magnificent 
forests in the centre of Europe, which can only be reached by similar means. 
Whether so bulky an article as timber can bear the expense that such transporta- 
tion in Europe would involve, can only be decided by experience. It is true 
that the European governments are beginning to show a great deal of interest in 
protecting the forests ; but this newly awakened feeling does not owe its existence 
entirely to any desire to promote the exportation of forest products, but rather to 
the fact that they are alarmed at the injuries sustained by the arable land conse- 
quent on stripping the hills and river banks of their wood. 

With respect to the waste attending the system of leasing limits, by selecting 
the best logs and allowing a large portion of the trees to rot in the woods, it was 
deemed to have been greater formerly than at present, the present tenure of these 
leases being looked upon as so secure that no apprehension of arbitrary inter- 
ference on the part of the government is now entertained. There is, of course, 
great waste in the manufacture of square timber, as one-fourth of the best part of 
the tree was left in the woods in the form of chips. The present system of 
imposing dues does not present an inducement to waste, but there was a time 
when a sort of premium was paid for cutting only the largest size of timber 
because the dues were the same on the smallest sticks as on the largest. At the time 
referred to, the dues were computed by the piece, red pine at thirty feet average, 
and white at seventy feet, and the object of the lumberman was, consequently, to 
cut sticks as large as he could. 

With respect to the replanting of denuded timber lands, the witness replied 
to an inquiry touching the feasibility of the measure, as follows : 

' It is difficult to understand how some steps in this direction have not been 
take;i. In the Provinces of Ontario and Quebec, the local governments derive a 
handsome revenue from the timber-lands, and yet they seem to regard their 
disappearance with perfect indifference. Every tree that is felled contributes to 



160 



their exchequers, still millions have been destroyed by fire without exciting the 
least effort to prevent such wholesale destruction. These Provinces are spoken of 
as the future home of millions of people, and yet there is no foresight displayed 
in reserving, for their use, such indispensable necessaries as cheap building 
material and fuel. In these two Provinces there exists an immense area that will 
never be fit for settlement, but which, if judiciously managed, would place Canada 
in the front rank as a timber-producing country, thereby affording constant 
employment to a large section of the population, and supporting both commercial 
and shipping interests. To attain these results, it is neither necessary to injure 
or disturb such vested rights as have been acquired, nor to adopt very extraordi- 
nary or costly expedients. 

" Either to lease such lands for long terms, on condition of keeping up the 
supply, and restricting the cut according to the growth and species of timber on 
the limit, or by resuming possession of those lands which have been cleared of 
their pine, and placing them under the charge of practical foresters, replace the 
pines by varieties that would repay the cost of culture. I am aware that the 
mere mention of forest-culture seems something far fetched and impracticable to. 
Canadian ears, but that does not alter the fact that, of all descriptions of culti- 
vation, it is the most profitable. When, further, in a country like this, it becomes 
a question of utilizing a territory not adapted to any other purposes, and which 
otherwise must remain barren and unproductive, there should be no hesitation 
respecting the course to be pursued. 

" It is, no doubt, very unfortunate that a line of policy, which is calculated to 
stir up some grumbling and opposition, and of which the advantages can scarcely 
be fully appreciated for one or two generations, is not likely to enlist the sym- 
pathy of politicians, but this very reason should decide a patriotic statesman to 
undertake it with determination." 

The opinion was expressed that white pine, valuable as it is, would scarcely 
pay to cultivate. By preserving the young trees, it may still last for a number 
of years, particularly as there is not much likelihood that the soil which it occupies 
will be required for other puposes. It requires something near a hundred and 
fifty years to attain maturity. It was remarked that of late years experiments 
made in various countries having widely different climates have established the 
fact that trees may be successfully grown in regions far removed from their 
original habitat, and can already compare favorably with those of mature growth. 
There is, therefore, no reason why similar results should not be attained in 
this country. 

The Eucalyptus, an Australian gum-tree, was mentioned as an illustration of 
this fact, it having been found to thrive remarkably well in the south of France, 
in Algeria, Hindostan, and California, but it would not survive the winters of 
Canada. 

As to the appointment of inspectors of forests, to report on the timber, and 
enforce the laws for prevention of forest fires, it is said : 

" The appointment of such a staff would supply one of the most urgent needs 
of the country the prevention of forest fires. If it were generally understood 
that the lowest estimate of the average annual loss through the forest fires, places 
it at $5,000,000 in the Ottawa valley alone, it appears to me that public opinion 
would soon interfere to prevent such a fearful waste of the national wealth, 
for it should be remembered that in the great majority of cases these fires originate 
in causes that could be easily controlled. But that the country should derive the 
fullest benefit from the services of such a corps, it is necessary that these inspectors 
should be practical foresters, of high education and ample experience in thS best 
training schools of Europe. It would be comparatively easy to secure the services 



161 



of such a class, who, when once established in the country, could train their assist- 
ants. Officers of this stamp would, in the course of a few years, be in a position 
to furnish the government employing them with such information as would 
render the inauguration of a sound forest policy comparatively easy. It may be 
objected that this plan would involve considerable expense, but what would the 
heaviest outlay under this head amount to after all, but an infinitesimal premium 
of insurance against the average annual loss sustained through these fires, leaving 
all other considerations out of sight." 

To the question as to whether it would be deemed arbitrary on the part of 
government to make it imperative upon the settlers to plant a certain number of 
trees on their homesteads, it was replied : " I would consider such a provision one 
suggested by ordinary prudence. In the treeless districts these plantations would 
insure a continual supply of fuel, and afford shelter to the land. And here again 
the necessity of practical foresters in a district makes itself apparent. In order 
that the settler may derive the fullest benefit of such woodlands, the trees should 
be planted in positions where they would be of real service to the arable land. 
I would go even further in suggesting that where new town lands were laid out 
for settlement, the position to be occupied by the plantation should be selected 
in such manner as to afford protection to the more exposed districts. The new- 
comer should also be advised as to the description of timber best adapted to the 
soil, etc." 

Returning to the subject of the difficulty of raising white pine, the question 
was raised as to whether it would not be advantageous to replant sections of 
the country with spruce a rapid-growing timber the witness said : " Most 
decidedly. 1 imagine however that it would be only in rare instances where it 
would be necessary to incur the expense of planting ; regulations providing for 
the proper protection of the young trees would answer the purpose in view. At 
the same time the government should offer inducements, either to farmers or 
limit-holders, to devote a small portion of their lands to the cultivation of both 
native and foreign trees, and ascertain from time to time the rate of growth, etc. 
The government should provide either the seeds or saplings upon which the 
experiments were to be made." 

A member remarked that in the spruce country, by ten or fifteen years, you 
would get quite a good crop ; but it would take a long time to grow trees from 
the seed. When eight or ten inches in diameter let them stand ten or fifteen 
years, and they will yield good cutting timber. 

Spruce is used in England in very large quantities. The Maritime Provinces, 
the Gulf ports and the lower St. Lawrence ship a very considerable amount. 
Norway is the principal source of the European supply of this wood, but it is a 
very small size, battens 6^ inches wide and boards as narrow as 5 inches. 

A considerable portion of the trade between the north of Europe and Great 
Britain is in the shape of manufactured goods flooring boards, window sashes, 
doors, mouldings, frames, etc. There are many obstacles to the successful prosecu- 
tion of this trade with respect to Canada. In the first place the manufactured goods 
imported from the north of Europe are used principally in the construction of 
the inferior class of houses, aud of factories, warehouses, etc. These manufactures 
are cheap ; orders for them can be speedily executed, and can be forwarded with 
dispatch at a moderate rate of freight to all the principal ports of Great Britain ; 
such as are consigned for sale are also sold at very low prices, labor being cheap 
in those countries, and the mills close to the seaboard. On the other hand the 
builders of first-class houses in which Canadian lumber is probably used, have 
their orders carried out under their own supervision, and were it otherwise the 
time necessary to forward orders, the delay that might attend their expedition to 

11 (F.) 



162 



any but one or two ports, and above all the short season of open navigation, are 
so many obstacles in the path of the Canadian manufacturer. 

It might be added to the foregoing that English dwellings of the best class 

O O O Cj O 

are not constructed with so much uniformity of style as they are on this side of 
the Atlantic. An enterprising firm might, no doubt, surmount some of these 
difficulties by establishing a depot for the sale of its goods, and forwarding a 
plentiful supply of stock during the summer season ; or, better still, appoint as 
agents in Europe firms of high standing in the trade, likely to be able to dispose 
of large consignments. But to succeed it would be necessary to possess enter- 
prise, capital, and an intimate acquaintance with the details of English building 
operations. 

As to hemlock, it was thought that when pine becomes more scarce and 
costly it would come into demand. If its peculiar qualities were as well known 
in Europe as in the United States, it would be generally used there also for the 
flooring of large warehouses, particularly where grain is stored. 

" In respect to fires, forests in Europe are differently situated from those in 
this country. They are not in such unbroken stretches as they are here. Except 
in parts of Russia and the north of Sweden, there are numerous villages scattered 
through them. Most of the inhabitants of those villages are employed in the 
forests, either as charcoal-burners or otherwise. Every forest of any extent has 
its regular staff" of officers and rangers, whose special duty it is to watch over its 
safety. Open spaces and broad belts of cleared land are kept up on purpose to 
prevent fire from spreading. The ground is not encumbered with such quan- 
tities of debris as is usual in this country. There are no inexperienced settlers, 
no reckless workmen, and no careless hunters at hand to court the ravages of this 
destructive element. The people employed in the forests are interested in their 
preservation, and stringent police regulations control all others. Notwith- 
standing all these precautions, fires do occasionally occur ; but of late years they 
are becoming rare, 'and on a smaller scale. Probably very few fires occur from 
lightning, as it is almost invariably accompanied by heavy rain-storms and if a 
fire should occur from lightning the rain would almost invariably put it out. In- 
quiries directed to this point had resulted in tracing two great fires in the Ottawa 
Valley to lightning, but they occurred some time ago." 

The question of the influence of forests upon the climate of the country and 
of the effect of clearings being raised, Mr. Thayne replied : " I have endeavored 
to obtain information upon this point, but without results that would enable me 
to form a definite opinion. Unfortunately such meteorological observations as 
have been registered were made at points too far from the influence of forests to 
be able to denote any but the most trivial changes during the comparatively 
short period that the subject has received attention. These observations, to be of 
real use for the purposes referred to, should be made at many points scattered 
over a wide area. There can be little doubt that the clearings made by the 
settlers, and more particularly by the forest fires, must already begin to exercise 
a certain amount of influence on the climate of this portion of the Ottawa Valley. 
Still, the total absence of any observations at or above this point renders it 
impossible to express any opinion on the subject." 

The effect of planting upon the prairies being referred to, its importance was 
urged in the strongest terms : " In the various accounts I have read of the prairie 
land of the North-west, I find frequent mention of the sudden changes of tem- 
perature. Severe frosts occur sometimes after the crops have been sown, and 
again before they have been reaped ; or the temperature of the night is often 
much lower than that of the day. Then these plains are exposed to violent 
tempests through the cold currents of the Arctic regions coming into contact 



163 



with the heated ones of the plains. To -ameliorate a climate presenting such 
contrasts there is only one method that of planting wherever the nature of soil 
will permit it, and forming the settlements under the shelter of these plantations. 
Of so great importance is this to our western country that, in my opinion, upon 
its solution depends whether that region will realize the sanguine expectations 
now entertained of its being able to support an immense population ; or whether, 
after many sore disappointments, perhaps, it will deserve the name of the Lone 
Land. If some of the most fertile regions of the earth have been reduced to the 
condition of sterile wastes through the destruction of their wooded lands, I think 
it not unreasonable to infer that a country exposed to a severe climate cannot 
continue to be productive when, instead of being vigorously planted its already 
scanty stock of timber is further encroached upon by the new settlers." 

The inquiry being raised as to whether a reduction in the amount of exports 
would not tend to enhance prices, and thus bring increased profits to the business, 
the opinion was expressed that any further reduction in the export of the first 
quality of pine would make it so scarce that its sale would be restricted to a few 
markets of England, and a substitute would be found for it in many quarters 
where it is now used. The best means of preventing fluctuations in the market 
would be to export no more than experience had proved to be a fair average 
demand. So long as lumbermen manufactured in defiance of every law that 
should regulate the rate of supply, they must take the chances as to the prices 
which their goods will fetch in the foreign markets. 

With regard to the demand of timber for ship-building, a tendency had been 
observed towards its decline, sailing vessels being superseded by iron steamships, 
in the carriage of all the costlier and finer classes of meischandise. 

In reference to some remarks on the lumber and ship building trade of 
Prince Edward Island, a member stated : " We import some of our large beams 
used in ship-building, for keelsons, etc., from Quebec ; they are of pine and 
tamarac. We build our vessels of a class just about the same as our juniper 
vessels formerly. We can class from seven to nine years. We own vessels in 
Prince Edward Island, and can produce them cheaper than in Quebec. We find 
that wooden ships are taking the place of iron ships, and derive a great advantage 
from the fact." 

In a report of a similar committee upon immigration and colonization, made 
in 1879, in considering the capabilities and prospects of the north-western regions 
of the Dominion of Canada, the following answer was given by Mr. Thayne to 
the question as to how the present growth of wood might be maintained, so as to 
prevent its exhaustion : 

" P>y a system very different to the one pursued in the older Provinces of 
the Dominion, where the forest lands have been treated without due regard 
either for present purposes or for the future wants of the country. Here, how- 
ever,' the opinion was universal that the timber was inexhaustible, and that its 
destruction was advantageous to the country. It is only of late years that the 
fallacy of this belief has been brought home to the minds of those who have 
examined the matter. In the North-west the case is very different ; no compe- 
tent authority affects to maintain that the timber supply is equal to the wants 
of such a population as the fertile lands might be expected to support. The 
obvious policy of the government would, therefore, be to have the timber-pro- 
ducing regions surveyed at the earliest date, before any vested interests are 
created, and set apart permanent reserves wherever the adjacent lands require 
shelter, or where a large population is likely to settle. These reserves should be 
under the direct control of the government, who might either lease them, subject 
to the condition that the lessee should maintain a regular supply or, better still, 



164 



according to the system followed in the state forests of Northern Europe, a 
certain proportion of full-grown timber should be disposed of by public competi- 
tion the trees to be removed by the purchasers, the number being regulated by 
the requirements of the locality and the yield of the reserve." 

To the question as to what would be the probable effect on the prairies of 
the North-west if the settlers were under obligation to plant a certain number of 
acres of trees about their farms, it was replied that no provision would be likely 
to be of such general advantage, nor one better calculated to promote the welfare 
of the inhabitants, but under existing circumstances such a proposal was hardly 
practicable. It would be unreasonable to expect that an immigrant should know 
what plants would thrive on the soil he occupied. Very few settlers, indeed, are 
likely to have any experience in arboriculture, and with the great majority it is 
only too probable that the struggle for existence during the first years of their 
occupancy would preclude experiments involving any additional outlay of money 
or labor. To impose such an obligation on the colonist, it would be incumbent 
on the government to provide him with the means of fulfilling it, and this could 
be done only by establishing nurseries in the treeless sections, whence the seed- 
lings adapted to the locality might be distributed, either gratuitously, or at a 
very low price, with the needful instructions for their cultivation. These nur- 
series might be owned by the government or their formation encouraged by 
grants in aid to county or municipal authorities or associations. 

In reference to the maintenance of supplies in the north of Europe, Mr. 
Thayne replied that where the supply is limited, as in Germany, the laws are 
very stringent in some States, going so far as to prevent lands once under forest 
being devoted permanently to any other purpose ; in others, again, private land- 
holders have been prohibited from felling timber in the vicinity of streams, or 
wherever the forest inspectors consider the arable land adjacent requires shelter 
from the wind. Throughout the whole empire the forests are subjected to the 
watchful supervision of a specially trained corps of officials, and no efforts are 
spared to render them as productive as is compatible with their preservation, 
which latter is the first consideration. In Sweden, the large forests owned by 
the government (over 5,000,000 acres) are strictly preserved, trees of mature 
growth being sold at so much per stump, standing, the felling and removal being 
carried out at the purchaser's expense, but under the supervision of forest officials. 
Quite recently a law has been passed prohibiting the felling of trees under 
certain dimensions, but it only applies to the northern portion of the kingdom. 

It was proposed to apply it throughout the southern portion as well, but the 
opposition was so strong that the minister who introduced the measure resigned 
in consequence of its partial defeat. However, the whole tendency of legislation 
in the timber-producing countries of Europe is towards imposing restrictions 
upon forest owners, and investing the government with greater control over their 
lands, and there is little doubt that any marked decrease in the supply would be 
the signal for measures of a far more stringent character. 

Being asked as to whether the supply in Norway and Sweden was diminish- 
ing, notwithstanding the precautions that had been taken, the witness replied, 
that in the former country the decrease had been very considerable, many of the 
mill-owners being now compelled to purchase logs of large dimensions from 
Sweden. In the latter country there are man}^ districts denuded of all the best 
timber, and it may be said that the annual consumption is, throughout, larger 
than the annual growth. The falling off in the over- worked districts has hitherto 
had no perceptible effect upon the export trade, owing to the extension of the 
railway system, which has opened up many sections of forest land previously 
untouched. It is alleged by some that the extent of forest that may be made 



165 



available by railways is very large, while others assert that in these compara- 
tively unknown districts the quantity of purely merchantable timber is very 
limited. What may be taken for granted is, that while the area under wood 
suffers no perceptible decrease, the requirements of the home and foreign markets 
are augmenting in a ratio far beyond the productive power of the soil. 

To the inquiry as to how the government could promote forest culture in 
the North-west this witness replied : 

" In my opinion, their first duty is to ascertain the exact nature and extent 
of the timber supply in the wooded region, and this can be effected only by an 
exhaustive survey. It would then be possible to determine the area that should 
be set apart for the support of a permanent forest growth, due consideration 
being given to the nature of the climate, the condition of the river and other 
water sources, and the wants, present and prospective, of the population which 
the arable soil within access is likely to maintain. It would then be in order to 
reserve certain tracts for the growth of timber in the most fertile sections of the 
prairie lands. County or municipal authorities should be directed to establish 
reserves for the protection of river sources or to act as wind-breaks. Railway 
companies should be compelled to plant the waste lands bordering their tracts, 
and road-boards or trustees should be under a similar obligation wherever violent 
winds or snow-drifts were likely to impede traffic or endanger life. Finally, 
settlers should be encouraged to plant trees for shade and shelter. It would be 
erroneous to suppose that this system of forest preservation and extension would 
entail a burden on the exchequer ; the forest lands in the actual possession of the 
government may, by judicious management, be made to yield a large revenue 
beyond their expenses, and a portion of this income spent in planting the new 
reserves would, in course of time, become in such a country the most profitable 
of investments." 

The possibility of raising a second crop of timber in places where it has been 
consumed by fire being a subject of inquiry, no definite opinion could be 
expressed. The only experience in Canada was that of nature left to her own 
resources. What might be done by systematic culture is doubtful, as no experi- 
ments had been made ; nor, indeed, could it be said that the consequences arising 
from forest fires had been examined and reported upon by persons of sufficient 
authority to have any weight attached to their opinions. This much was certain, 
that wherever a fire ravaged a pine district, the new growth was of a totally 
different species, and in hard woods the result was similar. When fire runs 
along the soil it effectually destroys all vegetative power wherever the rock is. 
thinly covered, but when it is confined to the branches and trunks, no reason 
could be seen why the same species might not be regrown. It was feared that 
the pine would never pay to cultivate in Canada. At a small outlay the Crown 
Lands Department might easily ascertain what species of timber could succeed 
in pine-growing lands, and settle this and many other points of no small moment 
not only to forest science, but to the whole community. 

For the renewal of supplies in Norway and Sweden up to a very recent 
date, the natural growth has been depended upon to replace the timber felled for 
commercial purposes and that destroyed by fire. Of late years, however, the 
growing scarcity of wood has induced many Norwegian mill-owners to purchase 
cleared or partially-exhausted woodlands, and attempt planting on a large scale, 
and this movement is extending. Something similar has been undertaken in 
Sweden by the same class as also by the iron manufacturers, who are at the 
same time owners of extensive forests. The impression seems to be gaining 
ground in both countries that the present rate of consumption cannot be main- 
tained, unless steps are taken to assist the efforts of nature. Were the govern- 



1G6 



ments of those countries to introduce measures for the promotion of timber 
culture, they would not be under the disagreeable necessity of imposing restric- 
tions that operate frequently to the disadvantage of trade. There is no fact 
better proved than the one that capital invested in the cultivation of timber 
yields immense returns. 

It is claimed that the area under forests in Sweden amounts to 150,000 
square miles, and in Norway to 50,000 square miles. Competent judges are of 
opinion that, in the former country less than one-half, or about 40,000,000 acres, rep- 
resent the total quantity of land bearing merchantable timber ; an area not larger 
than that which the Province of Quebec might set apart for the production of 
timber without encroaching on lands adapted to agricultural purposes. In the 
older Provinces of the Dominion there is an extent of forest territory far greater 
than there is in the north of Europe, if we except Russia. 

OTHER STATEMENTS CONCERNING THE FOREST RESOURCES OF CANADA. 

The annual reports of the Montreal Board of Trade and Corn Association > 
in giving statements of the dealings in forest products from year to year, have 
repeatedly called attention to the great and needless waste that was continually 
going on, and have suggested the propriety of compulsory regulations to enforce 
economy in lumbering operations. The custom of levying dues upon logs by 
number, without reference to quality, naturally leads the lumbermen to select 
only the best leaving the poorer grades to rot in the woods. But if these dues 
were imposed on the basis of quality an expensive system of inspection in the 
woods would be involved, and it has been suggested that the most satisfactory 
means of collecting the revenue would be by an ad valorem rate on the timber 
sawed and exported, as could be best done by the inland revenue department. 

It has been 'further suggested that rigorous measures should be devised and 
enforced with the view of preventing the vast damages annually done by forest 
fires, and that inducement should be offered for information that should lead to 
the punishment of those originating them, whether wilfully or by accident. 
" Such a fire may have been set by a stray hunter or fisherman bent on sport, or 
by the clearing of some pioneer far in advance of the frontier settlement, or, as 
is often the case, by some of the lumbermen's employees, who, troubled by the 
flies on the banks of a stream, may have kindled a fire to secure protection from 
their tormentors which the smoke affords." The remedy against these acts of 
carelessness or malice must be found in adequate penalties rigidly enforced, and 
of such degree as to render it certain that due care shall be taken in the handling 
of tires in the woods. 

With respect to the rate of reproduction of woodlands and the measures 
that deserve attention in securing that end, the reports in former years offer the 
following statements and opinions : 

" To obtain an idea of the regular increase in the value of growing timber it 
may be supposed that it grows one-quarter of an inch in diameter yearly, which 
is not over the mark ; and as the trees cut will average about twenty inches in 
diameter, the increase in size will, therefore, be about seven and a-half feet per 
log, board measure, or over three and a-half per cent. If to this, three and a-half 
per cent, be added to the sum lost by over-production, an idea of the foolishness 
of such a policy may be had. It is quite certain that as timber gets cut away 
and becomes scarce, prices will rise ; and that the lumberers of the present genera- 
tion are actually killing the hen that would, if properly treated, continue to lay 
golden eggs. 



167 



" Government would deserve the praise of the future inhabitants of the 
country if they would originate a scheme for planting with young timber trees 
the immense wastes of the Province of Quebec. Such an investment would certainly 
not pay a dividend to this generation, but it would utilize what will only be a 
wilderness when the present trees are all cut, and would be a mine of wealth to 
those who possess it when the timber becomes large enough to be merchantable. 
By maintaining a judiciously -matured system of planting, the supply might be 
prolonged indefinitely ; as it is, the forests are denuded of all their valuable 
timber and comparatively nothing grows up to supply its place. A very large 
proportion of the country north of the Ottawa is not fit for farming, and never 
can be properly made fit for grain-growing or pasturage, but it is admirably 
suited for the growth of timber ; and even a limited experiment would soon 
convince all as to the good results likely to accrue. The cost would be small, 
there being many large tracts so cleared by repeated fires that there is nothing 
left to burn. The expense would only be the cost of the plants and their planting, 
and that would not be much ; for the seed could be sown in a cleared spot, where 
the plants would be set out. The whole arrangement would, of course, require to 
be planned by a practical man and properly carried out ; and, such being the 
case, there need be no fear of the result. What is above suggested can be done, 
and may yet be accomplished ; and he who does it will be a greater benefactor to 
Canada than any of the statesmen of the present day." 

An English traveller, after noticing the apparently abundant supply of wood- 
lands observed in passing through the settled parts of Canada and the same 
remark would eqally apply to considerable portions of the once heavily-timbered 
regions of the United States thus remarks, concerning the actual resources 
of these forests in meeting the demands of commerce : 

" It must often happen to the traveller who travels only the more frequented 
routes, when he sees great rafts made out of huge blocks of timber floating down 
the Canadian rivers, to wonder what part of the country produces trees so much 
larger than any to be seen along its way. Near the thoroughfares of Canadian 
travel hardly any trees of great bulk remain. . . . The fact is that, for the 
very large timber, the lumbermen have now to go deep into the country, and far 
out of the common way. Along the travelled routes you see woods out of which 
all the finest trees have been long ago cut ; and even where you do see trees of 
large girth in Canada, they have seldom had such room to spread and such free 
air around them as would have enabled them to develop into objects magnificent 
in themselves. On the Ottawa, for instance, you may often observe how some 
one tree in the thick forest having somehow been endowed with a little more 
hardy vitality than its young and half -smothered fellows, has forced its way 
right through their competing branches, got its head well into the clear, open 
daylight, and so vigorously prospered as to have grown to immense sturdiness of 
trunk ; but even it is pretty sure to bear marks of the hard struggle undergone, 
and to have had its branches and off-shoots, on some side or other at least, checked 
and hindered in their development, if not crushed and blackened into utter dead- 
ness. Whatever charm Canadian woods may have, Canada is not the place to see 
the beauty of fine single trees. To go in amongst Canadian woods are poor in 
comparison with the new forest ; but when the eye ranges over a great tract of 
them, often they are indeed most beautiful ; as, for example, where they rise and 
fall over hillsides or undulating ground, or are interspersed with gray boulders 
and sharp points of jutting rock, and are set off by contrast with waters brightly 
glimmering at their foot. Such are the woods along much of the Ottawa's course, 
picturesque and lovely at any time, magnificent when kindled with the colouring 
<of an American autumn. Scenery like this will not easily pall upon the eye, but 



168 



to travel miles after miles with your view narrowly closed upon either side by 
flat, unrelieved, unbroken woods, of ungainly and half-developed trees, is a thing 
far more wearying to the sight than even a journey over the bare wilderness of 
the prairie. Then, whenever the continuousness of thick woods is broken, it is 
apt to give place to something not more cheerful. Here you come into the 
clearing made by some recent fire, where the crowd of living and struggling trees 
has been burned into a few bare, blackened poles, standing in their gaunt unsight- 
liness, the ghosts of their former selves, with other blackened logs and branches 
lying strewn over the scorched ground. Again, you plunge into the forest, and 
see it as it makes itself without the ordering hand of man now dense, and now 
thin trees of different kinds, not generally blended together in intermixture, 
but standing apart as nature has sorted them ; and as, in the great struggle for 
existence, every kind ousted from elsewhere has been forced into the station best 
fitted for its support ; trees of all ages fighting together for bare life ; some 
vigorous and freshly green, and feathered down to the very ground ; some weakly 
and faded, and only flinging out here and there ragged and ill-balanced branches; 
some that are mere dead corpses and have fallen aslant out of their places, bruising 
and breaking the living ; some that, with their lower branches all torn and maimed, 
have yet stretched up out of the throng, and seem as if straining all the life 
within them to peer over the heads of their fellows, and catch glimpses of how 
the fire, their deadliest enemy, is spreading havoc nearer and nearer. Again, you 
are once more in open grounds, lately cleared by some settler, who has ploughed 
and sown among the tree stumps, those broken columns of the forest ruin ; fenced 
in his clearing with the rude zig-zag wall of logs, the universal snake-fence of 
the country ; built up his log hut in the midst, and set himself to that task which 
takes half the lifetime of a man to carry out, the turning of forest land into a 
farm. After many hours of such a journey, and after many days of similar 
journeyings, the English traveller will not find himself thinking less fondly o 
the more smiling landscape at home."' 

THE WASTE IN WORKING SQUARE TIMBER. ECONOMIES IN THE TIMBER 

TRADE. 

Concerning the great waste from the preparation of hewn timber, as hereto- 
fore practiced, the Commissioner of Crown Lands for the Province of Ontario, in 
his report for the year 1879, says : 

" The great loss sustained yearly by the Province and the revenue from 
waste of valuable material in the manufacture of square and waney pine, 
especially in connection with the former, which is hewn to a " proud edge," has 
for some time occupied my serious attention. It is estimated on good grounds, 
that one-fourth of every tree cut down to be made into square or waney timber 
is lost to the wealth of the country, and that the revenue suffers proportionally. 
When the tree is cut down, it is lined off for squaring, and the " round " outside 
of the lines is what is called beaten off on the four sides ; the wood thus beaten 
or slashed off in preparation for hewing by the broadaxe is the prime part of the 
tree, from which the best class of clear lumber is obtained when the timber is 
taken in the round to a saw-mill. Besides the destruction of timber of the finest 
texture and greatest value, there is the upper portion of the tree, near to and 
partly into the top, which would yield lumber of an inferior quality, it is true, 

* Sketches from America, by John White, Fellow of Queen's College (1870), p: 166. 



169 



but suitable either for domestic use or for export to the American market, where, 
during general business prosperity, large quantities of the lower grades of lumber 
are required for packing and other purposes connected with trade of all kinds, as 
much as 100,000,000 feet, it is stated, being sold annually by two or three firms 
in Brooklyn and New York, to be used as boxes for packages of petroleum alone; 
but the upper part of the tree is rejected by the square-timber manufacturer and 
left in the woods, with the fine wood beaten off, to rot and become material for 
feeding forest fires, by which more timber has been destroyed than has ever been 
cut down for commercial purposes. 

" The following will show the estimated loss to the Province and the revenue 
from waste in getting out square pine from 1868 to 1877, both inclusive : Total 
quantity taken from public and private lands during the ten years, 119,250,420 
cubic feet ; waste, one-fourth of each tree, equal to one-third of the total men- 
tioned, viz., 39,750,140 cubic feet, or say, in round numbers, 477,000,000 feet, 
board measure, which may be valued, one-half at $10 per 1.000 feet, and one-half 
at $5 per 1,000 feet, representing relatively the prime timber beaten off and the 
inferior timber from the upper part of the tree, average value say $7.50 per 1,000 
feet, equal to $3,577,500 loss to the Province for the ten years, or an annual loss 
in material wealth of $357,750. 

" The quantity taken from public lands during the ten years is 87,620,135 
cubic feet, the waste on which, on the basis given, being equal to 29,206,711 
cubic feet, or 350,000,000 feet, board measure, subject to Crown dues at $750 per 
1,000,000 feet, equal to $262,500 lost to the revenue during the ten years, or afc 
the rate of $26,250 per annum.* 

" The loss to the country and revenue from timber destroyed by fires, which 
might have been confined to a limited area, and possibly extinguished, before great 
damage had been done to the forest, had they not been fed by the debris of trees 
left to rot and dry, is incalculable. 

" In 1877, 1 instructed the officer in charge of the woods and forests branch of 
the department to prepare a paper on the waste of timber referred to, for the 
purpose of submitting it to the department of Crown lands of Quebec, with the 
view of joint action by the two Provinces towards the discouragement of the 
further continuance of the square timber trade. 

" On addressing himself to the task, he found that the lack of knowledge of 
the mode of dealing with the square timber, after its arrival in the old country in 
the square " log," was a great drawback to writing intelligently on the subject, 
as it was essential to know how the timber was disposed of at the great centres 
of import, such as Liverpool, London, Glasgow, etc.; who the parties were who 
ultimately acquired the handling of it ; where it was cut into specification bills 
to meet the wants of those who put the product of the " logs," after they had been 
reduced to the required dimensions, to practical use, etc , so that the department 
might be in possession of facts, more or less important, when it undertook to 
show those who are engaged in the trade in Canada, that in abandoning it, and 
thereby stopping the supply of square timber, they would create a market for 
their material on the other side of the Atlantic in the shape of sawn lumber. 

*If every part of the outside wood wasted in squaring timber could be used, the loss might be estimated 
at a much higher rate than is above estimated. If the area of a given circle be 1, the area of an enclosed 
square is 0.636 nearly. The loss is therefore about 0.364 in the outer wood alone, to say nothing of the tops 
left on the ground. But as there must inevitably be some loss in working, there could scarcely be realized 
more than 25 per cent. This, in the aggregate of large quantities, is a loss so immense that it should 
attract the attention of the manufacturers and lead to a thoughtful study into the means for its avoidance. 
In the careless way that lumber is manufactured, and with the wide-set saws too much in use, it could be 
easily shown that more than half the material of our forests is wasted, a considerable part of which might, 
with proper care, be saved. 



170 



" I have since procurred some information on the points referred to, from 
which I learn that the timber is imported directly by wealthy saw-mill proprietors 
either by the venture of individuals singly, in so many cargoes in each year, 
or the importation of a number of cargoes annually by several mill-men combined; 
or it is consigned by Canadian shippers to brokers or agents to be sold on commis- 
sion ; in the latter case, the timber is generally disposed of at auction, at which 
the saw-mill owners purchase it, and any surplus over what they require for their 
own establishments they sell in small quantities, sometimes a few pieces at a time, 
to builders and country dealers of limited means who have it sawn at small mills, 
and often by hand, at the villages in the interior for local wants. These saw-mill 
proprietors, having virtually a monopoly of the lumber and bill stuff produced 
from the timber imported or purchased by them at auction sales, are naturally 
opposed to the introduction of wood goods into the market they supply in any 
other shape than in the square log, as at present ; but it is time that the Canadian 
lumberer engaged in the square-pine business should open his eyes to the alarming 
waste of a material, the value of which is increasing every year ; that, in fact, he 
is stripping his limits and disposing of his timber frequently at a loss, or at best, 
during several years past, at a rate which seldom pays more than the cost of 
cutting down, squaring, drawing and taking to market, while at the same time he 
leaves in the woods as useless one-fourth of each tree he levels to the ground, 
one-half of the timber so left being the most valuable part of the tree ; and see 
the necessity of his turning his attention to saw-milling operations as a more 
economical mode of manufacturing; his timber, by which he would not only benefit 
himself by turning to profitable account what is now so wantonly wasted, but the 
Province generally by increasing the field of labor for its people, while the 
Provincial treasury would derive additional revenue from the material saved and 

> 

utilized. 

" It may not be out of place to mention here that saw-milling is, to a certain 
extent, a factor in the settlement of the country, from the fact that many of the 
employees, from their steady habits and value as workmen, are kept in permanent 
employment summer and winter in connection with the establishments, and are 
induced in consequence to take up lands in the vicinity, which are improved by 
the families of those having grown-up children, and by hired help in the case of 
unmarried men, till ultimately considerable sections in the neighborhood of the 
mills would become settled and cleared, with comfortable homes on the locations; 
while, on the contrary, the men employed in getting out square timber are gener- 
ally without fixed homes or continuous employment. Their engagements terminate 
in the spring ; in the interim, until they re-engage for the following winter, they 
too frequently remain idle, and spend their earnings in a reckless manner, and are 
penniless and often in debt when they return to the woods." 

After noticing various available forest commodities for exportation from 
Canada, such as pit-props, mining timbers, telegraph poles, railway ties, etc., the 
forms and dimensions best suited to the English market, and suggestions as to 
their preparation, the commissioner refers to the topic he had previously been 
discussing with reference to the encouragement of sawn goods for exportation 
instead of the wasteful practise of getting out hewn timber. His suggestions 
have no local application, and are well suited to any region or conntry that has 
commodities to export. 

" The characteristic of modern commerce is to seek out markets wherever they 
can be found, in which commodities to be disposed of can be sold to the best 
advantage whether natural products in a raw state where the means of profitable 
manufacture do not exist where they are produced, or in a manufactured state 
when such means are available, and in proportion to the energy and enterprise 



171 



used in pressing forward and occupying every vantage ground in trade, is the 
measure of success which attends individuals and communities. It is not usual 
in these days to wait until a customer comes knocking at your door to find out 
what you have for sale ; to succeed, it is necessary that such should be made 
known far and wide ; and to create a business of any magnitude the first object 
is to find out what is required not only at home but abroad, and having the 
article, to calculate whether or not the field can can be entered at a fair profit in 
furnishing what is wanted. 

" In the Canadian timber trade there seems to have been no lack of energy ; 
but in my humble opinion it does not appear to have been accompanied by that 
kind of prudent enterprise which might be expected from the intelligent men 
who are engaged in it. The square-pine manufacturers have been contented from 
year to year to go on bargaining with a Quebec merchant to get out so many 
cubic feet of a certain average for a price agreed upon ; the merchant writes 
home to his agent or partner to effect sales, or goes himself or some one for him 
for that purpose, or frequently ships on his own account the timber which the 
lumberer has contracted for and delivered to him. Not unfrequently the 
lumberer possessed of means gets out his timber without advances in money or 
supplies having been made to him and takes it to Quebec to sell it at the best 
price he can obtain from the dealers there. Sometimes this has succeeded better 
than contracting ; but where the venture fails through a downward tendency in 
the market or a rise in freights, it becomes a serious matter to hold it over, as cove 
charges and other incidentals rapidly effect a shrinkage in the value of the article. 

" But so it has gone on since the early days of getting out square pine ; 
the same well-trodden rut has been travelled ; the same traffic in the timber in the 
crude shape of the square " log " has been continued, the actual producer and quasi 
proprietor of the pine upon the timber limits reflecting on the waste of material, 
or the propriety and prudence of economizing it and turning it to more profitable 
account. 

" Saw-mill owners, although they have had trying times during the past few 
years, are not generally so unfortunate as the operators in square pine, the 
trade in which is peculiarly fluctuating and uncertain. The former have always 
had more or less of the domestic trade : and, unless under extraordinary circum- 
stances, such as the late prolonged depression, can depend on the United States 
for a market, with prices generally affording a reasonable profit, notwithstanding 
the American duty of two dollars per one thousand feet ; and with these markets, 
domestic and across the line, they have seemed to be satisfied without seeking a 
European opening for their lumber. 

" I feel a delicacy in giving advice in this matter to parties who may very 
naturally say that they know their own business best ; but, nevertheless, I will 
venture to observe that those in Canada engaged or interested in the trade in 
timber which is next in value to agricultural products in the exports of the 
Dominion, viz., in 1878, $20,054,829, and $27,281,089, respectively, should acquire 
. a knowledge of and endeavor to cultivate a transatlantic trade, and would 
suggest that a spirited effort should be made to extend the sawn-lumber business 
to countries which have hitherto imported the timber in a crude state and 
manufactured it to suit their purposes. Already have the European and other 
markets been successfully invaded by the produce of industries of various kinds, 
from the American continent, and there seems to be no reason why our great 
staple export should not meet with equal success. 

: ' It may seem out of place in this report to indicate in anything like detail 
the steps which might be adopted to carry out what has been hinted at, but a 



172 



preliminary step would seem to be for a few saw-mill proprietors to join together 
and send to the old country two or three practical men, having a thorough 
knowledge of lumbering, the different qualities of lumber produced in Canada, 
and the minutias of the working of saw-mills, who might be accompanied by one 
or two joiners or house carpenters to make technical observations as to the 
various uses and forms in which the lumber is applied. Let these parties visit 
the larger saw-mills in England, Ireland, and Scotland, and on the continent, if 
deemed expedient, with sufficient time allowed to inspect and report on the 
whole subject to their employers, having specially in view the required dimensions 
of boards and bill stuff in all forms, which would suit the several markets ; and 
also make inquiry as to freights, insurance, port charges, etc., and upon such 
report, and after due consideration, the parties interested would be in a position 
to come to a conclusion whether or not a fair paying business could be pushed; 
in the direction indicated. The attempt seems to be worth making ; and if 
prepared assortments of Canadian lumber were exhibited in the principal markets 
of the old country, even although they may not take at first, which perhaps would 
be too much to expect, there is at least a prospect ot success through the exercise 
of sound judgment, patience, and perseverance." 



EXPORTATION OF FOREST PRODUCTION OF CANADA. 

From the earliest period of colonial trade the export of timber has been an 
important item of production for the British market, and much of the timber 
exported from the northern frontier of the United States has been shipped from 
Quebec, being generally rafted down the rapids of the St. Lawrence and placed' 
upon vessels at Quebec. In later years the timber of the country bordering 
upon the upper lakes was brought in vessels to Clayton, N.Y. or to the foot of 
Wolfe Island, or to Garden Island, near Kingston, at which places for a long 
period, the principal business of making up rafts for the navigation of the 
rapids has been done. More recently the business of Clayton has much declined, 
while that of Wolfe Island and of Garden Island has increased. 

This exportation of timber has been largely affected by the tariffs, which 
from political and financial reasons, the British Government thought it proper to 
impose. 

From the report of a select committee of the House of Lords, appointed in, 
1820 to inquire into the means of extending and securing the foreign trade of 
the country we learn that the encouragement afforded to the importation of 
wood from the British Colonies in North America by the imposition of heavy 
duties on wood from foreign States was of comparatively recent date, and that it 
had not formed a part of the commercial or colonial policy of the country before the 
then recent European wars. Till 1809 little or no duty had been imposed upon 
the various species of timber, but in that and the succeeding year, however, the 
nature of the political relations with the Baltic powers led to an apprehension 
that great difficulty might be found in deriving the usual supplies of timber 
from that quarter, not only for domestic use, but more particularly for the pur- 
poses of ship-building. The Canadian timber trade had not then been large in 
the aggregate, although relatively important to the country. There being some 
risk and uncertainty in a further expansion of the business, it was deemed 
expedient to give Canadian timber the benefit of an exemption from all duties 



173 



on such as was fit for naval use, and a duty little more than nominal on other 
descriptions, while, at the same time, a considerable increase was made in the 
duty on wood from the north of Europe. 

High permanent duties and a temporary war-duty were accordingly imposed 
upon all descriptions of wood imported from foreign countries.* 

The Canadian merchants were never led to believe by the Government that 
these duties were to be permanent, but an expectation was held out that the 
duty of 2 Is. first imposed would be continued for some considerable time. No 
such expectation was fairly raised with respect to the war duty and the duty 
imposed in 1813, and the exemptions from duty on Canadian timber had always 
been temporary, and were limited to July 1820f 

The protection thus begun was continued many years, and the two great 
monopolies of corn and timber -the first maintained for the assumed benefit of 
the possessors of land ; the second conceded to the cla nour of a certain class of 
ship-owners became through after years the object of attack by an energetic 
class of reformers, representing the more numerous but less organized class of 
consumers, until their efforts were finally crowned with success. After succes- 
sive reductions from time to time the rates on timbar from every country were 
reduced about 1859, to the uniform rate of 2s. per ton, and not long afterwards 
they were taken off altogether. 

The following tables are derived from the reports upon Trade and Navigation 
reported annually by the Minister of Customs since the beginning of the 
X)jminion Government, July 1, 1867, and previously by the Eeceiver-General of 
Canala. The column of years will bs understood to ba calendar years until the 
change ma.de in 1864, when the fiscal year, beginning July 1, was subscituted. 

*49 Geo. Ill, c. 93. These were doubled by the 50 Geo. IIL c. 77, and afterwards part- 
ally increas3d by the 5L Geo. III. c. 93 and by ths 52 Geo, IIL c. 117 and a duty 25 per cent. 
upon the whole of the permanent duties were added by the 53 Geo. c. 33. The several duties 
above referred to were afterwards arranged and consolidated by the 59 Geo. IIL c. 52. 

The duty upon a load (50 cubic feet) of Biltic timber, which at the beginning of the wars 
in the early part of this century had been 6s. 8d. was raised by inconsiderable steps to 26s. 2d. 
in 1808, doubled in 1811, ani in 1813 further advanced to 65s. Colonial timber, which had been 
admitted free of duty up to 1798, was then subjected to a duty of 3 per cent, ad valorem. 
From 1803 to 1803 the ad valorem rate was changed to a specific duty of abj.it 2s. a loid, and in 
the latter year this was removed. In 1821, in consequence of the report of the committee of 
the House of Lords, above cited, the system was changed by reducing the rate on European 
timber, while that from the colonies was made 10s. In 1840, Is. 6d. per load was added to them 
respectively. In October, 1843, the duties were reduced to 25s. per load on foreign timber, 
.and 2s. per load on that from British colonies. G. R. Porter's Progress of the Nation, 1847, 
p. 380. 

t Parliamentary Papers, 1820, vol. 3. (269), p. 4. 



174 



COMPARISON OF THE SEVERAL CLASSES OF FOREST PRODUCTS EXPORTED 

FROM THE PROVINCE OF CANADA DURING THE TWELVE YEARS PRECEDING THE 

FORMATION OF THE DOMINION GO\ T ERNMENT. 

(Quantities and Values.} 



Years. 


Ash. 


Birch. 


Elm. 


Maple. 


Tons. 


Value. 


Tons. 


Value. 


Tons. 


Value. 


Tons. 


Value. 


1856 


2,589 


$14,403 


4,556 


$40,200 


36,453 


$508,433 


18 


$169 


1857 


3,485 


25,360 


5,026 


46,985 


37,984 


432,822 


169 


1,593 


1858 


2,378 


16,999 


4,005 


30,339 


19,451 


163,389 


37 


285 


1859 


4,313 


24,067 


7,937 


56,294 


26,278 


200,840 


84 


728 


1860 


2,478 


14,976 


12,508 


100,759 


25,629 


207,297 


249 


1,996 


1861 


2,422 


12,708 


8,397 


60,585 


32,610 


265,562 


127 


1,014 


1862 


2,496 


12,770 


4,159 


32,424 


27,689 


202,573 


139 


882 


1863 


8,341 


42,255 


11,256 


89,111 


53,392 


421,180 


440 


2,620 


1864* 


1,319 


6,667 


3,315 


26,413 


14,331 


114,414 


53 


366 


1865t 


3,670 


22,689 


10,488 


82,638 


49,048 


387,655 


110 


1,350 


1866f 


2,860 


20,986 


8,793 


72,505 


29,483 


255,670 


152 


1,268 


1867t 


3,631 


26,074 


9,394 


81,355 


28,476 


252,647 


76 


643 



Half year ending June 30. 



t Year ending June 30. Since 1864. 



Years. 


Oak. 


White pine. 


Red pine. 


Tamarack, 


Tons. 


Value. 


Tons. 


Value. 


Tons. 


Value. 


Tons. 


Value. 


1856 


33,814 


$377,190 


361,046 


$2,062,003 


61,943 


$471,691 


2,117 


$13,381 


1857 


48,539 


576,630 


500,781 


2,821,320 


61,323 


526,458 


4,571 


28,471 


1858 


26,904 


377,561 


344,981 


1,811,340 53,143 


374,079 


995 


5,411 


1859 


34,300 


359,731 


395,694 


2,249,006 43,643 


363,567 


2,185 


11,382 


1860 


41,553 


404,861 


490,233 


2,582,605 62,573 


507,610 


2,589 


17,023- 


1861 


55,979 


' 526,997 


523,112 


2,594,388 71,381 


508,609 


1,802 


11,116: 


1862 


47,436 


527,317 


430,257 


2,110,046 66.563 


452,113 


14,861 


33,301 


1863 


73,327 


754,328 


650,483 


3,304,903 103,329 


745,642 


19,591 


124,955 


1864* 


28,387 


205,546 


194,822 


918,323 32,653 


230,831 


5,326 


34,994 


1865t 


118,313 


1,089,417 


606,300 


2,963,534 108,877 


761,037 


10,681 


65,332 


1866t 


64,026 


710,861 


450,950 


2,324,063 85,638 


593,134 


11,266 


71,938 


1867+ 


62,895 


; 696, 461 


413,036 


2,118,754 


78,792 


499,858 


5,411 


36,015 



Half-year ending June 30. 



f Year ending June 30. Since 1864. 



175 



EXPORTS TO GREAT BRITAIN.* 

The timber trade of British North America is principally concentrated within 
the Provinces of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, and throughout the >t>- 
Lawrence and Ottawa River basins, and north-western Ontario. 

Up to about the year 1842 and partially afterwards a very much lower 
duty was levied in Great Britain on wood which was the produce of Canada than 
on similar imports from European nations. This led to the fostering of a very 
large trade, especially in hewn timber, from Quebec and the lower ports on the 
St. Lawrence a region which forty or fifty years ago was looked upon as Great 
Britain's principal source of supply. Large quantities of white pine and spruce 
as well as a small supply of red pine are still exported ; the first being partly 
hewn and partly sawn, while the second is mostly in a sawn condition. A 
considerable quantity of oak, elm, ash and birch is likewise exported. 

The following return of shipments will best show the movements of the 
Quebec export trade for the nine years ending with 1882. 

"--* - 

In 1874, 854 timber carrying vessels of 636,672 tons cleared out. 



1875, 642 

1876, 786 

1877, 796 

1878, 476 

1879, 433 

1880, 634 

1881, 459 

1882, 426 



478,441 
624,110 
670,620 
399,833 
364,628 
555,451 
380,186 
359,925 



Small parcels of sawn wood are shipped by steamer from Quebec, and these- 
are not included in the above table ; but such supplies although considerably 
larger than they were some years ago, are not sufficient to alter the fact that this 
export trade of Quebec is declining. 

The following is a detailed statement in loads of the principal items of which 
that export was composed for the five years mentioned, namely : 



HEWN WOOD * 


1879 


1880 


1881 


1882 


1883 


Square and waney pine 


106,009 


231,051 


182,038 


158,243 


208,540 


Red pine 


16,276 


28,664 


18,440 


20,494 


20,979 


Oak 


33,620 


46,337 


37 667 


39 147 


42 658 


Elm 


10 880 


20,836 


15 943 


15 567 


14 798' 


Birch 


3,929 


11,177 


5,878 


42,274 


4,661 


SAWN WOOD : 
Pine deals. . 


122,602 


266,900 


177,659 


144 315 


183 016 


Spruce deals 


130,740 


147,673 


141,962 


127,752 


125,108 















There are no means of ascertaining the exact amount of the Quebec ship- 
ments to the United Kingdom, but it is probably about five-sixths of the whole 
quantity despatched over sea. The total export of Quebec wood to Europe 

*Robert Carrick, Oefle, Sweden, in Forestry and Forest Products (Edinburgh), 1884. 



176 



in 1883 had an approximate value of $7,802,550. A small but increasing business 
is likewise no\v bein done with South America. 

ci 

The city of Ottawa is the headquarters of the timber-manufacturing interest 
of Canada. The wood goods sawn here are principally pine boards for the United 
States mai'ket, and it is no exaggeration to say that the Ottawa valley production 
of sawn timber is at present the largest in the world. This reached a total of 
about 1,320,000 loads in 1882. Such a production far exceeds that of any district 
in Europe. 

New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, however, must for the present be regarded 
as the seats par excellence of Great Britain's supply of American spruce. The 
chief ports that are engaged in shipping this class of goods, are St. John, 
Miramichi, Dalhonsie, Richibucto and Bathurst, the bulk being despatched from 
the two first named. 

In connection with this question, it is necessary to consider whether the 
Dominion of Canada can keep up or increase her present output, without 
endangering the future of her forests, and what proportion of that output will be 
required at home and in the United States. 

In seeking an answer to these queries, only white pine, red pine and spruce 
need be considered, seeing that the quantities of oak, elm, birch and ash now being 
exported, are comparatively small. 9 

So far as red pine timber is concerned, the supply has gradually diminished 
to a quarter of what it was in 1863. A substitute for it has been found in pitch 
pine, so that it is not much missed. 

Hewn and sawn white pine is a most valuable description of timber, and 
when of the finest grades, is unrivalled for many purposes, such as house build- 
ing, and other wood-work. It has been largely and continuously imported into 
the United Kingdom for more than fifty years, and a fully equivalent substitute 
will be difficult to find. The White Sea redwood approaches nearest to it in 
point of quality, but the latter in addition to its smaller dimensions and greater 
knottine.ss has other defects that diminish its value in comparison with the 
former. 

The quantity of hewn white pine received at Quebec in 1876, was about 
19,243,733 cubic feet, whereas in 1883, it was but 11,198,557 cubic feet, or taking 
the average for the years 1871 to 1875 inclusive, it exceeded 14,000,000 cubic 
feet per annum ; while for the five seasons, 1879 to 1883 inclusive, it was but 
8,412,654 cubic feet. On the other hand the supply of white pine deals to 
Quebec has not decreased in so pronounced a manner, for although in 1876 it 
reached 278,363 loads, and only 147,979 loads in 1883, the average of the five 
years ending 1885, was 187,187 loads, against 238,731 loads on an average for the 
five years ending with 1880. Such figures in conjunction with the history of 
the quantity exported of late years, bear abundant evidence to the fact that a 
diminished quantity is available for export to Europe. 

Reference may be made to the attempt which was made in connection with 
the tenth census of the United States to ascertain the quantity of mature white 
pine then existent in that country and ready for the axe. Professor Sargent, who 
had charge of this part of the census, reported in 1882 in these words : " The 
entire supply (of white pine) growing in the United States and ready for the axe 
does not to-day greatly, if at all, exceed 80,000,000,000 feet ; and this estimate 
includes the small and inferior trees which, a few years ago, would not have been 
considered worth counting. The annual production of this timber is not far from 
10,000,000,000 feet, and the demand is constantly and rapidly increasing." 

According to this semi-official statement, there was, some years ago, only 
about eight years' supply, and now there is supposed to be only six or seven 



177 



years' consumption ; there is, fortunately, reason to believe that the statement 
is inaccurate, and proof of the assertion that the United States consumes 
5,050,000 of St. Petersburg standard hundreds, or 16,665,000 loads of white 
pine wood annually, will be awaited with interest. It must be taken into con- 
sideration that Canada supplies a good percentage of the present United States 
consumption, and that the precise minimum dimension has not been defined which 
the census assessors have put down as ready for the axe. The large number of 
trees, too, which, in the course of eight or ten years will reach the cutting size, 
although now a trifle under it, must also be considered. Taking credit for all these 
items, however, and assuming the available quantity to be as much underrated 
as the consumption is evidently over-estimated, the outlook is sufficiently alarm- 
ing, and amply justifies compulsory replanting and reforesting enactments 
wherever the ground is best adapted for the production of forest.* 

As regards American spruce, which competes in the British market with 
Swedish and Russian white wood, the question of its future supply becomes one 
of paramount weight. One of the most important facts to be borne in mind, is 

* At a meeting of the Genessee Valley Forestry Association, held in the Chamber of Commerce 
Booms at Rochester, on the I0th May, 1892, Mr. B E. Fernow, Chief of the Division of 
Forestry, Department of Agriculture, is reported to have said : " Although there is still plenty 
of virgin timber in the country, the time when it will be comparatively exhausted is drawing 
near. We have in the United States about 500,000,000 acres in woodland. If all this were in 
good condition, with full grown timber on it which is far from being true there could not be 
found on it more than 1,500,000,000,000 cubic feet of wood, which is at the rate of 10,000 feet 
b.m. of saw- timber per acre in the average. Since we use annually from 20,000,000,000 to 
25,000,000,000 cubic feet of wood, of which 30,000,000,000 to 40,000,000,000 feet b.m. is saw- 
timber, it appears that even with these extravagant assumptions regarding supplies, we would 
exhaust them in sixty or seventy years, assuming that new growth is consumed by increased 
requirements. That this increase takes place may be learned from my computation, according 
to which the values of forest products and wood manufactures during the census years 1860, 
1870, 1880 and 1890 amount to $300,000,000, $600,000,000, $900,000,000 and $1,200,000,000, 
respectively, or an increase of thirty per cent, for every decade ; and since it takes at least sixty 
to seventy years to grow saw-timber what we now cut is usually twice as old, or more it 
would appear that whoever invests his money in forest culture to-day must be amply repaid- by 
the crop, albeit his children will reap the profits really. Certain it is that it always requires 
time, and quite a long time, before the results of such management become visible, and that is 
largely why people are afraid to stake their money in the business. 

" For profitable forest management, good, permanent roads are indispensable. Their 
money value may be judged from the experience of the little Dukedom of Brunswick, where, 
without any other changes, the building of a rational system of roads through its forest domain 
increased the income from the forest management by twenty per cent. 

"In the government forests the annual net profits range from $4.11 per acre of forest in 
the highly cultivated and densely populated Kingdom of Saxony, to $1.19 in mountainous 
Bavaria, where the government forests comprise 2,300,000 acres on which the government 
spends $3,130,000 and gets in return $5,880,000, netting $2,730,000 every year, and giving 
besides employment to a large force of men. In Prussia the net annual profit for every acre of 
woodland was at the rate of $1.31 on $6,000,000 acres woodland, the expenditure last year bein^ 
nearly $8,800,000 for the administration , and with prices in the woods of three dollars per cord 
of fire-wood in the average, and ten dollars and thirty-two cents per thousand feet b.m. of saw- 
timber, the returns were over $17,600,000, netting $8,835,119, and this is continuous, ever 
increasing revenue. 

" Why should not the State of New York, now owning as State property twice the area 
which little Saxony owns in woodlands, and proposing to acquire additional lands so as to make 
the area between that of Bavaria and Prussia's government forests, why should not New York 
make its Adirondack forests, if not as profitable, yet fairly so, as those States have made their 
woodlands pay ? 

" To bring this about, it is necessary to secure as soon as possible the acerage before it be- 
comes more expensive, to place it under competent administration, to open up and make 
accessible the wilderness by a rational system of well-built roads, and inviting, not keeping out 
the railroads, under such restrictions to be sure as will properly guard the forest against danger 
from fires, for accessibility is the key-note of practical and profitable forest management." 

12 (F.) 



178 



the ease, rapidity and spontaneous manner in which this tree reproduces itself. 
Unlike white pine, which requires a century to grow a standard log, spruce is 
almost irrepressible, and a spruce forest from which all the trees measuring 
twelve inches and upwards in diameter have been taken, will, after a rest of two 
decades, be ready for work again. 

It does not appear that any systematic attempt has been made by the 
authorities to reduce to figures the available quantity of mature spruce now growing 
in New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and the immense forest belt which lies between 
the Ottawa river basin in the west and Mingan in the east. All these districts, 
however, according to Mr. Joly, late Premier of the Province of Quebec, contain 
immense quantities of spruce.* 

The following tables exhibit the total number of pieces of squared white 
and red pine and other woods, and of pine saw logs cut in the upper Ottawa 
territories of Quebec and Ontario, on Crown lands, and also on private lands 
from 1826 to 1881 (30th June) inclusive, that is before and since Confederation 
as closely as can be learned from the records of the Crown Timber Office, Ottawa.-f- 

FROM 1826 TO 1866 INCLUSIVE. 





Square timber. 


Pine saw-logs (only). 





Ontario. 


Quebec. 


Ontario. 


Quebec. 


\Vhite pine 


3,048,382 
1,714,412 
255,950 


1,739,094 
978,064 
146,019 


4,084,258 


2,230,056 


Tied pine . . 


Other wood .... . 






Totals 






5,018,744 
1,074,418 


2,863,177 
612,931 


4,084,258 
874,349 


2,230,056 
498,804 


Deduct from private lands 


Cut on Crown lands 


3,944,326 


1,751,246 


3,209,909 


1,731,252 





*The pitch-pine referred to iu this chapter is the Pinus Australia of Michaux, otherwise the Southern 
Pine, the trade in which has been entirely developed during the last twenty years. Its importation to 
Great Britain is extending rapidly. It is shipped from the so-called Pitch Pine States, situated to the 
east of the Mississippi River, namely, the Carolinas, Georgia, Florida, Alabama, ana Mississippi. 

The wood of the pitch-pine tree is the heaviest of the pine family, and, like all high resinous woods, is 
supposed to possess great durability in climates of moderate severity. A very large industry has been 
developed in the Southern States in connection with the gathering of its resinous products, such as tar, 
turpentine, pitch, and the like. Turpentine is the raw sap of the tree, and the " boxing " or tapping neces- 
sary to collect this is supposed by some to be injurious to the "alburnum" or sapwood, although it has 
probably little effect on the heartwood, or "duramen." 

tA. J. Russell, Crown Timber Agent, Ottawa, in Reports on the Forests of Canada, London, (England) 1885. 



179 



FROM 1867 TO 1881 INCLUSIVE. 





Square timber. 


Pine saw-logs (only). 




Ontario. 


Quebec. 


Ontario. 


Quebec. 


White pine 


1,925,247 
485,141 
238,874 


1,119,382 
118,626 
63,319 


17,920,850 


17,277,103 


Red pine 


Other wood 






Totals 






2,649,262 
615,879 


1,301,327 
244,895 


17,920,850 
3,380,275 


17,277,103 
2,679,412 


Deduct from private lands 


Crown timber 


2,033,383 


1,056,432 


14,540,575 


14,597,691 








TOTAL RECORDED PRODUCT, UPPER OTTAWA AGENCY, 1826 TO 1881, 30TH JUNE 

Ontario, 7,173,182 pieces pine ; 494,824 other woods ; 22,005,108 saw logs. 
Quebec 3,955,166 " " ; 209,338 " ; 19,507,159 



Total, 11,128,348 " 704,162 41,512,267 

In the foregoing table it is to be observed that square timber and saw-logs 
only are included, and all other wood goods are omitted, as unimportant for the 
object of the table. The dues accrued from them are, however included in the 
following equally brief exhibit of the revenue accrued from Crown timber dues 
in the upper Ottawa territories of Quebec and Ontario respectively from 1826 to 
1881 inclusive, being from the remotest period of which there are any records in 
the Crown Timber Office, Ottawa. 



Period. 


Ontario. 


Quebec. 


Totals. 


Years. 


1826 to 1834 


$ 169,078 


$ 46,023 


$ 215,101 


9 


1835 to 1851 


934,735^ 


460,643^ 


l,395,379f& 


17 


1852 to 1857 


453,058,^ 


282,879^V 


735,937^ 


6 












1858 to 1866 


896,096^ 


609,861^ 


1,505,957^ 


9 


1867 to 1881 


3,279,538^ 


3,439,882^ 


6,719,371^ 


15 


1826 to 1881 


$5,732,506^ 


$4,839,240^ 


$10,571,746^ 


56 



The collection of timber and slide dues being combined, greatly facilitates 
and tends to secure the accurate collection of both. The same timber and the 
same men are dealt with at the same time. The returns of the timber rangers of 
their inspections supported by sworn statements of cullers, afford the means of 
effectively checking the accuracy of the certificates the lumberers give the 
deputy slide masters, which through careless error or fraud might be quite 
erroneous, as to the numbers of saw-logs especially, and as to where they came 



180 



from. On the other hand, the assistance the Dominion Officers of Inland Rev- 
enue and Customs, and their collectors of canal dues, are authorized to render at 
the request of the Crown timber agent, in preventing the departure of vessels, or 
the passage of barges loaded with lumber through canals is often of the greatest 
importance in securing the payment of timber dues. On the River Ottawa no 
boats or barges loaded with lumber are allowed to pass through the canals with- 
out permits from the Crown timber agent. Such permits are occasionally 
withheld for the enforcement of the payment of timber dues, and the detention 
of the boats (till released by direction of the Crown timber agent) is always 
promptly effected by the officers of the Dominion. 

THE PUBLIC TIMBER LANDS OF CANADA. CROWN LANDS.* 

These lands belong to the Provincial governments within which they lie 
with the exception of those in the North- West Territories and the Province of 
Manitoba, which belong to, the Dominion government. In Quebec and Ontario 
these lands are in charge of a Commissioner of Crown Lands ; in New Brunswick, 
of the Surveyor-General ; in Nova Scotia, of the Attorney- General ; and in British 
Colunbia, of the Chief Commissioner of Lands and Works. 

It will be seen that hitherto almost no attention has been given in Canada 
to the reproduction of timber upon lands from which it has once been cut off; 
but all the laws and regulations that have been established have reference only 
to the native forests of the country and to the securing of a revenue from the 
existing supply. The reservation of young timber, too small for profitable use, 
by the limitation of a size below which it should not be cut, has received atten- 
tion only in the Province of Quebec, and only in respect to pine timber. Questions 
of conservation and restoration are, however, beginning to attract notice, as will 
be seen in the following pages, and it is earnestly to be hoped that a knowledge 
of the true interests of the country will lead to effectual measures for this end, 
before vested rights have been established to embarrass, and before the need of 
these measures has become urgent. 

FORMER TIMBER REGULATIONS IN CANADA. 

The system of granting licenses to cut timber on the public lands in Canada 
was introduced in 1825, and since that time the right of renewal, upon compliance 
with regulations has been practically acknowledged. In 1845 an Order-in- Council 
was passed, making the licenses annual, but with the above understanding, and 
in the order of 1849 the lessee was permitted to transfer his limit by simple 
assignment. In 1851 a ground-rent system was introduced. 

The branch of woods and forests in the department of Crown lands was 
organized under the former government of Canada in 1852. A system of local 
agencies was established, and reforms much needed had begun to be introduced 
at the time when the Dominion government was inaugurated. Among the abuses 
of earlier times was the monopolizing of immense tracts without using the privi- 
leges or paying an equivalent for them. A ground-rent system was at last adopted, 
which made reserved but unoccupied privileges unprofitable to hold, more 
especially as the rate increased in geometrical proportion as the penalty for not 
using. 

As lessons of experience in questions of timber management always have 
value, it may be interesting to learn how this expedient, apparently so easy to 
enforce, and so effectual to control the mischief, was found to operate when put to 
the test of trial. 

*Hough ; Report upon Forestry, (U.S.) 1878-79. 



181 



The Commissioner of Crown Lands of Canada, in his report for the year 
1856, in describing the workings of this rule, says : " It will be readily seen, 
however, that the operation of such a system would reach a climax within a 
limited period ; that, although it could scarcely be said to be even a check in any 
degree upon monopoly, in the first instance, the increase in the annual rents on 
unoccupied tracts after the first few years, became so sudden and great that a 
crisis became inevitable. 

" This crisis arrived in the year before last (1855), the rents of unoccupied 
berths having in many cases, reached a figure the preceeding year which, if again 
doubled, with a certainty of being quadrupled in 1856, would have rendered the 
ground untenable. 

" A general effort was therefore made by those interested to have the system 
suspended or rescinded. A new feature in the controversy arose on this occasion 
from the interference of a great body of the shipping merchants of Quebec, who 
submitted a counter-petition opposed to the views of those of the producing 
merchants who desired to be relieved from the accumulating ground-rents. 

" The lumber trade being one of the principal resources of the country, the 
regulations by which it is governed must always be of great moment and worthy 
of the greatest consideration, and therefore I trust that the importance of the 
subject to the country at large may be deemed sufficient to warrant a pretty 
extended reference to the consideration bestowed upon it at the period of the 
crisis referred to, and which has resulted in establishing a degree of permanency in 
the institutions connected with it which was previously unknown. 

" As the lumber trade is ordinarily conducted in this country, there are two 
distinct branches of it, viz., that in which the producer is engaged, and that which 
is carried on by the shipper. There are some firms who are engaged in both 
branches of the trade, but, although mutually dependent, they are always distinct 
from and sometimes antagonistic to each other. The principal feature in which 
they conflict is that it is the interest of the producer that the prices should rule 
high, as compared with the cost of production, while it is the interest of the 
shipper that they should rule low in the lumber markets of the country, as com- 
pared with the prices in England. 

" This subject was very fully treated of in the evidence taken before the 
parliamentary committee in 1849, appointed to inquire into the causes of the 
ruinous state of the trade which had existed for some years previous to that date 
(see appendix P.P.P.P. of that year), which it may not be considered inopportune 
to refer to, as perhaps the greatest crisis the trade has ever had to contend with 
since it grew to anything like its present importance. 

; ' By the evidence obtained by the committee on that occasion, it will be seen 
that, commencing with the year 1846, there was a supply in the Quebec market 
wholly disproportionate to the demand, originally caused by an unwisely forced 
production, and aggravated in the succeeding years by a diminished consumption 
arising from the general depression in commercial affairs which occurred in 1847. 
The important fact to be observed here, is, that in 1846, a year in which the 
statistics of the trade proved that all the elements of prosperity existed in the 
highest degree, the most wide-spread ruin occurred among the producers. The 
business of 1845 was most profitable to the country and to individuals engaged in 
the trade, while the business of 1846 was ruinous to individuals and a loss to the 
country. The demand and the shipments in 1845 exceeded those of previous 
years ; the demand and the shipments in 1846 were equally great, or even slightly 
in excess of those of the previous year. The reason of the prosperous state of 
the trade in the one year and its ruinous state in the other, is, therefore, to be 
found in the fact that in 1845 the supply was in just proportion to the demand, 



182 



while in 1846 a supply was forced upon the market out of all proportion even to 
the great demand and shipments of that year ; the result was that, in the one 
year, individuals realized a profit on their business and the country at large 
reaped a profit on the total export, while in the other year individuals had, from 
over-supply, to sell for much less, timber which (from over-stimulated production, 
enhanced price of labor, etc ) had cost more, and were, therefore, in many instances, 
ruined, a loss being at the same time sustained by the country at large, which, in 
the total export of the season, parted with so much capital at something like 
half its value. 

" The over-production of 1846 (which did not all reach market that year) 
continued to depress the trade for several years, the supply of square timber 
resulting from it in Quebec market having been as follows, viz.: In 1845 there 
was a supply of 27,702,344 feet, to meet an export of 24,223,000 feet ; but in 1846 
a supply of 37,000,643, to meet an export of 24,242,689 feet ; and in 1847 a supply 
(including the overstock of previous years) of 44,027,253 feet, to meet an export 
of 19,060,880 feet. Here then the distinctive interests of the different branches of 
the trade may be seen. The business of 1845, which was so profitable to the 
producers and the country, having been of but doubtful benefit to the shippers, 
who had to pay quite as high a price here as the prices in England would justify; 
while the business of 1846, which was so ruinous to the producers, who had to 
sell at less than the cost of production, was profitable to the shippers, who obtained 
the timber in Quebec at about half the price it had cost them the previous year, 
while there was not a corresponding diminution of price in the English markets, 
at least during that season, and those of them who had contracted realized the full 
benefit of their contract prices on the diminished rates they had to pay in Canada. 

" It is needless to discuss the continued depression of the succeeding years, in 
which the general derangement of commercial affairs, which began in 1847, was 
the principal cause ; but there can be no doubt that, so far as the lumber trade 
was concerned, the depression was aggravated by the enormous production of 
1846, which continued to hang upon the market for years after. But it is 
important to observe that the cause of the over-production itself was shown by 
the parliamentary inquiry referred to, to have been in part indeed the natural 
stimulus arising from the successful operations of the previous years, but, in part 
also, the unwise course, at that time pursued by the government, of forcing pro- 
duction, as will hereafter appear upon explanation of the regulations. 

" It is to the advantage of the shipping interest that production should again 
be forced ; it is to the advantage of the producing interest that it should be 
limited. Shippers and producers are alike essential to the trade, and while it 
would be a mere waste of the labor and capital of the Province for the Government 
to force production, it may be safely assumed that the true course is to let the 
trade, as far as practicable, regulate itself, without interfering on the one side or the 
other. 

" But it so happens that there must be'some regulation to govern the cutting 
of timber on Crown lands, and it is an unavoidable incident of such regulations 
that they must exercise some influence upon the trade. The object the regula- 
tions should have in view, therefore, in this particular, is to exercise that influence 
to the least extent possible at the same time that they hold out equal facilities to 
all desirous of embarking in the trade, due protection to all in the rights acquired 
and full security for investments of capital necessary to be made, to render the 
resources of the timber territories available, but not to lock them up in unpro- 
ductiveness. 



183 



" Such being the principles at stake and such the adverse interests involved, 
both parties memorialized the government, each endeavoring to secure the 
preponderance of their particular views. 

" The memorial in the shipping interest did not, however, correctly represent 
the grounds upon which those who signed it really opposed the object sought for 
by the producing interest. I would indeed be sorry to accuse gentlemen of their 
standing and respectability of any intentional mis-statements, but yet, from being 
ignorant of that branch of the trade with which they were not connected and of 
the regulations by which it was governed they allowed themselves to be led into 
a train of argument which raised entirely false issues, some erroneous informatiori 
or misconception having led to the result that every paragraph in their memorial 
conveyed either inferentially or directly some statement that could not be 
sustained by facts. 

" They assumed in the first place that the ground rent was " a condition 
agreed to by the license holders when they obtained the privilege of cutting, 
etc.," which was not the fact as regards the great bulk of the trade, the timber 
berths having been obtained without any such condition, and the ground rents 
being an additional impost to which they have since been subjected. They next 
stated that " of late years the bulk of the timber limits of the Crown have been 
monopolized by a few houses," whereas, there had been no change by which this 
could have been effected, the only change introduced for several years, having 
been the very one they were seeking to maintain, establishing ground rents etc. 
as the most efficient check upon monopoly which had yet been found. 

" I may here remark that the assumption that a great monopoly of the timber 
territory existed was at best a chimera, as proved by the fact that there are upon 
an average about nine hundred timber births under license in the hands of about 
five hundred persons. The assertion, therefore, that there is monopoly where there 
are five hundred competitors, each equally free to deal to a large or a small extent 
as he sees fit, or his means will allow, needs no further contradiction. 

" There may indeed be some local monopolies, where persons of large means 
buy up the lesser establishments in their vicinity ; but anything approaching a 
general monopoly in this trade, under existing regulations, is impossible ; and, so 
far as any local monopoly exists, it is not by the government that it has been 
created or is sustained, but by the influence of capital, the application of which 
for the purposes of trade the government cannot control. 

" The greatest local monopoly that has yet arisen in the trade was that which 
existed a few years on the Saint Maurice, and there it arose from the influence of 
capital at public competition, although the regulations on that occasion were 
specially calculated to throw the trade of the territory into the greatest number 
of hands possible. Capital, however, bore down all opposition for the moment, 
and it is due to the firmness with which the government resisted repeated, most 
urgent, and most influential appeals to relax the regulations that that monopoly 
was ultimately broken up. 

" Indeed it may be truly said that the shipping branch of the trade, as carried 
on at Quebec, bears much more the character of a monopoly than the producing 
branch, the whole of the business arising from about five hundred competitors on 
public lands, and perhaps an equally great number of producers on private lands, 
being, so far as the business centres in Quebec, in the hands of about forty 
shippers, nine or ten of whom do more than three-fourths of the whole business. 
But this, in like manner, so far as it can be called a monopoly, is the result of 
capital, and is not influenced by government, which can as little interfere to limit 
the operations of the producer to one timber berth or a hundred timber berths- 
as to limit the business of the shipper to one ship or a hundred ships. 



1S4 



" The memorialists also stated that the monopoly of which they complained 
was 'to the almost total exclusion of those whose means or influence was not so 
great as to obtain limits.' 

" There was here a remarkable instance of men of high position descending to 
meddle with other people's affairs, and being thereby led to commit themselves to 
vulgar errors on matters of which they were themselves wholly ignorant. 

" It will be seen that in the above they asserted two distinct grievances as the 
cause of the monopoly they complained of ; first, that those without a certain 
amount of means could not obtain " limits " or timber berths ; and, second, that 
(failing means) they might be obtained by influence. The first must indeed be 
admitted. Men of means will acquire timber berths, as well as houses and lands 
and ships, to the ' exclusion of those whose means are not so great as to obtain 
them ' ; it is an old grievance for which governments have not yet found a 
remedy. 

" And even if, at the suggestion of these memorialists (who, by the way, were 
not of the class who usually advocate such a doctrine), the government had taken, 
or should yet take, some undefined way of throwing the timber berths into the 
hands of those who have not means to obtain them in a legitimate manner, those 
who possess means would (provided the tenure justified the investment) imme- 
diately buy them out, and then there would be the same cry for a repetition of 
the operation. 

" With respect to the second grievance, it is sufficient to say that it is not to 
be found in the law or the regulations affecting the trade ; and as it could only 
exist in violation of both, the memorialists should have established the fact 
before they claimed credit for it as such, whereas they did not attempt to 
substantiate even one case of such violation. 

" They suggested, in conclusion, that if the license holders were unable or 
unwilling to pay, etc., their timber berths should be thrown open to competition, 
and they, the memorialists, believed that, notwithstanding the depressed state 
of the trade at that time, they would be readily taken by others without loss to 
the revenue. 

" It is difficult to write seriously on such a proposition ; there can be no doubt 
that if the opportunity had occured and had been taken advantage of to submit 
to public competition, privileges which have already been in many cases dearly 
bought, and in the development of which on the whole, hundreds of thousands of 
pounds of private means have been expended (as shown by returns laid before 
Parliament in 1852), they would readily be taken without loss to the revenue, 
but it was an issue not more reasonable nor likely than that the ships of the 
memorialists would have been made available to the revenue if they had asked 
for a change in the navigation laws. 

" Such was the false position assumed by the shipping interest at the period 
referred to, but the erroneous grounds upon which they opposed the prayer of 
the producing merchants of course made no argument either for or against the 
latter, which had to be dealt with upon its own merits! 

" The memorial of the producing merchants was signed by some of the ship- 
ping merchants also, who are connected with or interested in the business of the 
producers and there appeared to be two or three firms, not known to the depart- 
ment to be connected with the producing interest, who signed., it is presumed, in 
a liberal view of what they conceived to be for the good of the country and the 
trade at large : some merchants and others at Ottawa had also joined in it who are 
not personally engaged in the trade, but whose interests are bound up with those 
of the producers. 



185 



" The object of the memorialists as expressed, was to obtain a cessation for 
three years, or until the then existing depression had passed away, of the penalty 
imposed for non-occupation of timber berths. Although the object sought was 
professedly of a temporary nature, however, it would no doubt have been made a 
precedent for seeking government interference in every fluctuation of the trade 
thereafter. It would have been the first precedent that could be quoted since 
the adoption of the new system, and therefore I shall state the reasons that 
induced its rejection, as I conceive that upon the integrity of the system being 
maintained in the future depends much of the prosperity of the trade. 

" It is to be observed that when the great depression occurred in the trade, 
which began in 184-6, and from which it was about four years before it could be 
said to have recovered, the ground rent system was not in force. The license 
holders were at that time subject only to the payment of the amount of duty 
accrued on the quantities cut ; they were then as now obliged to occupy every 
year, but under pain of forfeiture of the right to renewal of license instead of the 
penalty of an increased payment. 

" It was complained of this system that it favored monopoly, inasmuch as a 
berth could only be proved unoccupied at a very heavy expense, and then it was 
still subject to be repurchased by the former holder. The standard of occupation 
(that is the quantity required to be cut to constitute occupation) was in 1845- 4 
made too high, thereby having a tendency to force production. In obedience to 
the cry of monopoly, then prevalent, notice was also given by the department, 
about the same time there being then no statute upon the subject that 
all the larger timber berths would be sub-divided in three years ; this also, 
although never actually effected, had a tendency to force production, as license 
holders were naturally desirous of making the most of their berths by cutting off 
all the best timber in the interim. 

" Parties differed in opinion as to the exact amount of influence these rules 
exercised upon the over-production, but it was generally admitted that they exer- 
cised some influence in that way. At all events the result of the ruinous state of 
the trade was that the government did afford relief in these particulars, the 
notice of sub-division was withdrawn, the standard of occupation was reduced, 
and finally the parties were allowed from year to year up to 1850 to hold their 
timber berths without any condition of occupation at all, and without any pay- 
ment where they did not choose to occupy. 

" The action of the government on the trade, during the periods of great pros- 
perity and succeeding depression referred to, was thus in opposite extremes. It 
therefore became expedient that a better permanent system of regulations should 
be framed for the government of the trade, and the regulations of which the 
ground-rent system is a part were finally the result. 

" By this system an annual ground-rent was imposed on timber berths, in 
excess of the duty, as a regular permanent charge, and as a check upon mono- 
poly it was provided, by way of penalty, that the ground-rent should double 
upon each renewal of license on berths which had not been occupied during the 
preceding season, and continue doubling every year, so long as the berths con- 
tinued unoccupied. Thus the rent paid for the largest size of berth the regula- 
tions permit in excess of all other charges is 6 5s., the same being payable 
annually. 

" But upon non-occupation for one season the rent rises to 12 10s. upon 
non-occupation for a second season to 25, for a third season to 50 -aad so on 
(as the system was first introduced) without limit, but reverting to the original 
>rate of 6 5s. whenever occupation recommenced. 

"For the first few years after the introduction of this system it could not 



186 



force production to any very sensible extent ; but the constant increase, in 
geometrical progression, at last comes to a point when the increase is so great and 
sudden that those who held any timber berths in reserve had either to occupy or 
relinquish them. Unfortunately as regards the great bulk of the license holders, 
the operation of the system had just reached the point (when they had either 
to produce more timber or relinquish that which they had already paid a series 
of rents for, and in some instances, otherwise laid out money upon, without 
return) at a moment when the trade was in a state of considerable depression, 
and required a decreased instead of an increased production. This state of 
depression, too, arose from causes wholly foreign to the internal management of 
the trade ; for it differed from the previous great crisis in the trade (that of 1846- 
47, etc.) in this, that it arose less from an excessive production than from a 
sudden cessation of demand the result probably ot the war then raging. It 
diff.red also in degree, bearing only the character of a temporary embarrassment 
as compared with the wide spread-ruin which fell upon the trade on the former 
occasion. It was none the less necessary, however, to apply a remedy, if practi- 
cable, in time, and it was in this view that the producers sought to be temporarily 
authorized to suspend productions where the ordinary tendency of the regulations 
was to enforce it. 

" It was not, therefore, as put by the opponents of the producing interest, a 
question of the holders of timber berths fulfilling or failing in their obligations ; 
and even if it had been so, the maintenance of the penalty in its full force would 
not, at least for some time, have compelled any considerable relinquishment of 
licenses ; on the contrary, the parties would have continued to hold them, and 
endeavored by extended operations to reduce to their original amounts the 
ground rents on such berths as the penalty had most accumulated upon, thus 
risking the consequences of increased production rather than abandon their licenses. 
" The real question at issue, therefore, simply was, whether the penalty for 
non-occupation had been made too severe or not. 

"But there was also the question of whether the exceptional circumstances then 
existing, arising out of the war or otherwise, were such as would justify the 
temporary suspension of the penalty. 

" On the first head, as regards the penalty for non-occupation generally, it is to 
be observed that, if any regulation were to succeed in compelling the occupation of 
all the lands licensed, it would force a production far beyond the requirements of 
the trade ; no regulation could permanently have this effect, however, as the 
result of an excessive penalty would be to cause the relinquishment of a portion 
of the territory now under license, which (apart from the question of whether 
it would not afford, in every period of excitement, too great a facility for a rush 
into the trade) would leave a portion of the timber lands wholly unproductive, 
either in ground rents or duties, which now afford a very considerable revenue. 

' The system of regulations for the granting of licenses to cut timber began 
by a course of trial and error and has gradually been perfected by experience. 

" The ground-rent system was a trial ; it has proved a most happy and suc- 
cessful one, which has given general public satisfaction to the trade, but it would 
be too much to pretend that, in the first trial there had been no error, that it had 
been perfected at once without any experience of it practically. 

' In the introduction of the system the then remote contingency was not pro- 
vided for, that if no limit was set to the ultimate amount the ground -rent 
might reach, great hardships might in some cases be the result; such, for instance 
as might arise in case of several timber berths being taken up in a previously 
inaccessible locality, assuming in such a case that the license holders (joining 
together for that purpose) proceed to improve the stream (as is frequently done 



187 



to the extent of many thousand pounds), lay out all the means they can command 
in the operation, and before the rents have reached an excessive amount are 
enabled to occupy the lower berths ; but some pressure then comes, they cannot 
push their improvements immediately to the upper berths, and the ground rents 
arrive at a point where they compel relinquishment, while they could not compete 
for the repurchase on equal terms with any new purchaser who would have the 
advantage of their outlay. 

" It has been su^gesetd that a remedy for this might be found by admitting 
improvements in lieu of occupation, which would be just in principle but practi- 
cally extremely difficult of application. 

" The cases urged upon the department from every part of the country would 
be numerous, the evidence to be adjudicated upon would be entirely ex parte, 
the exact nature of the improvements to be admitted would always be a matter 
of dispute, and, however honestly administered, the system would give rise to 
constant accusations of paitiality and favor. 

" Upon a full consideration, therefore, of all the circumstances it appeared that 
the difficulty might be met by a general rule calculated to perfect and give per- 
manency to the system as a whole instead of impairing it. 

" A rule was accordingly adopted which consists in limiting the extreme 
amount of ground rent on any berth to a sum equal to what the berth would 
produce in duty if duly occupied, the rent remaining at that rate per annum till 
occupation commences ; reverting then, of course, to the original rate as before. 
This, while it entails a heavy payment on those who reserve berths for future 
use, as much in fact as th3y would have to pay for the timber if they cut it, 
affords no public ground for complaint, for the public get the price of the timber 
annually while the timber itself remains, with the public interest in it, for future 
revenue, unimpaired ; at the same time it prevents the system from becoming 
oppressive, and therefore, inoperative, as all oppressive laws ultimately become. 

" On the other head, with regard to the temporary suspension of the system 
the same issue as was then involved is now at stake and must continue to be so, 
It must be remarked, as a general rule, that any departure, for partial, local, or 
temporary causes, from the fixed laws affecting the trade, is bad in principle and 
calculated in every case to produce a bad effect. 

" If, when a depression has arisen from over-production, or other causes, which 
the trade has brought upon itself, the government should once step in to affect 
the market or the supply, directly or indirectly, the same interference would be 
looked forward to again, and induce an over-speculative spirit in time of 
prosperity, sure to end in a similar result. If the government were at any time 
to relax the conditions it has seen fit to impose upon the holders of unoccupied 
timber berths without some other cause than the ordinary fluctuations of the 
trade, public confidence would be shaken either in the efficacy of the system 
itself or in the administration of it. Nothing but the strongest necessity, arising 
from causes foreign to the trade itself, could at any time justify an exception to 
this as a general rule, and the only question on this point worthy of consideration 
at that time was, whether the effects of the then state of war were such as to 
justify its being made an exceptional case. 

" In considering this question it became necessary to take a retrospective view 
of the trade for some years, from which it appeared that there had not been any 
very excessive supply in the Quebec market as compared with the export. The 
supply was indeed somewhat excessive in 1852 and the stock of sqnare timber on 
hand at the close of that year(18,15 1,750 feet) was also excessive, but the produ- 
cers profiting from the sad experience of 1846 and the embarrassments of 
succeeding years having cautiously limited their operations, the supply was 



188 



much less in 1853, and the stock on hand (12,632,929 feet) at the close of the 
season greatly reduced. But from the great demand these were years of great 
prosperity to the producing interest, and consequently an impetus was giv-jn to the 
supply produced in 1854, which was very great ; but the export was also greatly 
increased and the stock in hand at the close of the season (13,465,602 feet) though 
large, yet with the more limited production for 1855 was not at all such as seri- 
ously to embarrass the trade had the usual demand existed. From whatever 
cause, however, the demand had greatly diminished, for at the time the subject 
was most strongly pressed upon the government, say 2nd July, 1855, the tonnage 
arrived in Quebec, from sea, was 121,778 tons against 240,021 tons to the same 
period of the previous year ; and at the close of the year 346,449 tons against 
580.323 tons the previous year ; and in like manner, the quantity of square timber 
exported in 1855 was 15,389,774 feet against 25,346,800 feet in 1854. There is 
a defect in the present law which prevents the statistics being got so correctly in 
respect of deals. There is also a large quantity of timber usually absorbed in 
ship-building and exported in that shape, in which there had also been a falling 
off. The result of a full investigation of the subject, however, was to show that 
the trade was on the whole in a healthy condition, and that the depression at 
that period was only temporary, for although there had been no excessive 
production for some years previous, as compared with the export, the export 
itself had been great, having been gradually increasing till it produced a tempor- 
ary glut, not in the Quebec market but in the English markets, which had precisely 
the same effect, and which was in some degree aggravated no doubt by a 
diminished consumption resulting from the war and the tightness of money mat- 
ters consequent thereon. 

" The prayer of the memorialists, therefore, to be authorized to suspend their 
operations for three years without incurring the penalty of increased rent, as 
provided by the regulations for non-occupation, was refused, for if even such an 
extreme case could arise, there did not then appear to be any cause operating to 
produce such permanent embarrassment as would have warranted the government 
in interfering with the integrity of a system which had, so far, been found to 
give stability to the trade and satisfaction to the public. 

" The result has justified the course pursued ; the export in 1856 having been 
nearly up to the average, or 3,919,378 feet, (equal to forty-six million inch board 
measure) in excess of the previous year. The season was in fact, upon the whole 
a very fair one, both for the producer and the shipper, and this without any such 
extreme measure on the one side or the other as the government had been asked 
the year before, to adopt for the safety of the trade. 

"The only change adopted was one which had not an immediate effect; it 
consisted, as already stated, in making the ground rent on unoccupied berths 
cease to increase when it had reached the extreme amount which ground rent 
and the dues accruing on timber cut would both amount to upon a berth which 
Avas occupied. The public could scarcely ask more, as a protection against 
monopolizing timber berths, than that the parties who do so should be made to 
pay for the timber when they don't cut it the same as when they do cut and 
carry it to market. 

" In former years more stringent laws were made against holding timber 
berths unoccupied, but the result was, as has already been seen, that when the 
crisis came, the government always gave way, thus proving that extreme measures 
are always the least effective, while they lead in matters of trade to uncertainty 
and fluctuation. 

" I have entered thus at length into the circumstances attending the appeal of 
the opposing interests to the government in 1855, because there was then undoubt- 



189 



edly serious apprehension entertained by many that a time of great embarrass- 
ment and difficulty was at hand ; while a crisis had actually arrived in regard to 
testing the efficacy of the by-laws by which the trade is governed, so far as it is 
as a whole affected by the operations on public lands ; and because, therefore, the 
action then taken has so far solved a difficult problem and is likely to exercise 
a permanent influence on the trade." 

As modified by experience, the management of the timber interests upon 
the public lands in the later years of the former Canadian Government was in 
charge of the Commissioner of Crown Lands, who was authorized to grant 
licenses for cutting timber upon ungranted lands at such rates, and subject to 
such regulations as might be established from time to time by the Governor-in- 
Council and of which notice was given in the Canada Gazette. These licenses 
were granted for a period not exceeding twelve months, and obliged the lessees 
to make returns at the expiration of the lease, showing the number and kinds of 
trees cut, and the quantity and description of saw-logs, or of the number and 
description of sticks of square timber manufactured and carried away under 
such license, which statement must be verified by affidavit before a justice of 
the peace. The Crown dues were a claim upon the timber or any part thereof, 
wherever found, and whether in the original logs or made into deals, boards or 
other stuff, and which might be seized and detained wherever found until the 
dues were paid. 

Persons cutting, or causing to be cut, any timber on any of the Crown,, 
clergy, school, or other public lands, or removing, or inducing, or assisting in the 
removal of timber thus cut without authority, acquired no right or claim for 
cutting or preparing for the market, but the whole became forfeited, and if the 
timber or saw-logs had been removed out of the reach of the officers of the 
Crown lands department, or if it was found otherwise impossible to seize the 
same, the person was liable in addition to the loss of his labor and disbursements, 
to a forfeiture of $3 for every tree (rafting stuff excepted) that might be proved 
to have been cut, to be recovered with costs of suit, in the name of the 
Commissioner of Crown Lands or resident agent in any court having jurisdiction 
in civil matters to the amount of the penalty. In all such cases it was incumbent 
on the party charged to prove his authority to cut, and the averment of the 
party seizing or prosecuting that he was duly employed under the timber act 
was to be received as sufficient proof, thereof, unless the defendent proved to the 
contrary. 

Seizures might be made upon information supported by affidavit. If the 
timber illegally cut had been mixed with other timber, the whole might be 
detained until satisfactorily separated by the holder. Resistance to an officer or 
authorized agent, by assault, force, or violence, or by threats of such, was made 
a felony, and the carrying away of timber under seizure, whether openly or 
secretly, and whether with or without force or violence, was deemed stealing and 
rendered the person liable to punishment for felony. Whenever any timber was 
seized for the non-payment of Crown dues, the burden of proof of payment, or 
as to the land on which it was cut, was to rest on the claimant of such timber 
and not on the officer making the seizure or the party bringing the prosecution. 

Timber seized was to be deemed to be condemned at the end of thirty days 
and publication of notice, unless the person claiming, sooner notified the nearest 
officer or agent of the Crown land office that he intended to prove his claim. 

Any judge of competent jurisdiction might order the release of timber under 
seizure upon receiving from the alleged owner a bond with two good and 
sufficient sureties, first approved by the agent, for double the value of the 
timber in case of condemnation, such bond being taken in the name of the 



190 



Commissioner of Crown Lands, and to be delivered and kept by him until the 
claim was released or paid. Every person availing himself of any false 
statement or oath to evade the payment of Crown dues forfeited the timber on 
which dues were attempted to be evaded. 

The malicious cutting 01 loosening of a boom, or the cutting loose or 
breaking up of a raft or crib, was made punishable by fine and imprisonment of 
not less than six months. 

Such in brief was the system formerly in force. That it did not insure the 
forests upon the Crown lands from pillage and waste by lumbermen is sufficiently 
proved by the following statement made by the Commissioner of Crown Lands 
of the Province of Ontario, in 1877 in describing the system of supervision then 
in use and the abuses that had been formerly practiced. 

"Previous to confederation, the guardianship of the forests as regards 
surveillance over the cutting of timber under license or in trespass on lands of 
the Crown was so ineffective or attended to with such laxity as to be in fact no 
guardianship at all, and pillage to a large extent was carried on almost with 
impunity ; the seat of government was peripatetic,* and the agents of the Crown 
Lands Department for the collection of timber dues were located at certain 
points where returns were brought to them of such operations as parties chose 
to make, on which dues were paid, and the amount received with statement of 
timber, etc., on which it was paid, transmitted monthly to the department 
without any actual knowledge of or check on the extent of cutting ; these 
returns and moneys were received at headquarters without comment or inquiry, 
and the one debited to the agent and the other placed to his credit." 

AMOUNTS ACCRUED AND COLLECTED FOR TIMBER DUES, GROUND RENTS, 
AND BONUSES IN UPPER AND LOWER CANADA, DURING THE YEARS 
PRECEDING THE FORMATION OF THE DOMINION GOVERNMENT. 





Accruals. 


Collections. 


Years. 


Upper 
Canada. 


Lower 
Canada. 


Total. 


Upper 
Canada. 


Lower 
Canada. 


Total. 




$ c. 


$ c. 


$ c. 


$ c. 


$ c. 


8 c. 


1857 


135,310 64 


120,797 96 


256,108 60 


94,921 15 


114,023 53 


208,944 68 


1858 


111,739 62 


111,081 53 


222,821 15 


141,185 90 


134,476 00 


275,661 90 


1859 


140,409 96 


142,071 97 


282,481 93 


136,189 33 


145,745 59 


281,934 92 


1860 


176,400 39 


168,973 36 


345,433 75 


149,921 22 


168,330 38 


318,252 60 


1861 


156,253 57 


154,101 38 


310,354 95 


127,995 88 


127,849 10 


255,844 98 


1862 


143,357 59 


136,830 79 


280,188 38 


159,330 86 


144,321 31 


303,652 17 


1863 


170,160 12 


157,484 72 


327,644 84 


197, C93 73 


189,562 80 


386,656 53 


1864 


188,171 74 


155,793 97 


343,965 71 


121,3I!7 79 


121,718 52 


243,086 71 


1865 


146,079 67 


151,034 24 


297,113 91 


183,380 75 


160,035 23 


343,415 98 


1866 


203,040 46 


166,036 54 


369,077 00 


197,965 85 


138,678 05 


336,643 89 


Total 10 years. 


1,570,983 76 


1,464,206 46 


3,035,190 22 


1,509,352 46 


1,444,740 50 


2,954,092 96 



* For some years before the union of 1867 the seat of government of Canada alternated betweem 
Toronti and Quebec. It had previously been located at Montreal, and at a still earlier period at 
Kingston. 



191 



HECEIPTS FROM BONUSES AND GROUND RENTS ALONE, DURING THE UNION 
OF THE PROVINCES OF CANADA, so FAR AS THESE HAVE BEEN PUBLISHED. 

Fiscal years. Amount. 

1856-'57 $244,112 90 

1957-'58 203,263 59 

1858-'59 276,741 16 

1859-'60 . '. 316,983 35 

1860-'61 290,933 04 

1861-'62 283,383 31 

1862-'3 309,252 15 

1863-'64 325,294 51 

1864-'65 324,535 61 

1865-'66 300,486 18 

1866-'67 369,800 53 



RECEIPT AND EXISTING TIMBER REGULATIONS IN CANADA. 

(a) Dominion Lands. These lands, in Manitoba and the North-west 
'Territories, are in charge of the Department of the State and a division thereof 
styled " The Dominion Land Office." The act under which they are administered 
was assented to April 14th, 1872. The surveys are conducted by the Surveyor- 
general and his deputies, and there are various agents concerned in the duties 
incident to this interest. 

The system of surveys is by townships six miles square, sub-divided into 
sections of one mile square each, unless this arrangement is modified by the 
divergence of meridians, irregularities in previous surveys, or other causes. 
There is an allowance of one chain and fifty links between all townships and 
sections for roads. The townships are numbered northward from the inter- 
national boundary, or the forty-ninth degree north latitude, and in Manitoba, 
east and west from a principal meridian, ran in 1869, that strike? this line of 
latitude about ten miles west of Pembina. The sections are numbered from one 
to thirty-six in each township, beginning at the south-east corner and running 
alternately from east to west and from west to east, so that the last number shall 
be in the north-east corner. In this the order of numbering is just the reverse 
of that employed on the surveys of public lands in the United State?. Sections 
eleven and twenty-nine in each township are reserved for education. 

The sections are divided into sixteen squares of forty acres each, numbered 
in the same way as the sections in townships, beginning at the south-east corner. 
The lines running north and south are designed to be true meridians, and those 
running east and west are chords intersecting circles of latitude passing through 
the angles of the townships. 

The terms and conditions of the deed of surrender from the Hudson Bay 
-Company stipulated a reservation of one-twentieth part of the portion described 
.as the " fertile belt," which rendered it necessary to modify the general plan, 
-and in the prairie region, where there are islands or belts of timber, a special 
mode of sub-division was provided, with the view of affording benefit to the 
greatest possible number of settlers, and for the prevention of petty monopalies. 
In these cases the woodlands are surveyed into lots of not le?s than ten nor more 
than twenty acres each, so as to afford one wood-lot to every quarter -sectio a of 
prairie farm in each township. This, however, is not allowed to interfere with 
the sections set apart for schools, nor to those set apart and vested in the Hulson 
Bay Company. Each wood-lot is required to front on a section road-allowance. 



192 



In case an island or belt of timber come entirely within a quarter-section, or in 
several quarter-sections so that not more than twenty-five acres shall be included 
in each, it is not to be separately surveyed into wood-lots. These wood-lots are 
conveyed as homestead grants the same as other lands, but the grantee is not 
allowed to sell any of the timber on his lot to any saw-mill owners, or to any 
other than settlers for their own private use, under penalt}* of prosecution, as for 
trespass. Upon conviction they may be fined or imprisoned, or both, and they 
further forfeit their claims absolutely. 

Any tract of land covered by forest timber may be set apart as timber 
lands, and reserved from sale and settlement ; and except as it may be thought 
expedient by the secretary of State to divide a township into two or more timber 
limits, the several townships composing any such tracts shall each form a limit. 
The word " timber " is used to designate all lumber, and all products of timber, 
including firewood and bark. 

Leases for cutting timber may be granted for twenty-one years, and upon 
the following conditions : 

1. The lessee to erect a saw-mill or mills in connection with such limit and 
lease, and subject to any special conditions which may be agreed upon and stated 
in the lease, such mill or mills to be of capacity to cut at the rate of a thousand 
feet, board measure, in twenty-four hours, for every two-a-half square miles of 
limits in the lease, or shall establish such other manufactory of wood goods as 
may be agred upon as the equivalent of such mill or mills, and the lessee to work 
the limit in the manner and to the extent provided in the lease within two years 
from the date thereof, and during each succeeding year of the term. 

2. To take from every tree he cuts down all the timber fit for use, and 
manufacture the same into sawn lumber, or some other such saleable product as 
may be provided in the lease, or by any regulations made under this act. 

3. To prevent all unnecessary destruction of growing timber on the part of 
his men, and to exercise strict and constant supervision to prevent the origin or 
spread of fires. 

4. To make returns to the government monthly or at such other periods as 
may be required by the secretary of State, or by regulations under this act, 
sworn to by him or by his agent or employee cognizant of the facts, declaring the 
quantities sold or disposed of as aforesaid, of all sawn lumber, timber, railway- 
car stuff, ship-timbers and knees, shingles, lath, cordwood or bark, or any other 
product of timber from the limit, in whatever form the same may be sold or 
otherwise disposed of by him during such month or other period, and the price 
or value thereof. 

5. To pay in addition to the bonus an annual ground rent of $2 per square 
mile, and further a royalty of five per cent, on his monthly account. 

6. To keep correct books, of such kind and in such form as may be provided 
by his lease, or by the regulation under this Act, and to submit the same for the 
inspection of the collector of dues whenever required, for the purpose of verifying 
his returns aforesaid. 

7. The lease shall describe the lands upon which the timber may be cut, 
and shall vest in the lessee during its continuance the right to take and keep- 
exclusive possession of the lands so described, subject to the conditions hereinbe- 
fore provided or referred to, and such lease shall vest in the holder thereof all 
right of property whatsoever in all trees, timber, lumber, and other products of 
timber cut within the limits of the lease during the continuance thereof, whether 
such trees, timber, and lumber or products be cut by authority of the holder of 
such lease, or by any other person, with or without his consent ; and such lease 
shall entitle the lessee to seize in replevin, revendication, or otherwise, as his. 



103 



property, such timber, where the same is found in the possession of any unauthor- 
ized person, and also to bring any action or si it at law or in equity against any 
party unlawfully in possession of any such timber, or of any land so leased, and 
to prosecute all trespasses thereon, and such other offenders as aforesaid, to con- 
viction and punishment, and to recover damages, if any; and all proceedings 
pending at the expiration of any such lease may be continued and completed as 
if the lease had not expired. 

8. Such lease shall be subject to forfeiture for infraction of any one of the 
condition* to which it is subject, or for any fraudulent return ; and in such case, 
the secretary of State shall have the light, without any suit, or other proceeding 
at law or in equity, or compensation to the lessee, to cancel the same, and to make 
a new lease, or disposition of the limit described thereinto any other party at any 
time during the term of the lease so canceled: provided, that the secretary of 
State, if he sees fit, may refrain from forfeiting such lease for non-payment of 
dues, and may enforce payment of su?h dues in a manner hereinafter provided. 

9. The lessee who faithfully carries out the above conditions shall have the 
refusal of the same limits, if not required for settlement, for "a further term not 
exceeding twenty -one years, on payment of the same amount of bonus per square 
mile as was paid originally, and on such lessee agreeing to such conditions and to 
pay such other rates as may be determined on for such second term. 

It was further provided that any ground rent, royalty, or other dues to the 
Crown not paid when falling due, should bear interest at six per cent, until paid. 
and be a lien on any timber cut within the limits. After three months' neglect, 
the Crown timber agent might seize so much of the timber cut as would be 
necessary to pay the claim and expenses, and sell the same at public auction, 
paying over to the lessee or owner of the timber any balance left after paying 

> claims and costs. 

In case the payment of the Crown dues was evaded by removal of the 
timber or products out of Canada, or otherwise, the amount due might he charged 
upon any other timber cut on Dominion lands by the same lessee or by his 
authority, or the claim might be recovered by action at law, in the name of the 
secretary of State, or his resident agent, in any court having jurisdiction in civil 
cases to the amount claimed. 

The secretary of State was empowered to take bonds or promissory notes 
for any money due to the Crown, interest and costs, or for double the amount of 
all dues, fines and penalties, and costs, incurred or to be incurred, and he might 
then release any timber upon which the same would be leviable, whether under 
seizure or not; but the taking of such bonds was not to affect the lien and right 
of the Crown to enforce payment of such money on any other timber cut on the 
same limit, if the sums for which such bonds or notes were given should not be 
paid when due. 

The penalties imposed for cutting timber without authority were forfeiture 
of the timber cut, and a fine not exceeding -.5 : J for every tree cut or earned av;iy : 
with costs. In :-uch cases the burden' of proof of authority to cut arid take the 
timber was to be upon the party charge'!, and the averment of the party seizing 
or prosecuting that he is duly employed under this Act was to lie sufficient proof 
thereof, unless the defendent proved to the contrary. 

Upon information, supported by affidavit, that timber had been cut without 
authority on Dominion lands, and describing where the same can be found, or 
upon information to a Crown officer or agent as to sm-h cutting without authority. 
the officer or a^ent was authorized to seize the timber and place it under custody 
until a decision coul I be had by competent authority. 

13 (F) 



194 



If timber, cut without authority, has been made up with other timber into 
;i crib, dram, or raft, or in any other manner mixed up with other timber, so that 
it cannot be identified, the whole of the timber so mixed is to be liable to seizure 
and forfeiture until satisfactorily separated by the holder. Timber held under 
seizure may be released upon sufficient security for the payment of its full value 
or of double the amount of all dues, fines, penalties, and costs, incurred or imposed' 
thereon. 

The penalties for resisting seizure, or removing timber after it was seized, 
were prescribed and proceedings therein specified. N"o sale or grant of Dominion 
lands wa.s to give any title to any slide, dam, pier, or boom, previously erected 
upon it, unless expressly mentioned in letters patent, or other instrument estab- 
lishing such sale or grant. The free use of such works was not to be interrupted, 
and the right of passing and repassing on either side, whenever necessary for use, 
and at portages, was reserved. 

The Dominion Lands Act makes provision for military bounties, homestead 
entries, leases for grazing, and hay-cutting, mining, etc., and for direct sales of 
land. 

(6) Crown lands of Ontario. The timber Act now in force was passed in 
1860, and is found as Chapter 28 of the Revised Statutes of Ontario, 1887. It is 
as follows : 

(1) AN ACT RESPECTING TIMBER IN PUBLIC LANDS. 

Her Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Legislative Assembly 
of the Province of Ontario, enacts as follows : 

1. (1) The commissioner of Crown lands, or any officer or agent under him 
authorized to that effect, may grant licenses to cut timber on the ungranted lands 
of the Crown, at such rates, and subject to such conditions, regulations and 
restrictions as may from time to time be established by the Lieutenant-Governor- 
in-Council, and of which notice may be given in the Ontario Gazette. 

(2) No license shall be so granted for a longer period than twelve months 
from the elate thereof ; and if, in consequence of incorrectness of survey, or 
other error, or cau.se whatsoever, a license is found to comprise lands included in 
a license of a prior date, the license last granted shall be void in so far as it inter- 
feres with the one previously issued, and the holder or proprietor of the license 
so rendered void shall have no claim upon the Government for indemnity or 
compensation by reason of such avoidance. 

2. The licenses shall describe the lands upon which the timber may be 
cut, and shall confer, for the time being, on the nominee the right to take and 
keep exclusive possession of the lands so described, subject to such regulations and 
restrictions as may be established : And the licenst-s shall vest in the holders 
thereof all rights of property whatsoever in all trees, timber, and lumber, cut 
within the limits of the license during the term thereof, whether the trees, 
timber, and lumber, are cut by authority of the holder of the license, or by any 
other person, with or without his consent ; and the licenses shall entitle the 
holders thereof to seize in revendication or otherwise, such trees, timber, or 
lumber, where the same are found in the possession of any unauthorized person, 
and also to institute any action against any wrongful possessor or trespassers, 
and to prosecute all trespassers and other offenders to punishment, and to recover 
damages, if any ; and ail proceedings pending at the expiration of any license 
may be continued to final determination, as if the license had not expired. 



195 



3. Every government road allowance included in any Crown timber license, 
heretofore granted, or which may hereafter be granted, under section 1 of this 
Act, shall be deemed and taken to be and to have been ungrant^d lands of the 
Crown, within the meaning of said section, and liable, as such, to be included in 
the license. 

4. The licensee or nominee named in any license shall be deemed and 
taken to have, and to have had, all the rights in respect of every such load 
allowance, and the trees, timber, and lumber thereon, or cut thereon, as were, or, 
by the section 2 of this Act, may be conferred upon him, in respect of any 
other Crown lands embraced in such license, and the trees, timber, ai d lumber 
thereon, or cut thereon, except that he shall not be entitled to take or keep 
exclusive possession of such road allowance. 

5. No by-law passed, or to be passed by any municipal council for preserv- 
ing, selling, or otherwise appropriating or disposing of the timber or trees, or any 
part thereof, on a government road allowance or allowances included in any 
such license, shall be deemed or taken to have had or have any force or effect 
against any such license. 

6. In case the council of any townships, organized as a separate municipal- 
ity, or the council of any united townships, have passed, or hereafter pass, any 
by-law for preserving or selling the timber or trees on the government road- 
allowances within such township or within the senior township of united 
townships, and included in any such license, the corporation of such township or 
united townships shall be entitled to be paid out of thy consolidated revenue 
fund of this Province a sum equal to two per centum of the dues received by Her 
Majesty for or in respect of the timber and saw-logs which, during the existence 
of the by-law, were cut within the township or united townships, under the 
authority of the license ; but no corporation shall be entitled to such percentage 
of the clues received for timber or saw-logs cut during the times or seasons when 
timber, or trees on any such road allowances were cut or removed, for which 
cutting or removal the corporation had, before the fifteenth day of February, one 
thousand eight hundred and seventy-one, obtained a verdict against any such 



*s 
licensee or nominee. 



7. No municipal corporation shall he entitled to such payment as aforesaid, 
unless a certified copy of the by-law passed, or to be passed as aforesaid, accom- 
panied by an affidavit of the clerk or reeve of the corporation, verifying the 
copy, and the date of the passing of the by-law, is filed in the Department of 
Crown Lands at Toronto within six months from the passing of the by-law ; 
and the affidavit may be made or taken before any person or officer who, 
under sections 4^ or 43 of " The Public Lands Act," is authorized to take the 
affidavits in those sections mentioned. 

8. All moneys to be paid as aforesaid, to any municipal corporation shall be 
expended in the improvement f the highways situate within the township or 
within the senior or junior township in respect of which such moneys were paid. 

9. The percentage to which the junior township or townships of such united 
townships may be entitled, shall only be in respect of the dues received upon 
timber or trees which shall be cut after the 30th day of April, ISSI. (See Rev. 
Stat. Ont., c. 25, ss. 13-1. i, as to the right of the Crown to grant, timber he-uses 
on Free Grant Lands.) 



196 



1O. Every person obtaining a license shall, at the expiration thereof, make to 
the officer or agent granting the same, or to the Commissioner of Crown lands, a 
return of the number and kinds of trees cut, and of the quantity and description of 
saw-loijs, or of the number and description of sticks of square timber manufac- 
tured and carried away under the license ; and the statement shall be sworn 
to by the holder of the license, or his agent, or by his foreman, before a Justice of 
the Peace ; and any person refusing or neglecting to furnish such statement, or 
evading or attempting to evade any regulation made by order-in-couucil, shall be 
held to have cut without authority, and the timber made shall be dealt with 
accordingly. 

11. (1) All timber cut under licenses shall be liable for the payment of the 
Crown dues thereon, so long as and wheresover the timber or any part of it 
may be found in Ontario, whether in the original logs or manufactured into 
di-als, boards or other stuff; and all officers or agents intrusted with the collection 
of such dues may follow all timber and seize and detain the same wherever 
it is found until the dues are paid or secured. 

(2) Nothing in this Act contained shall be construed to repeal the provisions 
of the section 4 of chapter 23 of the Consolidated Statutes of Canada, as 
regards timber removed into the Province of Quebec. 

12. Bonds or promissory notes taken for the Crown clues either before or 
after the cutting of the timber, as collateral security, or to facilitate collection, 
shall not in any way affect the lien of the Crown on the timber, but the lien shall 
subsist until the dues are actually discharged. 

13. If timber so seized and detained for non-payment of Crown dues 
remains more than two months in the custody of the agent or person appointed 
to guard the same, without the dues and expenses being paid, the Commissioner 
of Crown Lands with the previous special sanction of the Lieutenant-Governor 
in council, may order a sale of the said timber to be made after sufficient notice ; 
and the balance of the proceeds of the sale, after retaining the amount of dues and 
costs incurred, shall be handed over to the owner or claimant of the timber. 

14. (1) If any person without authority cuts or employs or induces any other 
person to cut, or assists in cutting any timber of any kind on the Crown, 
clergy, school or other public lands, or removes or carries away, or employs or 
induces or assists any other person to remove or carry away, merchantable 
timber of any kind so cut from the public lands aforesaid, he shall not acquire 
any right to the timber so cut, or any claim to any remuneration for cutting, 
preparing the same for market, or conveying the same to or towards market. 

(2 1 When the timber or sa '-logs made has or have been removed by any 
person out of the reach of the officers of the Crown lands department, or it 
is otherwise found impossible to seize the same, such person shall, in addition to 
the lo.ss of his labor and disbursements, forfeit a sum of $3 for each tree (rafting 
stuff exceptedj which he is proved to have cut or caused to be cut or carried away. 

(3) Such sums shall be recoverable with costs, at the suit and in the name of 
the Commissioner of Crown lands or resident agent, in any court having juris- 
diction in civil matters to the amount of the penalty. 

(4) In such cases it shall be incumbent on the party charged to prove his 
authority to cut ; and the averment of the party seizing or prosecuting that he is 
duly employed under the authority of this Act, shall be sufficient proof thereof, 
unless the defendant proves the contrary. 



197 



15. Where satisfactory information, supported by affidavit made before a 
justice of the peace or before any other competent party, is received by the 

Commissioner of Crown Lands, or other officer or agent of the Crown Lands 
Department, that any timber or quantity of timber has been cut without authority 
on Crown, clergy, school or other public lands, and describing where the timber 
can be found, the Commissioner, officer or agent, or any one of them, may 
seize or caused to be seized in Her Majesty's name the timber so reported to be 
cut without authority, wherever .it is found, and place the same under proper 
custody until a decision can be had in the matter from competent authority. 

16. Where the timber so reported to have been cut without authority on the 
public lauds has been up with other timber into a crib, dram, or raft, or in any 
other manner has been so mixed up at the mills or elsewhere as to render it 
impossible or very difficult to distinguish the timber so cut on public lands with- 
out license from other timber with which it is mixed up, the whole of the timber 
so mixed shall be held to have been cut without authority on public lands, and 
shall be liable to seizure and forfeiture accordingly, until satisfactorily separated 
by the holder. 

17. Any officer or person seizing timber, in the discharge of his duty under 
this Act may, in the name of the Crown, call in any assistance necessary for 
securing and protecting the timber so seized. 

18. Whenever any timber is seized for non-payment of Crown dues, or for 
any other cause of forfeiture, or any prosecution is brought for any penalty or 
forfeiture under this Act, and a question arises whether the said dues have 
been paid on such timber, or whether the timber was cut on other than 
the public lands aforesaid, the burden of proving payment, or on what land 
the timber was cut, shall lie on the owner or claimant of the timber, and 
not on the officer who seizes the same or the party bringing the prosecution. 

19. All timber seized under this Act shall be deemed to be condemned, unless 
the person from whom it was seized, or the owner thereof, within one month 
from the day of the seizure, gives notice to the seizing officer 01 nearest officer or 
.agent of the Crown lands office, that he claims or intends to claim the same; 
failing notice, the officer or agent seizing shall report the circumstances to 
the Commission of Crown Lands, who may order the sale of the said timber by 
the officer or agent, after a notice on the spot of at least thirty days. 

20. (1) Every judge having competent jurisdiction may, when he deems it 
proper, try and determine such seizures, and may order the delivery of the timber 
to the alleged owner, on receiving security by bond, with two good and sufficient 
sureties to be first approved by the agent, to pay double the value in case of 
condemnation. 

(2) The bond shall be taken in the name of the Commissioner of Crown 
Lands to Her Majesty's use, alfd shall be delivered up to and kept by the 
Commissioner. 

(3) If the seized timber is condemned, the value thereof shall be forthwith 
paid to the Commissioner of Crown Lands or the agent, and the bond cancelled, 
otherwise the penalty of such b^nd shall be enforced and recovered. 



Every person availing himself of any false statement or oath to evade 
the payment of Crown dues, shall forfeit the timber on which dues are attempted 
to be evaded. 



(2) MANAGEMENT OF THE TIMBER LANDS OF ONTARIO. 

Previous t<> June 13th, 18 r >6, applications for license to cut timber on the 
< Yo\vn hinds wen.* mule t<> the several Crown timber agents, who might grant 
such privileges upon payment at the rate of 2s. 6d. ($0.50) per square mile 
annually, payable in advance. These leases expired on the 30th of April in each 
year, and might be renewed before the 1st of July following. The changes since 
introduced are described by the Commissioner of Crown Lands in a statement 
prepared for the information of the then Premier of the Province of Quebec in 
1877, a manuscript copy of which has been furnished us, as follows : On the 13th 
of June, 1866, prior i-egulations were superseded, and the clause respecting 
licenses to cut timber was modified, so that instead of agents granting them on 
application it was provided that such vacant berths as the Commissioner of Crown 
Lands saw fit should be offered at public auction, to be held half-yearly in 
each timber agency on the 10th of July and 10th of January, or such other 
dates as the Commissioner might think proper to fix by public notice, at au 
upset price of $4 per square mile, or such rate as he might fix by such 
notice, the berths to be awarded to the highest bidder, etc., in addition to the 
yearly ground rent of titty cents per mile and tariff dues on timber when 
cut, the Commissioner or agent in the intervals between sales to grant, licenses- 
on application on payment of the bonus and ground rent mentioned. 

The Regulations of 1851 and those of 1806 imposed a fine for non- 
occupation of timber berths as follows: If a berth in surveyed territory had 
not been occupied, i.e., worked upon during the season for which license was 
granted or renewed, or in unsurveyed territory the year after "ranting or 

o / / ' n 

renewal of license, the ground rent of fifty cents was doubled, and so on in 
case of non-occupation until the ground rent reached 23s. 4d. (S4-.67), or 
maximum charge per square mile, at which rate it stood till the berths had 
been worked upon, on which the rent fell again to fifty cents per mile ; the 
making of an average of 500 feet of square timber, or twenty saw-logs to the, 
mile, being admitted as due occupation. The object of compulsory occupation 
or the payment of an increased ground rent was to prevent large areas of" 
country from falling into the hands of capitalists, to the exclusion therefrom 
of men of smaller means ; but the penalty of additional charge for rent was 
easily evaded, seeing that the holders of limits had only to cut, or pretend to 
have cut, 357 pieces of square timber or 1,000 logs, to have a fifty mile limit 
maintained at fifty cents per mile rent, or reduced thereto had the rent been 
advanced. 

After Confederation, compulsory occupation in Ontario was dispensed with,. 
and the ground rent increased from fifty cents to $2 per square mile, and by the 
third clause of existing regulations it is made imperative that all new timber 
berths should be sold by public auction to the bidder of the highest amount of 
bonus per square mile; that berths should be offered for sale at such time and 
place as the Commissioner thought fit, instead of at any particular date or place ;. 
and that in the interim between sales no new Jicenses be granted, as under the 
regulations of 1866. 

The duty of the Commissioner of Crown Lands with respect of disposing of 
timber berths, would seem clear and simple, mas nuch as he is by the auction 
system relieved from the necessity of acting oa individual applications for 
licenses ; but the fact is. that the management of public forests in Ontario is 
surrounded by many difficulties, not the least of which is the settlement of the 
country, which is extensively and rapidly taking place, in territory held under 
timber license, where lumbering operations are being carried on simultaneously 
with the location of the lands. 



199 



The management of timber on lands under license in unsarveyed territory, 
or in surveyed lands where settlement has not yet penetrated, is comparatively 
easy ; all that is required being a close inspection of operations by wood rangers. 
But in old settled townships, where licenses granted man}' years past still obtain, 
and where settlers who had, prior to 1st July, 1867, purchased lots out of limits, 
being actual residents on their lots with certain improvements, are allowed to 
cut and sell the timber on their lands under the "settler's license regulations," 
the dues on the timber so sold being applied towards payment of the purchase 
money due the Crown, less ten per cent, for collection ; and in newly surveyed 
townships in free grant territories covered by license, where locations have been 
or are being made under the Free Grants Act, as well as lands sold under the 
Land Act of i860 within or adjoining timber limits, subject to the Pine Tree 
Regulations under Order-in-Council of 27th May, 1869, there is great care 
required in guarding against imposition and fraud upon the revenue, by passing- 
timber cut on lands of the Crown in trespass as cut under authority of settler's 
license or general timber license, or in process of clearing the lands for cultivation 
under the 10th secuon of the Free Grants Act, and the Order-in-Council of '27th 
May, 1869, with respect to lands sold under the Land Act of 18GO. To watch the 
interest of the revenue and at the s ime time avoid apparent harshness in dealing 
with settlers on the public lands demands the greatest circumspection by the 
department, and zeal and vigilance on the part of its employees on the ground ; 
yet, notwithstanding the exercise of eveiy care and precaution, the conflicting 
interests arising between lumber operators and settlers are frequent and perplexing. 

The Free Grant Townships in the Muskoka, Parry Sound, and Nipissing 
Districts are being rapidly settled upon, the lands being in many cases selected 
and large improvements made before they were open for location or sale under 
the Act ; in view of this fact, and that it would be impolitic to assume the atti- 
tude of retarding the settlement of the country, the question of dealing with the 
pine timber on the lands befoi'e they were formally located, so that the timber 
might be utilized in the public interest, instead of allowing it to be destroyed by 
fires, incidental to the clearing of the land, was somewhat embarrassing, seeing 
that the sawn lumber and square timber trade was in such a state of depression 
as had never before been experienced, and that in conspqnence the result of 
selling the townships situated as described, as timber berths, it was anticipated 
would be anything but satisfactory in a revenue point of view ; however, as 
settlement could not be kept back, it became imperative that the right to cut the 
timber on the lands should be disposed of, so that as much as possible might 
accrue to the public chest. Accordingly, eight, or nine townships, in the 
condition referred to were inspected as to the pine limber thereon, and 
reports examined with regard to the quantities in different parts of the 
townships, and berths of various areas from four to twenty-six square miles each 
were prepared so as to have the several groups of pine distributed over the 
respective berths and thereby as far as possible insure sales ; through the careful 
management in the laying out of the berths, the sale, which took place was very 
successful, the amount realized giving an average of $200 per square mile 

In April, 1869, new regulations were introduced of which the following is a 
copy. They took the place of those established by Order-in-Council da ed June 
12, 1866, and published in the Cana<l Gazette of June 23, 1866, and enforced 
from that date : 

.(3) CROWN TIMBER REGULATIONS. 

(Established under Chapter 23 of the Consolidated Statutes of Canada by 
order of His Excellency the Lieutenant-Governor-in-Coimcil, dated the I6fch 
April, I860). 



200 



1st. The Commissioner of Crown Lands may, at his discretion, cause the 
limit lines of any timber berths under license, which have not been already sur- 
veyed, to !>> properly surveyed and run, the costs of such survey to be paid by 
the holder <>f the license ; and where two or more licenses are interested in the 
survey, the Commissioner shall determine what portion of the costs of the survey 
shall be paid by each, and such costs of survey shall be a charge upon the timber 
berth, to be paid with the ground-rent before renewal of the license. 

'2nd. The Commissioner of Crown Lands, before granting any licenses for 
new timber berths in the unsurveyed territory, shall, as far as practicable, cause 
the section of country where it is intended to allot such berths to be ran out into 
townships, and each township, when so surveyed, shall constitute a timber berth, 
but the Commissioner of Crown Lands may cause such townships to be sub- 
divided into as many timber berths as he may think proper. 

3rd. The berths or limits, when so surveyed and set off, and all new berths 
or limits in surveyed territory, shall be explored and valued, and then offered for 
sale by public auction at the upset price fixed by such valuation, at such time 
and place, and on such conditions, and by such officer, as the Commissioner of 
Crown Lands shall direct by public notice for that purpose, and shall be sold to 
the highest bidder for cash at the time of sale. 

4th. All forfeited timber berths may be offered for sale on the second Tues- 
day in August in each year by public auction, at such upset price, and at such 
place as the Commissioner of Crown Lands may fix and appoint by public notice, 
or at such other rate as he may fix by such notice, and shall be awarded to the 
highest bidder making payment at the time of sale, -but should the said timber 
berth not be then sold, the same may be granted to any applicant willing to pay 
the said upset price and ground- rent or on such other terms as the Commissioner 
of Crown Lands may direct. 

5th. License holders who shall have complied with all existing regulations shall 
be entitled to have their licenses renewed on application to the Commissioner of 
Crown Lands, or to such local agent as he may appoint for that purpose. 

6th. The Commissioner of Crown Lands shall keep a register of all licenses 
granted or renewed, and of all transfers of such licenses; and a copy of such register 
with a plan of the licensed limits, shall be kept by the Crown timber agent of 
the locality, and open to public inspection. 

7th. All transfers of timber berths shall be made in writing, but shall be 
subject to the approval of the Commissioner of Crown Lands, to whom they 
shall be transmitted for approval or rejection, and they shall be valid only from 
the time of such approval, to be expressed in writing. 

8th. Timber berths are to be described in new licenses as " not to interfere 
with prior licenses existing or to be renewed in virtue of regulations." When the 
description of any berth or boundary, as given by any license, clashes with the 
description of any other licensed berth or territory, the license of more recent 
origin (tracing back only to the time when such license or any previous license, 
of which it is a renewal, was first granted) shall give way, and the Commissioner 
may amend or cancel such license wholly or in part, and substitute another in 
place thereof, so as to correct the description of the berth or limit intended to be 
licensed ; and in all cases where any license has issued in error or mistake, or is 
found to be inconsistent with any other license, or inconsistent or incompatible 
with the regulations under which it was granted, the Commissioner of Crown 
Lands may cause it to be cancelled or amended, or he may refer all matters in 
dispute with reference to the boundaries and position of Timber limits to arbitra- 
tion, each of the conten ling parties to choose one arbitrator and the Commis- 
sioner of Crown Lands shall appoint an umpire, naming a day on or before which 



201 



the award of such arbitrators or of such umpire shall be made and delivered to 
the parties and such award shall be binding on them. 

9th. Timber cut on limits for which license has been suspended or held in 
abeyance shall be considered as having been cut without authority, and treated 
accordingly. 

10th. Occupants,, locatees, or purchasers of pubic lands, who have not completed 
all the conditions of sale or location, shall not, unless under settler's license, or 
for clearing, fencing, or building purposes on the said land, be permitted to cut 
timber or logs thereon, or to dispose of it to others. Persons found doing so 
shall be subject to the penalties established by law for cutting timber on the 
public lands without authority. 

1 1 th. All timber licenses are to expire on the 30th of April next after the date 
thereof, and all renewals are to be applied for and issued before the 1st of July 
following the expiration of the last preceding license, in default whereof the right 
to renewal shall cease, and the berth or berths shall be treated as forfeited. 

12th. No renewal of any license shall be granted unless or until the ground- 
rent and all costs of survey, and all dues to the Crown on timber, saw-logs, or 
other lumber, cut under and by virtue of any license, other than the last preceding, 
shall have been first paid. 

13th. All timber berths or limits shall be subject to an annual ground -rent of 
$3 per square mile, payable in advance, before the issuing of any original license 
or renewal. 

14th. Ail timber, saw-logs, wood, or other lumber, cut under any license now 
in force, or under any license which may be hereafter granted, shall be subject to 
the payment of the following Crown dues, that is to say :- 

Black walnut and oak, per cubic foot $0 03 

Elm, ash, tamarac and maple, per cubic foot 02 

Birch, basswood, cedar, buttonwood and cottoiiwood, and all 

boom timber, per cubic foot 01^ 

Red and white pine timber (per O.C. 27th April, 1887), per 

cubic foot , 02 

All other woods 01 

Basswood, button wood and cottonwood, saw-logs, per standard 

of 200 feet board measure ,..., 15 

Red and white pine saw-logs and boom timber, per standard 

of 200 feet B. M,, (per O.C. 27th April, 1887) 20 

Walnut, oak and maple saw -logs, per standard of 200 feet 

board measure 25 

Hemlock, spruce, and other woods, per standard of 200 feet 

board measure 10 

All unmeasured culled saw-logs, to be taken at the average 
of the lot, and to be charged for at the same rate. 

Staves, pipe, per mille 7 00 

Staves, West India, per mille 2 25 

Cordwood (hard) per cord 20 

Cordwood (soft) per cord 12 

Hemlock tan-bark, per cord 30 

Railway timber, knees, etc., to be charged 15 per cent, ad valorem. 
15th. The duties on timber shall be charged upon the quantity shown by 
the specification of measurement at the office of the supervisor of cullers, at 
Quebec, or that of the deputy-supervisor of cullers, at Sorel or Montreal, or by 
other reliable measurement, but where such actual measurement cannot be 
obtained, each stick of white pine timber shall be estimated as containing seventy 



202 



cubic feet, red pine as containing thirty-eight cubic feet, oak, fifty feet, and elm.' i 
forty-five feet, and all other wood as containing thirty -four cubic feet. 

16th. All licensees, or occupants of timber berths, shall furnish, through 
themselves, their agents, cullers, and foremen, to such agent or agents as the 
Commissioner of Crown lands may appoint tor that purpose, and at such time I 
and place as such agent or agents may require, satisfactory proof upon oath as 
to 'the exact locality where all the timber, saw-logs, and other lumber in his or 
their possession were cut, giving the number of pieces and description of timber, 
saw-logs, and other lumber, cut by themselves and others to their knowledge 
upon each of the timher berths held or occupied by him or them, respectively, 
designating what quantity, if any, had been cut on settlers' lauds, giving the 
names of such settlers, the name of the township, and the number of each lot and 
concession, exhibiting at the same time, for the inspection of such agent or agents, 
the books of count and measurement of such timber, saw-logs, and other lumber, 
under his or their control, respectively ; and shall moreover furnish such agent 
or agents all required information and facilities to enable him or them to arrive 
at a satisfactory determination as to the quantity and description of timber, saw- 
logs, and other lumber, made by him <>r them, or held in his or their possession, 
respectively, on which government dues are chargeable ; and in the event of such j 
agent or agents deeming it expedient to cause such timber, saw-logs, and other \ 
lumber to be counted or measured, the said licensee, or occupier of such timber 
berth, and his or their agent, cullers and foremen, shall aid and assist in such 
count and measurement, but should such licensee or occupier, or his or their agents,, 
fail to comply with these conditions, such licensee shall forfeit all right to a 
renewal of his license, and the berth and limit shall become vacant. And to 
enable persons who sell their timber under settler's license to obtain their refund 
of dues, and timber cut on patented lands, to pass duty free, it will be necessary 
for the parties interested to prove on oath, taken before such agent or agents, and 
to his or their satisfaction, the number of pieces and description of timber and | 
saw-logs cut on each lot respectively. And in the event of such proof being ' 
deemed unsatisfactoiy, the said agent or agents may determine the same by 
causing a strict count of the stumps to be made, and then certifying according to 
such count. 

17th. The Commissioner of Crown lands, or any authorized agent, shall at all 
times have free access to and be permitted to examine the books and memoranda 
kept by any licensee, showing the quantity of lumber in board measure, sawn by 
him from logs cut on his timber berth or berths, and failing to produce such 
books and memoranda when required so to do, will subject such licensee to a 
forfeiture of his right to a renewal of his license. . 

18th. When any license holder is in default for, or has evaded the payment 
of dues to the Crown on any part of his timber or saw-logs, such dues may be 
levied on any other timber or saw-logs belonging to such defaulter, cut under 
license, together with the dues thereon. 

19th. Before moving any raft or parcel of timber, lumber, or saw-logs, from 
the agency in which it has been cut, the owner or person in charge thereof shall 
report the same to the Crown timber agent, making, if required, declaration upon 
oath, as to where the said timber was cut, the number of pieces and description 
of each kiud of wood contained in such raft or parcel of timber, and the number 
of cribs, stating at the same time the number and description of pieces cut on 
private lands, also on lands under settler's license, giving the names of the owners 
or licensees of such land, with the names of the townships and number of each lot 
and concession ; and should such Crown timber agent not be satisfied with the 
correctness of such report, he shall cause a strict count to be made of the timber 



20M 



in such raft ; and on being satisfied of tlie correctness of such report of count, the 
Crown timber agent may grant a clearance, in due form, for such raft, stating 
the number of pieces and description of timber contained therein, distinguishing 
the timber cut on private lands and under settler's license from that cut on the 
Crown domain. 

20th. The owner or holder of any such raft or parcel of timber shall, within 
twenty-four hours after the sani" shall have arrived at its destination at Quebec, 
Sorel, Montreal, or other port of >ale or shipment, report the arrival of such raft 
to the collector of Crown timber dues, or if at Sorel or Montreal, to the deputy- 
supervisor of cullers ; and should the said raft be found by the specification of 
measurement to contain , i greater numb r of pieces of timber than is noted in 
the clearance, the surplus number of pieces, if not satisfactorilv explained, shall 
be held as having been cut on Crown lands without authority, and subject to the 
payment of dues accordingly. 

21st. Parties omitting to obtain their clearance at such agency, or omitting 
to report the arrival of sud'i raft at its destination, as above mentioned, may be 
refused further license, and max 1 be subject to forfeiture of the timber for evasion 
of regulations, as provided in Cap. 23, of the Consolidated Statutes of Canada. 

22nd. Persons evading or refusing the payment of timber dues, or the final 
settlement of bonds or promissory notes for the payment of such dues, or in 
default with the Crown timber office or agent; also persons taking forcible 
possession of disputed ground, before obtaining decision in their favor, and persons 
refusing to comply with the decision, of arbitrators or of the umpire, as provided 
by the Nth section of these regulations, or with the regulations established by 
Order-in Council, or who forcibly interrupt surveyors in the discharge of their 
duty, shall be refused further licenses, and their berths shall be forfeited at the 
expiration of the then existing license. 

23rd. Dues of all kinds on timber cut under license, remaining unpaid on the 
30th November following the season in which it was cut, shall be subject to 
interest from that date, but without prejudice to the power of the Crown to 
enforce payment of such outstanding dues at any time the Commissioner of 
Crown Lands may think proper. 

(i) ON THK VARIOUS FORMS OF TIMBER LICENSES IN USE. 

There are four forms of timber license in use in the Province of Ontario ; 
two for what is called the " Western Timber District," and the " Belleville 
District,' one coiitamin" 1 the right to cut timber on road allowances and the other 

o o 

not, and neither of them granting the right to cut rafting stuff on lands of the 
Crown. Two forms of Houses ar_> used f >r t i .- " Ottawa Agency," on.' hiving a 
stipulation concerning road allowances, and the other not, but both conferring 
the right to cut rafting stuff from the Crown lands. 

The reason why the right to cut rafting stuff is confined to the Ottawa 
agency, is because, on the Ottawa timber and logs come from a long distance up 
the river, and from different tributary .streams, and have to be rafted, broken up, 
and re-rafted in some cases several times before the timber and logs reach their 
destination ; whereas on the rivers in other parts of the Province, no rafting 
takes place, the timber and logs being driven down the streams loosely till they 
reach the large waters of the lakes or the River St. Lawrence, on the shores of 
which rafting stuff can be cut or purchased. 

The following copy of the simpler form of license used in the Western 
Timber District, will, with its notes, give an idea of these different licenses : 



204 



(5) FORM OF A TIMBER LICENSE IN THE WESTERN TIMMEK DISTRICT. 

I'.y authority of Chapter 20 of the Revised Statutes of Ontario, and the I 
Crown Timber regulations, dated the 16th day of April, 1869, and for and in 
consideration of the payments made and to be made to Her Majesty: 

I do hereby give unto and unto I 

agents or workmen, full power and license to cut 

every description of timber on lands or lots unlocated and unsold at the date of 
this License, or sold or located during the time this License is in force, and pine 
trees on lands or lots sold under Orders in Council of 27th May, 1869, or sold or 
located under the Free Grants and Homesteads Act of 1868 or amendment of the 
said Act, by Chapter four of the Statutes of Ontario of 1880, and pine and cedar 
trees, when reserved, on lots sold under Order in Council of 3rd April, 1880, prior i 
to the date of this License, and pine trees on lots patented under said Chapter 
four, or patented as mining lands, under the General Mining Act, or patented or 
leased under Statute 54 Victoria, Chapter eight, upon the location described on I 
the buck hereof by and to hold and 

occupy the said location to the exclusion of all others, except as hereinafter men- j 
lioned from to thirtieth of April, 18 , and no longer ; j 

with the right of convejdng away the said timber through j 

any ungranted, uncleared, or waste lands of the Crown: 

And by virtue of this license, the said licensee ha right by the said 
statute to all timber cut by others during the term of this license in trespass on 
the ground hereby assigned, with full power to seize and recover the same. 

But this license is subject to the following conditions, viz.: 

To the withdrawal therefrom of lots located or sold under the Free Grants 
and Homesteads Act of 1868, prior to the passing of Chapter four of the Statutes 
of Ontario of 1880, and for which patent may be granted on the ground that five 
years had elapsed from the date of such location or sale, and that the conditions 
of settlement had been complied with prior to thirtieth April preceding the date 
or issue of the license. 

That any person or persons may at all times make and use roads upon, and 
travel over the ground hereby licensed. 

That nothing herein shall prevent any person or persons from taking from 
the ground covered by this license, standing timber of any kind (without com- 
pensation therefor) to be used for the making of roads or bridges or public 
works, by or on behalf of the Province of Ontario, the authority of the Depart- 
ment of Crown Lands having first been obtained. 

That persons settling under lawful authority or title within the location 
hereby licensed, shall not in any way be interrupted in clearing and cultivation 
by the said licensee , or any one acting for or by 

permission. 

That the Commissioner of Crown Lands, under Order in Council of 27th 
April, 1885, may at any time during the currency of this license, cancel the right 
to cue timber other than pine upon any lots, included in the description in this 
license, which may have been sold or located subsequent to the date hereof, or 
upon any lots in said description which may have been squatted upon with the 
bona fide intention of location or purchase. 

And further : under condition that the said license or representa- 

tives shall comply with all regulations that are or may be established by Order 
in Council, and shall submit all the timber, saw logs or other lumber cut under 
this License to be counted or measured, and settle for the duties chargeable 
thereon, when required by me or any officer thereunto authorized, otherwise the 



205 



said timber will be forfeited to the Crown, and the said licensee be subject to such 
other penalties as the Act provides. 

Given under my hand, at Toronto, the day of in the 

year of our Lord, one thousand eight hundred and ninety- in duplicate. 

Commissioner. 

The stipulation in regard to road allowances found in two of the forms, is as 
follows : 

And every government road allowance or parts thereof, embraced within 
the boundaries of the tracts or parcels of land above mentioned or described, 
and all such portions of any government road allowance as border upon any tract, 
lot, or parcel of land above mentioned or described, and lie between the side-lines 
or between the front and rear-lines, or between a side-line and a front or rear- 
line, or between different parts of any line of said tracts, lots, or parcels of land 
produced across such road allowance ; provided, however, that when any portion 
of a road allowance is found to be included in any two licenses covering lands 
on opposite sides of such road allo -vance, then each license is to extend only to 
the centre line of such road allowance ; and provided also, that all disputes 
arising out of any conflict of licenses covering government road allowances shall 
be decided by the Commissioner of Crown Lands, who may define what 
portion of any road allowance is included in each license, and his decision shall be 
binding. 

This license not to interfere with prior licenses. 

(6) SYSTEM OF WOOD RANGING. EFFORTS TO PREVENT WASTE. 

The Commissioner of Crown Lands, in the communication already cited 

I describes the operation of these regulations and the system of wood-ranging was 

\ then introduced. This is admitted as at first crude and experimental, but it has 

I since gone on with moilitications as suggested by experience, until it is deemed 

at present as perfect as can practically be carried out. 

A staff of from twenty to thirty experienced and reliable rangers are 
employed each season, some of them being engaged from December till the 30th 
of April, and a few of the supervising rangers up to the end of October. The 
result has been s i.tisfactory in the highest degree, the revenue having increased 
in the several agencies immediately after the inception of the system to the 
extent of from h' t'ty pi'r cent , and in one agency even -K)0 per cent. 

Instead of agents dealing with accounts for timber dues as formerly, all 
returns, together with ringer's reports, are transmitted to the department, where 
the timber limit operations and cutting on special lots of land are checked, and 
all accounts made up, and transmitted to agents for the collection of the dues 
and transmission of the same to headquarters as collected. 

Wood-rangers have standing instructions to report generally on any wanton 
or special waste, when such has been observed in connection with lumbering" 
operations, and in cases of licensees allowing standing pine through which fire 
has passed to become lost instead of utilizing it before it is destroyed by what is. 
termed the ' : boring worm." A few cases of waste transpired some years ago by 
licensees arranging with jobbers to cut saw-logs on their timber limits, the logs, 
by agreement, to be up to a certain standard of quality all logs failing short of 
the standard fixed being rejecte I and left in the woods and an attempt made 
to leave the rejected timber out of the returns ; but through the vigilance of the 
wood-rangers of the department, such transactions were nipped in the bud,, and 
abandoned when parties found that they had to account for and mak" payment 
to the Crown on every tree cut clown. The only real waste of timber in lumber. 



iug is in connection with the manufacture of square pine and board, (or 
octagonal) pine timber, especially the former, in squaring which and in the rejec- 
tion of the upper portion of the tree where the limbs begin- fully one-third of the 
tree is wasted, viz., one-sixth of the best of the timber in siding off to reach the 
square, and one-sixth of the upper part of the tree which is left in the woods, but 
which if drawn, would be valuable at a saw-mill, where it could be cut into 
various qualities of lumber, either fit for domestic use or export. The waste 
referred to has been noticed by this department for years past, but under the 
regulations past and present and the tenure under which licenses to cut timber 
are held, and have been held for many years, it is found difficult to uproot a 
system which has obtained so long, and in which there are so many vested 
interests and so much capital involved. 

PRODUCTION OF TIMBER IN CANADA, 1890. 

The following table taken from the Statistical Year Book of Canada (1891), p. 14, gives the 
production of timber in the whole of Canada during the year 1890 : 



Timber. 


Ontario. 


Quebec. 


New 
Brunswick. 


British 
Columbia. 


Nova Scotia. 


Manitoba 
and N.W.T. 


Saw logs - B.M 


522,524,283 


495,449,000 


108,569,122 


79,177,05=" 


* -78. 603, 742 


30,605,906 


Sciuare timber c. ft. 


3 392,629 


2,151,791 


16,818 








Boom pieces . 


150,361 


5,240 


7,. '(75 








TIardwood c ft 


12,527 


67,428 


t 








Railway tie 5 * No 


672 410 


139,550 


79,488 










29 971 


8 747 


1 356 








Telegraph poles 


468 


635 


3,163 








Cedar lin ft 


162 346 




4,716,201 








Cedar posts, tanbark and 
bolt j cords 


4,147 


II 10,769 


258 









Pile timber B M 


11 (564 












SViinirlps iVT 




3 331 


615 












1 230 


14 787 






1,449,916 




* 1 2 9 5 




6 820 






156,402 








63 








Due** received $ 


878 772 


806,052 


112,475 


29,678 




102,951 

















* Traverses. * *Trans- Atlantic shipments only, t Included in square timber. Rafting pins. 

|| Pulp and bobbin wood included. Laths. 

THE ONTARIO FIRE ACT. 

The following Act (Cap. 213, KS.O.) was passed by the Legislature of Ontario 
in 1878, with the view of preventing the occurrence of the fires which have 
wrought so much devastation among the forests ot the Province : 



207 



An Act to preserve the Forests from destruction by 

Fire. 

WHEREAS large quantities of valuable timber are an- Preamble, 
nually destroyed by tires which are in many instances 
the result of negligence and carelessness, it is therefore necessary 
to provide stringent regulations for the prevention of such fires. 
Therefore Her Majesty, by and with the advice and consent 
of the Legislative Assembly of the Province of Ontario, enacts 
as follows : 

1. The Lieutenant-Governor may, by proclamation to be Lt.-Governor 
made by him from time to time, issued by and with the advice ^ e p d c t rTct! 
.and consent of the Executive Council, declare any portion or 

part of the Province of Ontario to be a fire district. 

2. Every proclamation under this Act shall be published in Publication of 
the Ontario Gazette, and such portion or part of the Province fire 

as is mentioned and declared to be a fire district in and by the 
said proclamation, shall, from and after the said publication, 
become a fire district within the meaning and for the purposes 
of this Act. 

3. Ever}' such portion or part of the Province mentioned in Revocation, 
such proclamation shall cease to be a tire district upon the 
revocation by the Lieutenant-Governor in Council of the pro- 
clamation by which it was created. 

14 

4. It shall not be lawful for any person to set out, or cause Fires not to be 
to be set out or started, any fire in or near the woods within ^^^^ 
any fire district, between the first clay of April and the first day purposes and 
of November in any year, except for the purpose of clearing "S^ 
land, cooking, obtaining warmth, or for some industrial pur- 
pose;* and in cases of starting fires for any of the above pur- 
poses, the obligations and precautions imposed by the following- 
sections shall be observed. 

5. Every person who shall, between the first day of April Precautions to 

i ,1 ,. . -i n-N-r i LI -LI ube taken in 

and the hrst day of November, make or start a fire within such case of clear . 
fire district for the purpose of clearing land shall exercise and ing land, 
observe every reasonable care and precaution in the making 
and starting of such fire, and in the managing of and caring for 
the same at'ter it has been made and started, in order to pre- 
vent such tire from spreading or burning up the timber and 
forests surrounding the place where it has been so made and 
started. 

6. Every person who shall, between the first day of April 
and the first day of November make or start within such tire i 
district a tire in the forest, or at a distance of less than half-a- 
mile therefrom, or upon any island for cooking, obtaining 
warmth, or for any industrial purpose, shall 



208 



1. Select a locality in the neighbourhood in which there is 
the smallest quantity of vegetable matter, dead wood, branches, 
brushwood, dry leaves, or resinous trees ; 

2. Clear the place in which he is about to light the fire by 
removing all vegetable matter, dead trees, branches, brushwood 
and dry leaves from the soil within a radius of ten feet from 
the fire ; 

3. Exercise and observe every reasonable care and precaution 
to prevent such fire from spreading, and carefully extinguish 
the same before quitting the place. 

Precautions 7 Any person who shall throw or drop any burning match, 

matches' bum- asnes a pip e > lighted cigar, or any other burning substance, 

ing sub- or who shall discharge any fire-arm within such fire district 

stances, etc. S \ VA \\ be subject to the pains and penalties imposed by this Act, 

if he neglect completely to extinguish before leaving the spot 

the fire of such match, ashes of a pipe, cigar, wadding of the 

fire-ar ; . or other burning substance. 

Act to be read 8. Every person in charge of any drive of timber, survey or 
to employees exploring party, or of any other party requiring camp tires for 
su'rveyVlum- cooking or other purposes within such fire district, shall pro- 
berers, etc. vide himself with a copy of this Act, and shall call his men 
together and cau^e said Act to be read in their hearing, and 
explained to them at least once in each week during thn con- 
tinuance of such work or service. 

Precautions as 9. All locomotive engines used on any railway which passes 
tolocomotives. through any such fire district or any part of it, shall, by the 
company using the same, be provided with and have in use 
all the most approved and efficient means used to prevent the 
escape of fire from the furnace or ash-pan of such engines, and 
that the smoke stack of each locomotive engine so used shall 
be provided with a bonnet or screen of iron or steel wire 
netting, the size of the wire used in making the netting to be 
not le.-.s than number nineteen of the Birmingham wire gauge, 
or three sixty-fourths parts of an inch in diameter, and shall 
contain in each inch square at least eleven wires each way at 
right angles to each other, that is in all twenty-two wires to 
the inch square. 

Duty of en- 1O. It shall be the duty of every engine driver in charge of 
gine drivers, a locomotive engine passing over any such railway within the 
limits of any such fire district, to see that all such appliances 
as are above-mentioned are properly used and applied, so as 
to prevent the unnecessary escape of fire from any such engine 
as far as it is reasonably possible to do so. 

Penalty for ^ 1 Whosoever unlawfully neglects or refuses to comply 
non compli- with the requirements of this Act in any manner whatsoever, 
A n c c t ewith thls shall be liable upon a conviction before any justice of the 



209 



peace to a penalty not exceeding fifty dollars over and above 
the costs of prosecution, and in default of payment of such fine 
and costs, the offender shall be imprisoned in the common gaol 
for a period not exceeding three calendar months ; and any 
railway company permitting any locomotive engine to be run 
in violation of the provisions of the ninth section of this Act 
shall be liable to a penalty of one hundred dollars for each 
offence, to be recovered with costs in any court of competent 
jurisdiction. 



. Every suit for any contra vention of this Act shall be Time for 
commenced within three calendar months immediately follow- ^j."^ ng 
ing such contravention. 

13. All fines and penalties imposed and collected under this Disposal of 
Act shall be paid one-half to the complainant or prosecutor fines - 
and the other half to Her Majesty for the public use of the 
Province. 

14. It shall be the special duty of every Crown Land agent, Government 
Woods and Forests agent, Free Grant agent, and _ bush ranger, J^Jj^^ 
to enforce the provisions and requirements of this Acb, and in 

all cases coming within the knowledge of any such agent or 
bush ranger to prosecute every person guilty of a breach of 
any of the provisions and requirements of the same. 

15. Nothing in this Act contained shall be held to limit or Act not to in- 
interfere with the right of any party to bring and maintain terfere with 

a civil action tor damages occasioned by fire, and such right f* r damages n 
shall remain and exist as though this Act had not been occasioned 

. by fire. 

passed. 
DESCRIPTION OF "FiRE DISTRICTS" UNDER CAP. 213 OF THE STATUTES OF ONTARIO. 



District oVo. 1. Commencing at a point on the north shore of Lake Huron 
where Provincial Land Surveyor Albert P. Salter's meridian line between ranges 
numbers twenty-one and twenty -two west intersects the water's edge, said 
point being the south-west angle of the Township of Plummer; thence easterly, 
following the turnings and windings of the shore along the water's edge of Lake 
Huron and the Georgian Bay to the mouth of French River ; thence south-easterly, 
along the easterly shore of 'the Georgian Bay, and taking in Parry Island, to the 
north-west angle of the Township of Matchedash ; thence south-easterly along 
the westerly boundaries of the Townships of Matchedash and North Orillia to 
the south-west angle O f North Orillia ; Ihence north-easterly along the southerly 
boundary of North Orillia to the waters of Lake Couch idling ; thence easterly 
across said lake to the south-west angle of the Township of Rama ; thence east- 
erly along the south boundaries of the Townships of Rama, Dalton, Digby and 
Lutterworth to the north-west angle of the Township of Galway ; thence south- 
erly along the westerly boundaries of the Townships of Galway and Harvey to 
the south-west angle of Harvey ; thence easterly along the south boundaries ot 
the Townships of Harvey, Burleigh, Methuen, Lake and Tudor, to the north west 
angle of the Township of Elzevir; thence southerly along the west boundary of 

14 (F.) 



210 



Elzevir to the south-west angle of said township ; thence easterly along the south 
boundaries of the Townships of Elzevir, Kaladar, Kennebec, Olden, Oso and South 
Sherbrooke, to the south-east angle of the Township of South Sherbrooke ; thence 
north-westerly along the easterly boundaries of the Townships of South and 
North Sherbrooke to the southerly boundary of the Township of Lavant ; thence 
north-easterly along the southerly boundaries of the Townships of Lavant and 
Darling, to the south-easterly angle of the Township of Darling; thence north- 
westerly along the easterly boundaries of the Townships of Darling and Bagot, 
to the north-easterly angle of the Township of Bagot ; thence south-westerly 
along the northerly boundaries of the Townships of Bagot and Blitheh'eld, to the 
easterly boundary of the Township of Brougham ; thence north-westerly along 
the easterly boundaries of the Townships of Brougham, Grattan, Wilberforce and. 
Alice, to the waters of the Upper Allumette Lake ; thence north-westerly, follow- 
ing the water's edge of said lake and the Ottawa River to the head of Lake 
Temiscamingue ; thence due north along the boundary between the Provinces of 
Ontario and Quebec, to the northern boundary of the Province of Ontario ; 
thence westerly along the said northern boundary to its intersection with the 
production northerly of Provincial Land Surveyor Albert P. Salter's meridian line 
between the said ranges numbers twenty-one and twenty-two west, and thence 
southerly along said meridian line produced to the place of beginning. 

District No. 2. All that part of the said Province lying west of Provincial 
Land Surveyor Albert P. Salter's meridian line between ranges twenty-one and 
twenty-two west, near Bruce Mines, in the District of Algoma, and west of the 
said meridian line produced to the northern boundary of the Province, the said 
meridian line being the western boundary of the Fire District established by the 
Proclamation of March 27th, 1878. 

THE ONTARIO FIRE-RANGING SYSTEM. 

In 1888 the Department of Crown Lands (Ontario), inaugurated a system of 
fire ranging, explained in the circular-letter to limit-holders given below, the cost 
of which is borne in equal parts by the Province and the lumbermen. It is very 
generally adopted by limit-owners and is believed to have been instrumental in 
greatly reducing the annual loss through forest fires : 

Sir, The Commissioner of Crown Lands, feeling the importance of creating 
some better organization for preventing the destruction of the forest by fire, has 
approved of a scheme, the piincipal points of which are herein stated to you, so 
that you may, should the position of your limits make it desirable, avail yourself 
of its advantages. 

It is proposed that during the dangerous period, say from the first day of 
May to the first day of October in each year, there shall be placed on such limits 
as are exposed to danger a man or men who will be empowered and instructed to 
use every tndeavor to prevent and suppress fires in every way possible, and the 
ranger who is placed in charge of a limit will be authorized to engage whatever 
help may be necessary to cope with a dangerous fire where prompt action is 
necessary ; these men will be supplied copies of the " Fire Act," and instructed to 
post them up in public and conspicuous places, to visit each person resident on 
the limit and give them, if thought advisable, a copy of the Act, explaining to 
them its provisions, penalty for its infraction, etc., and to endeavor to enlist their 
assistance and sympathy to make the Act effective. 

The department will leave the limit holder to suggest the number cf men 
who should be placed on his limit, and as it is of all things necessary that prac- 



211 



tical bushmen of good judgment and well acquainted with the limit should be 
selected, he, the limit holder, will nominate the man to be placed in charge of the 
limit and his subordinates, if any, the department reserving the right to limit 
the number of men to be employed on any limit and also to reject or 
remove any man whom it tinds unfitted to discharge the duties of the position. 

It is hoped that limit holders will recognize the necessity of recommending 
men of good judgement and cool temper who, while fully discharging their duties, 
will not harass or annoy settlers or others, as, if an animus is created in the 
breasts of the settlers the scheme will undoubtedly fail to effect the result ex- 
pected. Limit holders will be expected to exercise supervision over these men 
and see that they thoroughly and effectually perform their duties. 

With respect to remuneration the department thinks that the man in charge 
of a limit should be paid dollars a day, which should cover board and 

ordinary expenses, and where subordinates are required, that suitable men can be 
obtained at dollars per day, which should also cover board and ordinary 

expenses; the men will be appointed -bush and fire rangers and instructed from 
here so as to clothe them with authority under section 14 of the Fire Act, and a 
copy of the instructions will be furnished each limit holder. 

As the limit holder is reaping a large proportion of the benefit, it is intended 
that he should bear one-half of the cost of men and expenses which may be 
incurred under this scheme. 

The department will pay wages and expenses and charge to each limit 
holder his proportion, which will be a charge upon the limit and an account will 
be rendered at the close of the season, when prompt payment must be made. 

Should you desire to avail yourself of this scheme you will at once address a 
letter to the department to that effect, stating the limits you wish protected, the 
number of your license for current season, the number of men you would 
recommend to be employed, and submit a list of those you would recommend for 
appointment on your limits. 

AUBREY WHITE, 

Assistant Commissioner. 
DEPARTMENT OF CROWN LANDS, 
(WOODS AND FOREST BRANCH,) 
April, 1888. 



212 



AN ACT RESPECTING THE ROCKY MOUNTAINS PARK OF CANADA. I 

Chap. 32 of 50-51 Viet, setting- apart a national park at Banff in the Rocky I 
Mountains reads thus : 

Whereas it is expedient in the public interest that a national park and 
sanatorium should be set apart and established in the North-west Territories ; I 
Therefore, Her Majesty, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate and 
House of Commons of Canada, enacts as follows : 

1. The tract of land comprised within the limits hereinafter set forth, that ] 
is to say, commencing at the easterly end of Castle Mountain station grounds, on I 
the Canadian Pacific Railway, as shown on a plan of right-of-way tiled in the > 
Department of Rail ways and Canals by the Canadian Pacific Railway Company, I 
thence on a course about south thirty-five degrees east, ten miles, more or less, to I 
a point in latitude seven minutes, six seconds and ninety-six hundredths of a 
second south of the point of commencement, and in longitude seven minutes, fifty- I 
four seconds and ninety-eight hundredths of a second east of the point of com- I 
mencement ; thence on a course about north fifty-five degrees east, twenty-six: I 
miles, more or less, to a point in latitude five minutes, forty-six seconds and twenty | 
hundredths of a second north of the point of commencement, and in longitude I 
thirty-seven minutes, twenty -three seconds and thirty -one hundredths of a second 
east of the point of commencement ; thence on a course about north thirty-five 
degrees west, ten miles, more or less, to a point in latitude twelve minutes, fifty- 
three seconds and ninety-one hundredths of a second north of the point of 
commencement, and in longitude twenty-nine minutes, thirty-two seconds and 
thirty-eight hundredths of a second east of the point of commmencement ; thence 
on a course about south fifty-five degrees west, twenty-six miles, more or less, to 
the place of commencement, containing by admeasurement two hundred and sixtyl 
square miles, be the same more or less, so far as the title to the said tract of land I 
in whole or in part, is now vested in the Crown, is hereby withdrawn from sale, I 
settlement and occupancy under the provisions of " The Dominion Lands Act " or 
any regulations made under the said Act or any other Act with respect to mining 
or timber licenses or any other matter whatsoever. 

2. The said tract of land is hereby reserved and set apart as a public park 
and pleasure ground for the benefit, advantage and enjoyment of the people of 
Canada, subject to the provisions of this Act and of the regulations hereinafter 
mentioned, and shall be known as the Rocky Mountains Park of Canada. 

3. No person shall, except as hereinafter provided, locate, settle upon, use 
or occupy any portion of the said public park. 

4. The park shall be under the control and management of the Minister of the 
Interior, and the Governor-in-council may make regulations for the following 
purposes : 

(a) The care, preservation and management of the park and of the water- 
courses, lake, trees and shrubbery, minerals, natural curiosities and other matters 
therein contained. 

(6) The control of the hot springs situate in the said park, and their manage- 
ment and utilization for purposes of bathing and sanitation and in every other - 
respect. 






213 



(c) The lease for any term of years of such parcels of land in the park as he 
deems advisable in the public interest, for the construction of buildings for ordin- 
ary habitation and purposes of trade and industry, and for the accommodation of 
persons resorting to the park. 

(d) The working of mines and the development of mining interests within 
the limits of the park, and the issuing of licenses or permits of occupation for the 
said purposes ; but no lease, license or permit shall be made, granted or issued 
under this or the next preceding paragraph of this section which will' in any way 
impair the usefulness of the park for the purposes of public enjoyment and 
recreation. 

(e) Trade and traffic of every description. 

(_/) The preservation and protection of game and fish, of wild birds generally, 
and of cattle allowed to pasture in the park. 

(g) The issuing of licenses or permits for the pasturage of cattle, and the 
management of hay lands. 

(A) The removal and exclusion of trespassers. 

(1) And generally for all purposes necessary to carry this Act into effect 
according to the true intent and meaning thereof. 

(2) The Governor-in-council may, by the said regulations, impose penalties 
for any violation thereof, not exceeding in each case the sum of fifty dollars, or, 
in default of payment with costs, imprisonment for not more than three months. 

5. Every regulation made as aforesaid, shall, after publication for four con- 
secutive weeks in the Canada Gazette, and in any other manner that may be 
provided thereby by the Governor-in-council, have the like force and effect as if 
it was herein enacted, and such regulations shall be laid before Parliament within 
fifteen days after its first meeting thereafter. 

6. Nothing in this Act contained shall affect the obligations of the Govern- 
ment (if any) arising out of the conditions of the acquisition of the North-west 
Territories. 

7. This Act may be cited as "Rocky Mountains Park Act, 1887." 

REGULATIONS RESPECTING ROCKY MOUNTAINS PARK. 

By Order-in-Council of Monday, 30th June, 1S90, under authority of " The 
Rocky Mountains Park Act," 50-51 Viet., chap 32, s. 4, the Order-in-Council of 
the 27th day of November, 1889, establishing regulations for the control and 
management of the Rocky Mountains Park of Canada was cancelled, and the 
following Regulations, approved in point of form by the Minister of Justice, 
were substituted after the 1st day of July, 1890, for the regulations established 
by the said Order-in-Council. 

(1) No person shall, without permission from the Minister of the Interior, 
reside permanently within other portions of the park than those sold or leased. 

(2) The superintendent of the park (hereinafter called the superintendent) 
may issue permits to visitors for camping upon such ground as he may designate; 
any one camping without such permit shall be considered a trespasser, and the 
fee for Such permit shall be one dollar per month per tent ; provided, however, that 
no such permit shall be granted for camping in any portion of the park situated 
south of Bow River. 



214 



(3) The defacement of any object at any of the hot springs, or of any of the 
natural rock formations, or timber, by written inscription, or otherwise, is strictly 
forbidden ; as is also the throwing of any stones, sticks or other substances what- 
soever into any of the springs or streams in the Park. 

(4) No advertisements, other than those issued or permitted by the Minister 
of the Interior, shall be posted or displayed within the park, except on leased 
property in the town site of Banff, or property in the village of Anthracite. 

(5) No live stock shall be permitted to run at large, nor shall pigs, sheep or 
goats be brought into or kept within the park, provided, however, that licensed 
butchers may bring in and keep for a period not exceeding thirty days, and at 
such places and in the manner to be prescribed by the superintendent, animals to 
be slaughtered for food purposes. 

(6) The superintendent shall from time to time select and designate pastur- 
ing grounds within the park, upon which leaseholders may pasture not in excess- 
of two milch cows and two horses for each lot leased ; but leaseholders availing 
themselves of this regulation shall make provision satisfactory to the superintend- 
ent for herding- the animals and driving them to and from the pasture grounds. 

(7) All stock found pasturing, except where authorized, may be impounded 
and held until a proper guarantee be given that the trespass will not be repeated^ 
and until a fine be paid sufficient to cover the expenses of impounding such stock, 
feeding them while so impounded, and advertising. Failure to give the necessary 
guarantees and to pay the fine within thirty days shall render the stock liable to 
be sold by the superintendent, and the proceeds of such sale, after paying thereout 
the tine, cost of maintenance, advertising and sale, shall be paid by the superin- 
tendent to the owner of the stock. The superintendent may authorize any 
person to act as pound-keeper, the rates of remuneration to be settled by the 
Minister of the Interior. 

(8) The superintendent shall, upon application, furnish each owner of a dog- 
or bitch, upon payment of a fee of one dollar in the case of a dog and two dollar* 
in the case of a bitch, with a license authorizing him to keep such dog or bitch ; 
such licenses shall expire on the thirtieth day of June in each year, and shall then 
be renewed ; and any unlicensed dog or bitch may be impounded or destroyed, at 
the discretion of the superintendent. 

(9) No person shall cut or remove any timber, growing or dead, or remove 
or displace any mineral deposits or natural curiosities, unless by written permis- 
sion of the superintendent. 

(10) No rubbish or any matter of an offensive nature shall be deposited, 
except in such places and at such times and under such conditions as the super- 
intendent shall designate. 

(11) No person shall ride or drive on or over any bridge within the park 
faster than a walk ; furious riding or driving on public roads is also prohibited. 

(a) Horses driven with sleighs shall be provided with bells. 

(6) No person shall ride or drive across or on any side-walk, boulevard, 
vacant lot, or common within the park, without the written permission of the 
superintendent. Horse-racing is also prohibited, except in such places as may be 
set apart for the purpose by the superintendent 

(c) Horses in use or attached to any vehicle shall not be allowed to stand 
without being tied or in charge of some grown person. 

(12) The waters of the hot springs shall be controlled by the superintendent, 
and shall be supplied to licensed bath-houses at such rental per annum as may be 
fixed from time to time by Order-in-Council, and the superintendent may .at any 
time shut off the supply of the said water, after two weeks' notice in writing, 
from any such bath-house, the lessee of which may be in arrears for rent or who 



215 



may have in any way infringed any of the provisions of this or the next succeed- 
ing clause ; and no person shall in any way interfere or tamper with any spring, 
pipes, valves, traps, tanks, or any other apparatus connected with the supply and 
distribution of the said water. 

(13) The superintendent or his authorized agent shall have free access for 
inspection at all reasonable times to any bath-house or building using the water 
of the springs, or to any pipe leading to or within such bath-house or building. 

(14) The Minister of the Interior shall have power to cause such portion of 
the park as from time to time he may designate to be surveyed and laid out in 
building lots, for the construction thereon of buildings for ordinary habitation 
and purposes of trade and industry, and for the accommodation of persons 
resorting to the park, and may issue leases for such lots for any term not exceed- 
ing forty-two years, with the right of renewal, at rentals to be from time to time 
fixed by him ; also, to set apart such portions of the park as he may think proper 
for the sites of market-places, j iils, court-houses, places of public worship, burying- 
grounds, benevolent institutions, squares, and for other similar public purposes. 

(15) The location, design, and general character of an}' buildings to be erected 
as dwelling-houses or for purposes connected therewith, or fences, shall be subject 
to the approval of the superintendent and to the sanction of the Minister of the 
Interior. 

(a) No timber 011 any lot leased for residential purposes, except so much as- 
is actually necessary to be removed to make room for the building and reasonable 
access thereto, shall be cut or removed, except by permission of the superintendent. 

(16) The Minister of the Interior may issue licenses of occupation for the 
working of mines and the development of mineral interests within the limits of 
the park, subject, however, to the approval in each instance by the Governor-in- 
Council, of the terms, conditions, and duration of such licenses of occupation. 

(17) All leases or licenses of occupation shall be in such form as may be 
approved by the Minister of the Interior and the Minister of Justice. 

(18) No bar-room or saloon shall be permitted within the park. 

(19) The following restrictions on the sale of intoxicating liquors in the park 
shall be imposed and enforced, in addition to the restrictions imposed by the 
North-west Territories Act. The sale of intoxicating liquors even under the 
special permission granted under section ninety-two of the said Act, is strictly 
prohibited, except in hotels, and there it shall only be allowed to hotel guests for 
table use. Nor shall an} 7 person after obtaining such special permission, sell, 
exchange, trade or barter, or have in his possession within the park, even for hotel 
use under this regulation, any intoxicating liquor, until his special permission 
issued in accordance with section ninety-two of the said North-west Territories 
Act has been countersigned by the Minister of the Interior or his deputy, for 
which countersigning a fee of fifty dollars shall be charged in each case ; and no 
permit for a hotel shall be so countersigned unless such hotel shall have at least 
twenty bed-rooms of a size and to be furnished in a manr.er satisfactory to the 
superintendent. 

(20) If at any time during the continuance of the permit the superintendent 
reports that the accommodation hereinbefore specified is not maintained, or if it 
is proved to the satisfaction of the Minister of the Interior that the hotel is not 
being conducted in an orderly and proper manner, the permit may be revoked 
and cancelled by the Minister of the Interior and the permittee shall have no 
claim to have repaid to him any portion of the fee paid for countersigning such 
permit. 

(21) No person shall do business as a peddler in the park or act as guide 
therein without a license from the Minister of the Interior, who shall have power 



216 



to revoke such license in his discretion; and no guide shall be entitled to charge 
for his services more than fifty cents per hour for six hours or under, and not 
more than three dollars for any day not exceeding ten hours. 

('12) All slaughter-houses, butcher-shops, fish-stalls, and any other business 
which from its nature is or may become offensive or obnoxious, shall be carried 
on only at such places as the superintendent may designate in the license for the 
establishment of such business, and shall be subject at any time, on sixty days' 
notice in writing delivered lo the owner or lessee in person, or left at his place of 
residence or place of business to removal to such other place as the superintendent 
may designate. Every license issued under this clause .shall be subject to revo- 
cation at any time upon thirty days' notice to the licensee, and the business shall 
entirely cease on the revocation of a license. 

(23) The Minister of the Interior may issue a license to any person or 
persons undertaking to place a steam yacht or other vessel, or vesssels, suitable 
for the conveyance of passengers, and in all respects complying with the Steam- 
boat Inspection Act or Acts regulating steam and other vessels, on any waters 
within the park, to date from the first day of April in each year. The maximum 
fare which may be charged for the conveyance of passengers in such boats shall 
not exceed when running on regular trips up to eight miles, fifty cents ; above 
eight and up to twelve miles, seventy-five cents ; over twelve miles, one dollar. 

(24) Licenses to carry on livery stables may be issued by the Minister of the 
Interior, the fee for which shall be ten dollars per annum for each vehicle drawn 
by two or more horses, and six dollars for each vehicle drawn by one horse ; and 
no person shall keep horses or conveyances for hire without first having obtained 
such license. The rates which may be charged for the hire of carriages or other 
vehicles, and saddle horses, shall not exceed the following : 

(a) For the conveyance of one passenger from or to the railway station to or 
from any licensed hotel or boarding-house within a radius of one-and-a-half miles 
of the station, fifty cents ; to all points beyond one-and-a-half and within three 
miles of the railway station, one dollar. 

(6) For the conveyance of one passenger when there are at least four passen- 
gers in the vehicle, from any one point within one mile of the Bow River bridge, 
at the end of Banff avenue, to and from Devil's Lake, two dollars. 

(c) For conveyance in any vehicle, drawn by two horses, and carrying not 
more than four persons, for one passenger, one dollar for the first hour, and 
twenty -five cents an hour for each additional passenger for the first hour ; and 
for every subsequent hour, fifty cents for one passenger and twenty-five cents for 
each additional passenger. 

(d) For conveyance in any vehicle drawn by two or more horses and 
carrying more than four persons, seventy-five cents an hour for each person for 
the first hour, and twenty-five cents an hour for every subsequent hour. 

(e) For conveyance in any vehicle drawn by one horse, one dollar an hour 
for one person for the first hour, fifty cents an hour for an additional person for 
the first hour, and fifty cents for each person for every subsequent hour. 

(f) For saddle-horses, three dollars for a whole day, two dollars for a half day 
or by the hour seventy-five cents for the first hour and fifty cents for each 
subsequent hour. In calculating half-a-day, one o'clock, p.m., shall be the hour 
of division ; the maximum time allowed lor a half day shall be five hours ; and 
twenty-five cents may be charged for each subsequent hour. 

(g) The rates for cartage of freight or general merchandise shall be subject 
to agreement between the parties interested. 

(25) The tires on waggons used for freighting purposes on the roads 
.constructed by the government within the park shall be at least two inches and 



217 



a-half in width ; all vehicles shall be provided with brakes ; and it shall be the 
duty of the superintendent to condemn and prohibit the use of any vehicle 
which in his opinion is unsafe. 

(26) All drivers of public vehicles shall be licensed ; the fee therefor shall 
be one dollar ; and such license may be revoked and cancelled at any time by 
the superintendent if it is proved to his satisfaction that the holder thereof has 
been guilty of incivility, insobriety, or misconduct, while discharging his duties. 

(27) No person shall keep a pool, billiard, or bagatelle-table, or bowling-alley 
for use by the public, without a license ; such license shall be for one year from 
the first day of May in each } 7 ear, and the fees for such license shall be the 
following : 

(a) For one billard or pool-table, twenty dollars and for each additional table 
ten dollars. 

(b) For one bagatelle, Mississippi, pigeon-hole or other table or board with 
balls, twenty dollars and for every additional table ten dollars. 

(c) For a bowling- alley, ten dollars. 

(28) Every description of gaming and all playing of faro, cards, dice, or other 
games of chance for stakes of money or other things of value, and all betting 
and wagering on any such games of chance, are strictly forbidden and prohibited 
within the park, and no person shall play at or allow to be played on his 
premises, or assist, or be engaged in any way in any description of gaming, as 
aforesaid. 

(29) The shooting at, wounding, capturing, killing, or in any manner injuring 
any wild animal or bird within the park, is hereby prohibited, excepting, 
however, mountain lions, bears, wolves, lynxes, wolverines, coyotes, wild cats and 
hawks. Fishing with nets in any of the waters of the park is also prohibited. 

(30) The outfits of all persons found hunting, or fishing with nets, or having 
in their possession game or fish killed within the park in contravention of 
clause 29 of these regulations shall be subject to seizure and confiscation. 

(31) Permission to cut hay within the park shall be obtained from the 
.superintendent and shall be subject at all times to his supervision and control. 

(32) No person shall take or use any stone, sand, gravel, or other material 
in the park without a permit from the superintendent, and the the following fees 
shall be paid to the superintendent for such materials : 

Sand 10 cents, per load. 

Stone 25 

Gravel 25 " 

(33) Persons desiring to burn lime or manufacture brick within the park 
shall obtain a permit from the superintendent, defining the location of the kiln 
or brick yard, and pay a royalty of one cent and a half per bushel for all lime 
burnt, and, for all brick manufactured, a rate per thousand to be fixed by the 
Minister of the Interior. 

(34) The use of fire-arms within the park, except under permit from the 
superintendent, is strictly prohibited. 

(35) If any offence is committed under any of the provisions of these 
regulations, such offence shall be prosecuted, under the " Summary Convictions 
Act," befcre the superintendent of the park, who for the purposes hereof shall 
be, ex-officio, a justice of the peace, with jurisdiction anywhere within the park 
or before any officer of the North-west mounted police force empowered by 
law to sit and act as a justice of the peace. 

(36) Except as hereinafter specially provided, every one who violates any 
provision of any of these regulations, shall be liable to a penalty not exceeding 



218 



twenty dollars and costs, and in default of payment to imprisonment for a term 
not exceeding one month. 

(37) Every one who violates any of the provisions of clause number 
nineteen of these regulations, which relates to the sale of intoxicating liquors 
within the park shall be liable to a penalty not exceeding in each case the sum of 
fifty dollars and costs, and in default of payment thereof to imprisonment for a 
term not exceeding three months ; and a moiety of every penalty imposed and 
collected under the provisions of this clause of these regulations shall belong to 
Her Majesty and the other moiety to the person laying the information. 

(38) Every one who violates any of the provisions of clause twenty-eight 
of these regulations, which relates to gaming, shall be liable to a penalty not 
exceeding in each case the sum of fifty dollars and costs, and in default of 
payment thereof to a term of imprisonment not exceeding three months ; and a 
moiety of every penalty imposed and collected under the provisions of this 
clause of these regulations shall belong to Her Majesty and the other moiety to 
the person laying the information. 

(39) In oi'der the more effectually to repress the offences specified in clauses 
numbers nineteen and twenty-eight of these regulations, every officer of the 
park, or officer of the North-west mounted police force, or constable of the 
North-west mounted police accompanied by or acting under the orders of & 
commissioned officer of the said force is hereby authorized, by force, if necessary, 
and without the necessity of any intervention or process of law, to enter any 
suspected place, to arrest therein on view any person or persons found committing 
any of the offences aforesaid, and to bring him or them before any of the 
officers who, by these regulations, are empowered to sit and act as justices of the 
peace within the Park to be dealt with according to law ; and also to seize any 
tables and other instruments, and money, securities for money, liquor and vessels 
and appliances used in connection therewith, used in contravention of the said 
clauses; and upon the conviction of such person or persons or &ny of them of 
such offence, in addition to any penalty imposed in respect thereof, the said 
table or tables and other instruments shall be forfeited and sold, or in the 
discretion of the convicting justice, destroyed, and the money so seized as- 
aforesaid shall be forfeited and applied, together with the proceeds of sales 
towards the revenues of the park in a manner hereinafter provided. 

(40) The revenues derived from every source under any of the provisions 
of these regulations shall be deposited forthwith to the credit of the Receiver- 
General on account of the park, except as otherwise herein specially provided. 

(41) Printed copies of these regulations, to be furnished by the Department 
of the Interior for that purpose, shall be posted and kept in a conspicuous place 
in every government office, and in every hotel, boarding-house, bath-house and 
livery-stable within the park, 

(42) For the control and management of the park in any matter whatsoever 
not specially provided for by the Rocky Mountains Park Act, 1887, or by any 
other Act of the Parliament of Canada applicable to the park, or by the 
foregoing regulations, any existing ordinances of the North-west council in that 

O O 5 / 

behalf shall be in force. 

(43) Wherever in these regulations the expression " the superintendent of 
the park " or " the superintendent" is used it shall mean the officer holding that 
office at the present time under appointment by the governor-in-council, or any- 
person who may hereafter be so appointed to the said office. 



219 



MINERAL LANDS IN THE PARK. 

The following Order-in-Council was adopted 12th October, 1892, respecting 
mineral lands within the Park : 

Whereas section 5 o, 1 ' the Act 55-56 Victoria, chaper 15, amending the 
Dominion Lands Act, provides that lands containing coal or other minerals.including 
lands in the Rocky Mountains Park, shall not be subject to the provisions of this Act 
respecting sale or homestead entry, but the Governor-General-in-Council may, 
from time to time, make regulations for the working and development of mines 

O ~ -4 

on such lands, and for the sale, leasing, licensing or other disposal thereof; provided, 
however, that no disposition of mines or mining interests in the said park shall 
be for a longer period than twenty years, renewable, in the discretion of the 
governor-in-council, from time to time, for further periods of twenty years each, 
and not exceeding in all sixty years. 

His Excellency, in virtue of the provisions of the above cited Act, and by and 
with the advice of the Queen's Privy Council for Canada, is pleased to to make 
the following regulations to govern the issue of licenses of occupation for the 
working of mines and minerals within the Rooky Mountains Park of Canada : 

(1) Licenses to mine coal from lands within the park shall be disposed of by 
public competition only, and the Minister of the Interior shall, from time to time, 
as he may find expedient in the public interest, survey, lay out, and offer for dis- 
posal by auction or by tender, locations for the mining of coal under such licenses. 

(2) The duration of such licenses shall be twenty years, unless sooner 
terminated by consent of the Crown and the licensee, or cancelled for non-fulfil- 
ment of conditions, and such licenses shall be renewable in the discretion of the 
Governor-in-Council for farther periods of twenty years each and not exceeding 
in all sixty years, on such terms and conditions as may at the time of renewal be 
agreed upon by the government and licensee. 

(3) The ground rent shall be $1.20 per acre per annum, payable half yearly 
in advance 

(4) A royalty of ten cents per ton shall be paid by the licensee on all coal, 
taken out of the mine. Returns under oath shall be furnished quarterly to the 
Minister of the Interior by the licensee, showing the quantity of coal taken out 
and the royalty shall be paid at the time of making such returns. If the royalty 
which is due for one half-year equals the rental paid for that half-year, then the 
amount paid for rent shall be credited to such royalty. 

(5) The area to be licensed to one person shall not exceed three hundred and 
twenty acres, and the licensee shall not make any transfer or assignment of his 
license without the consent in writing of the Minister of the Interior. 

(6) The boundaries beneath the surface of the location shall be the vertical 
planes or lines in which their surface boundaries lie. 

(7) The license shall be subject to the general regulations for the control and 
management of the Piocky Mountains Park of Canada, dated the 30th June, 1890, 
and to such farther and other regulations as ma} T be made from time to time in 
that behalf l>y the Governor-in-Council. 



220 



THE ADIRONDACK^. 

FOREST LK< JISLATION. 

A desolation like that which has overwhelmed .many once beautiful and 
fertile regions of Europe awaits important parts of America, and other com- 
paratively new countries over which civilization is now extending its sway, 
unless prompt measures are taken to check the action of destructive causes 
already in operation. It is almost in vain to expect that mere restrictive legisla- 
lion can do anything effectual to arrest the progress of the evil, except so far as 
the State is still the proprietor of extensive forests. Woodlands which have 
passed into private hands will everywhere be managed upon the same economical 
principles as other possessions, and every proprietor will, as a general rule, fell 
his woods unless he believes that it will be for his pecuniary interest to preserve 
them. In France, law has been found impotent to prevent the destruction or waste- 
ful economy of private forests. 

Fortunately for the immense economical and sanitary interests involved in this 
branch of rural and industrial husbandry, public opinion is thoroughly roused to 
the importance of the subject. Plantations of a certain extent have been made, 
and a wiser system is pursued in the treatment of the remaining native woods. 

The people of the far west have thrown themselves into the work with much 
of the passionate energy which marks their action in reference to other modes of 
physicial improvement. California has appointed a State forester with a liberal 
salary, and made such legal provisions and appropriations as to render the 
discharge of his duties effectual. The hands that built the Pacific Railway at the 
rate of miles in a day are busy in planting belts of trees to shelter the track from 
snow-drifts, and to supply at a future day timber for ties and fuel for the locomo- 
tives. The settlers on the open plains, too, are not less actively engaged in the 
propagation of the woods. 

It was not till 1869 that the legislature of rhe State of New York turned its 
attention to the subject of tree-planting, when it passed a law to encourage plant- 
ing trees by the sides of public highways, and in 1872 created by enactment a 
" Commission for State Parks," whose duty was to enquire into the expediency of 
providing for vesting in the State the title to the timber regions lying within 
the Counties of Lewis, Essex, Clinton, Franklin, St. Lawrence, Herkimer, and 
Hamilton, and converting the same into a public park. The commission known 
as the " park commission " made a report recommending that no more lands 
lying in the counties named should be sold, but that as lands were acquired by 
the State through tax sales, they should be held for future forest management. 
The methods recommended by the commission were not acted upon until 1883, 
when a law was passed prohibiting further sales of lands in the counties named 
in the Act, and also in the counties of Saratoga and Warren. During the inter- 
val the sale of State lands had been continued, and in 1883 the State had a 
much less acreage in its possession than it would have had if it had adopted the recom- 
mendations contained in the commission's report as soon as they were made. 

At the session of the legislature in 1884 there was appropriated $5,000 to be 
used by the comptroller of the State in "the employment of such experts as he 
may deem necessary 'to investigate and report a system of forest preservation." 
In July of that year the comptroller (Hon. Alfred C. Chapin) appointed as such 
experts, Prof. Charles S. Sargent, of Cambridge, Mass. ; D. Willis James, Esq., of 
New York City ; Hon. William A. Poucher, of Oswego, and Edward AI. Shepard, 
Esq., of Brooklyn. The committee, so constituted, reported the result of their 
investigations, coupled with their recommendations as to future policy, to the 



221 



comptroller in January, 1885, and in forwarding their report to the legislature 
Comptroller Chapin said : " The problem in its fulness affects the welfare of 
many sister commonwealths, and of the nation at large. It is eminently fitting 
that in its solution the Empire State should lead the way." 

As a sequel to, and the result of the recommendations of the Comptroller's 
Committee, the Bill establishing the Forest Commission was passed in the following 
May, as follows : 

THE FOREST COMMISSION ACT. 

Chapter 283, Laws of 1885 ; as subsequently amended.. 

An Act to establish a Forest Commission, and to define its powers and duties, 
and for the preservation of forests, passed May 15th, 1885. 

The people of the State of New York, represented in Senate and Assembly, 
do enact as follows : 

COMMISSIONERS, How APPOINTED. 

Section 1. There shall be a forest commission, which shall consist of three 
persons, who shall be styled forest commissioners, and who m&y be removed by the 
governor for cause. The forest commissioners shall be appointed by the governor 
by and with the advice and consent of the Senate. 

TERMS BY LOT. 

2. At the first meeting of the forest commission they shall divide them- 
selves by lot, so that the term of one shall expire in two years, one in four years and 
one in six years from the first day of February next ensuing. Except as to the 
three terms of office thus determined, the term of office of a forest commissioner 
shall be six years from the first day of February on which the preceding term 
expires. 

How APPOINTED AFTER 1888. VACANCIES. 

3. During the month of January, in the year 1888, and in every second 
year thereafter, the governor, by and with the advice and consent of the Senate, 
shall appoint one forejt commissioner. Vacancies that may exist in the office of 
a forest commissioner after the commencement of a term of office, shall be filled 
by the governor's appointment, subject to the confirmation of the Senate at its 
next session, for the unexpired portion of the term in which the vacancy occurs. 

COMMISSIONERS, COMPENSATION OF. 

4. The forest commissioners shall serve without compensation, except that 
there shall be paid them their reasonable expenses incurred in the performance of 
their official duties. 

EMPLOYEES, AND PAY OF. 

5. The forest commission shall have power to employ a forest warden, 
forest inspectors, a clerk, and all such agents as they may deem necessary, and 
to fix their compensations, but the expenses and salary of such warden, agents, 
clerk, inspectors, and assistants, shall not exceed in the aggregate, with the other 
expenses of the commission the sum therefor appropriated by the legislature, 

ROOMS, E-iv. 

6. The trustees of public buildings, under Chap. 349, laws of 1883, shall 
provide rooms for office for the forest commission, with proper furniture and 
fixtures and with warming and lights. 



222 



FOREST PRESERVE DEFINED. 

$ 7. All the lands no\v owned, or which may hereafter be acquired by the 
State of New York within the Counties of Clinton (except in the Towns of 
Alton;, .Mini I himii'mora) Delaware, Essex, Franklin, Fulton, Hamilton, Herkimer, 
Lewis, Oucida, St. Lawrence, Saratoga, Warren, Washington, Greene, Ulster and 
Sullivan, shall constitute and be known as the Forest Preserves, except all such 
lands within the limits of any incorporated village or city, and except all such 
lands, not wild lands, as have been, or may hereafter be, acquired by the State of 
New York, upon or by foreclosure of or sale pursuant to any mortgage upon 
lands made to the Commissioners for loaning certain moneys of the United States, 
usually called the United States Deposit Fund, and all such excepted lands 
acquired by the State of New York may be sold and conveyed as provided by law. 

STATE LAND CANNOT BE LEASED. CONDITIONS UNDER WHICH IT CAN BE SOLD OR 
EXCHANGED. APPRAISERS APPOINTED. DUTY OF COMPTROLLER. 

8. The lands now or hereafter constituting the forest preserve shall be 
forever kept as wild forest lands, and shall not be sold, nor shall they be leased or 
taken by any person or corporation, public or private, except that whenever any 
of the lands now constituting the forest preserve or which may hereafter become 
a part thereof, owned by the State within any county specified in section seven of 
the act hereby amended, shall consist of separate small parcels or tracts wholly 
detached from the main portions of the forest preserve and bounded on every 
side by lands not owned by the State, then it shall be lawful, and the comptroller 
shall have power to sell and convey such separate tracts or parcels, or the timber 
thereon, to such person or persons, corporation or association as shall have offered 
the highest price therefor ; but no such tracts or parcels of land or the timber 
thereon, shall be sold by the comptroller except upon the recommendation of the 
forest commission or a majority thereof, together with the advice of the attorney- 
general in behalf of the State. Such separate tracts or parcels of land may be 
exchanged by the comptroller for lands that lie adjoining the main tracts of th 
forest preserve upon the recommendation of the forest commission or a majority 
thereof, together with the advice of the attorney -general on behalf of the State ; 
but the values of said lands so exchanged must be first appraised by three 
disinterested appraisers sworn to faithfully and fairly appraise the value of said 
lands, and the difference if any, between the values of such parcels so proposed to 
be exchanged shall be paid by the party so exchanging with the State into the 
State treasury, but the State shall not pay the amount of any such difference. 
Two of said appraisers shall be nominated and appointed by the county judge of 
the county in which said lands proposed to be exchanged are situate or in case 
such lands are situate in two counties, then the county judge of each county shall 
nominate and appoint each one appraiser. The two appraisers so appointed shall 
select a third appraiser, and they shall report to the comptroller the result of said 
appraisal, before such lands shall be exchanged as aforesaid. The said appraisers 
so appointed shall receive the same compensation for their services as is provided 
for appraisers of decedent's estates, to be paid by the party so proposing to 
exchange lands with the State. It shall be the duty of the comptroller annually 
to report to the legislature all sales or exchanges of lands made under the pro- 
visions of this act, together with all bids and the amounts received therefor, and 
in said report shall be included the reports of appraisers of lands exchanged in 
accordance with the foregoing provisions. The proceeds of all lands so sold, or 
the receipts from all exchanges so made, shall be invested by the comptroller, 
with the approval of the forest commission, in the purchase of forest land adjoin- 
ing great blocks of the forest preserve* now owned by the State. 



223 



FORESTS TO BE PROTECTED AND PROMOTED. POWERS OF LAND OFFICE AND 
COMPTROLLER TRANSFERRED TO FOREST COMMISSION. RULES GOVERNING 
FOREST PRESERVE. 

9. The forest commission shall have the care, custody, control and superin- 
tendence of the forest preserve. It shall be the duty of the commission to main- 
tain and protect the forests now on the forest preserve, and to promote as far as 
practicable the further growth of forests thereon. It shall also have charp-e of 

j. (3 

the public interests of the State, with regard to forest and tree planting, and 
especiallv with reference to forest fires in every part of the State. It shall have 
as to all lands now or hereafter included in the forest preserve, but subject to the 
provisions of this act, all the powers now vested in the commissioners of the 
land office and in the comptroller as to such lands as are now owned by the State. 
The forest commission may, from time to time, prescribe rules or regulations, and 
may from time to time alter or amend the same, affecting the whole or any part 
of the forest preserve, and for its use, care and administration ; but neither such 
rules or regulations, nor anything herein contained, shall prevent or operate to 
prevent the free use of any road, stream or water as the same may have been 
heretofore used, or as ma}' be reasonably required in the prosecution of any law- 
ful business. 

OFFICERS MAY ARREST, WHEN. 

. 10. The forest warden, forest inspectors and other persons acting upon the 
forest preserve, under the written employment of the forest warden or of the 
forest commission, may, without warrant, arrest any person found upon the forest 
preserve violating any of the provisions of this act ; but in case of such arrest, 
the person making the arrest shall forthwith take the person arrested before the 
nearest magistrate having jurisdiction to issue warrants in such case, and there 
make, or procure to be made, a complaint in writing, upon which complaint the 
magistrate shall act as the case may require. 

ACTION TO RECOVER DAMAGES AND FOR TRESPASS. TRESPASS DEFINED. ATTOR- 
NEYS, How EMPLOYED. UNDER DIRECTION OF ATTORNEY-GENERAL. 

11. The forest commission may bring, in the name or on behalf ot the 
people of the State of New York, any action to prevent injury to the forest 
preserve or trespass thereon, to recover damages for such injury or trespass, to 
recover lands properly forming part of the forest preserve, but occupied or held 
by persons not entitled thereto, and in all other respects for the protection and 
maintenance of the forest preserve, which an}' owner of land would be entitled to 
bring. The forest commission may also maintain, in the name or on behali of 
the people of the State, an action for the trespass specified in section seventy- 
four, article fifth, title five, chapter nine, part one of the revised statutes, when 
such trespass is committed upon any lands within the forest preserve. In such 
action there shall be recoverable the same penalty, and a like execution shall 
issue, and the defendant be imprisoned thereunder without being entitled to the 
liberties of the jail, all as provided in sections seventy-four and seventy-six of the 
said article ; and in such action the plaintiff shall be entitled to an order of arrest 
before judgment as in the cases mentioned in section five hundred and forty-nine 
of the code of civil procedure. The trespass herein mentioned shall be deemed to 
include in addition to the act specified in the said section seventy-four, any act 
of cutting or cause to be cut, or assisting to be cut any tree or timber sta nling 
within the forest reserve, or any bark thereon, with intent to remove such tiv.> 
or timber, or any portion thereof, or bark therefrom, from the said forest pre- 
serve. With the consent of the attorney-general and the comptroller, the forest 



224 



commission may employ attorneys and counsel to prosecute any such action, or to- 
defend any action brought against the commission, or any of its members or 
subordinates, arising out of their or his official conduct with relation to the forest 
preserve. Any attorney or counsel so employed shall act under the direction of 
and in the name of the attorney-general. Where such attorney or counsel is not 
so employed, the attorney -general shall prosecute and defend such actions. 

INJUNCTIONS. 

12. In an action brought by or at the instance of the forest commission, an 
injunction, either preliminary or final, shall upon application be granted 
restraining any act of trespass, waste or destruction upon the forest preserve. 

PARTITION. ACTION FOR, HOW BROUGHT. EFFECT OF. AGREEMENT FOR. 

13. Whenever the State owns or shall own an undivided interest with any 
person in any land within the counties mentioned in section seven of this act, or 
is or shall be in possession of any such land as joint tenants or tenants in common 
with any person who has an estate of freehold therein, the attorney general shall, 
upon the request of the forest commission, bring an action in the name of the 
people of the State of New York for the actual partition of the said lands 
according to the respective rights of the parties interested therein; and upon 
the consent in writing of the forest commission, any such person may maintain 
an action for the actual partition of such lands, according to the respective rights 
of the parties interested therein, in the same manner as if the State were not 
entitled to exemption from legal proceedings, service of process in such actions 
upon the attorney-general to be deemed service upon the State. Such actions, 
the proceedings and the judgment therein, and the proceedings under the 
judgment therein shall be according to the practice at the time prevailing in 
actions of partition and shall have the same force and effect as in other actions, 
except that no costs shall be allowed to the plaintiff in such actions, and except 
that no sale of such lands shall be judged therein. 'The foiest commission, may 
without suit, but upon the consent of the comptroller, agree with any person or 
persons owning land within the said towns jointly or as tenants in common with 
the State for the partition of such lands and upon such agreement and consent, 
the comptroller shall make on behalf of the people of the State any conveyance 
necessary or proper in such partition, such conveyance to be forthwith recorded 
as now provided by law as to conveyances made by the commissioners of the 
land office. 

INCOME. 

14. All incomes that may hereafter be derived from State forest lands shall 
be paid over by the forest commission to the treasury of the State. 

EXPENSES. 

15. A strict account shall be kept of all receipts and expenses, which 
accounts shall be audited by the comptroller, and a general summary thereof 
shall be reported annually to the legislature. 

ANNUAL REPORT. 

10. The forest commission shall in January of every year, make a written 
repoit to the legislature of their proceedings together with such recommendations, 
of iurther legislative or official action as they may deem proper. 



225 



SUPERVISORS PROTECTORS OF STATE LANDS, EXCEPT IN FOREST PRESERVE. 
DUTY OF DISTRICT ATTORNEY. SUPERVISORS TO REPORT. DISTRICT AND 
FOREST GUARDS. 

17. The supervisor of every town in this State in which wild or forest lands 
belonging to the State are located except within the counties mentioned in 
section seven of this act, shall be by virtue of his office the protector of these 
lands subject to the instruction he may receive from the forest commission. It 
shall be his duty to report to the district attorney for prosecution any act of 
spoliation or injury that may be done and it shall be the duty of such district 
attorney to institute proceedings for the prevention of further trespass, and for 
the recovery of all damages that may have been committed with costs of 
prosecution. The supervisors shall also report their proceedings therein to the 
forest commission. In towns where the forest commission shall deem it necessary, 
they may serve a notice upon the supervisor, requiring him to appoint one or 
more forest guards, and if more than one in a town, the district of each shall be 
properly denned. The guard so appointed shall have such power, and perform 
such duties, and receive such pay, as the forest commission may determine. 

INSTRUCTIONS IN FORESTRY IN SCHOOLS. 

18. The forest commission shall take such measures as the department of 
public instruction, the regents of the university and the forest commission 
may approve for awakening an interest in behalf of forestry in the public 
schools, academies and colleges of the State, and of imparting some degree of 
elementary instruction upon this subject therein. 

METHODS OF PUBLIC INSTRUCTION. 

19. The forest commission shall, as soon as practicable, prepare tracts or 
circulars of information, giving plain and concise advice for the care of woodlands 
upon private land, and for the starting of new plantations upon lands that have 
been denuded, exhausted by cultivation, eroded by torrents, or injured by fire, 
or that are sandy, marshy, broken, sterile or waste, and unfit tor other use. 
These publications shall be furnished without cost to any citizen of the State 
upon application, and proper measures may be taken for bringing them to the 
notice of persons who would be benefited by this advice. 

SUPERVISORS TO A.CT AS FIREWARDENS, WHEN. DISTRICT MAPS. FIREWARDENS 
PAID BY TOWNS. FIREWARDENS IN FOREST PRESERVE. AUTHORITY OF 
FIREWARDENS. 

20. Every supervisor of a town in this State, excepting within the counties 
mentioned in section seven of this act, shall be ex-offlcio firewarden therein. 
But in towns particularly exposed to damages from forest fires, the supervisor 
may divide the same into two or more districts, bounded, as far as may be, by 
roads, streams of water, or dividing ridges of land or lot lines and he may in 
writing, appoint one resident citizen in each district as district firewarden 
therein. A description of these districts, and the names of the district fire- 
wardens thus appointed, shall be recorded in the office of the town clerk. The 
supervisor may also cause a map of the fire district of his town to be 
posted in some public place with the names of the district firewardens appointed 

15 (F.) 



226 



The cost of such map, not exceeding five dollars, shall be made a town 
charge ; and the services of the firewardens shall also be deemed a town charge, 
and shall not exceed the sum of two dollars per day for the time actually 
occupied in the performance of their duties as such firewardens. The 
compensation for services of the persons who may assist in extinguishing forest 
fires, shall be a town charge, and shall not exceed the sum of ono dollar per day 
for each person employed ; but all bills for such services must be approved by 
the firewarden of the town in which the fire occurred before payment shall be 
made. It shall be the duty of the board of auditors in each town to examine, 
audit, and allow promptly all reasonable bills presented to them for services and 
disbursements under this section. Within the counties named in section seven 
of this act, such persons shall be firewardens as may from time to time be 
be appointed by the forest commission. The persons so appointed shall act 
during the pleasure and under the direction of the forest commission ; and 
there shall be applicable to them all the provisions of this act, with reference to 
supervisors and district town wardens. Upon the discovery of a forest fire, it 
shall be the duty of the firewarden of the district, town or county, to take such 
measures as shall be necessary for its extinction. For this purpose he shall 
have authority to call upon any person in the territory in which he acts for 
assistance, and any person shall be liable to a fine of not less than five nor more 
than twenty dollars for refusing to act when so called upon. 

OFFICERS, POWERS AND DUTIES OF, IN CASE OF FIRE. 
See Revised Statutes, Chap. 20, title 14, Part 1, Vol. 3, p. 2086. 

21. The forest commission, the forest warden, inspectors, the foresters, and 
anv other person employed by or under the authority of the forest commission, 
and who may be authorized by the commission to assume such duty, shall within 
the counties mentioned in section seven of this Act, whenever the woods in any 
such town shall be on fire, perform the duties imposed upon, and in such case 
shall have the powers granted to the justices of the peace, the supervisors, and the 
commissioners of highway of such towns, by title fourteen, chapter twenty, of 
part one, of the revised statutes, with reference to the ordering of persons to 
assist in extinguishing fires, or stopping their progress ; and any person so ordered 
by the forest commission, the forest warden, the forest inspectors, the foresters, 
or any of them, or any other person acting or authorized as aforesaid, who shall 
refuse or neglect to comply with any such order, shall be liable to punishment 
prescribed by the said title. 

No ACTION FOR TRESPASS, WHEN. 

22. No action for trespass shall be brought by any owner of land for entry 
made upon his premises by persons going to assist in extinguishing a forest fire, 
although it may not be upon his land. 

PRIVILEGE, CASE OF FIRE. 

23. The fire-warden, or the supervisor, where acting in general charge, may 
cause fences to be destroyed or furrows to be ploughed to check the running of 
fire, and in cases of great danger back fires may be set along a road or stream, or 
other line of defence, to clear off the combustible material before an advancing 
fire 



227 



REPORTS OF SUPERVISORS AND FIREWARDENS. SUMMARY TO BE REPORTED TO 

LEGISLATURE. 

24. The supervisor of every town of which he is firewarden, as aforesaid, 
and in which a forest fire of more than one acre in extent has occurred within a 
year, shall report to the forest commission the extent of the area burned over, to 
the best of his information, together with the probable amount of property 
destroyed, specifying the value of timber as near as may be, and amount of cord- 
wood, logs, bark or other forest product, and of fencing, bridges and buildings 
that have been burned. He shall also make inquiries and report as to the causes 
of the fires, if they can be ascertained, and as to the measures employed and found 
most effectual in checking their progress. A cousolidated summary of these 
returns by counties, and of the information as to the same matter otherwise 
gathered by the forest commission, shall be included in the annual report of the 
forest commission. 

WHAT RAILROAD COMPANIES MUST Do. REMOVE GRASS, ETC. 

25. Every railroad company whose road passes through waste or forest 
lands, or lands liable to be over run by fires within this State, shall twice within 
each year cut and burn off or remove from its right-of-way, all grass, bush, or 
inflammable material, but under proper care, and at times when the fires thus set 
are not liable to spread beyond control. 

LOCOMOTIVES. SPARK ARRESTERS. ENGINEERS AND FIREMEN. 

26. All locomotives which shall be run through forest lands shall be provi- 
ded within one year from the date of this Act, with approved and sufficient 
arrangements for preventing the escape of fire from their furnace or ash-pan and 
netting of steel or iron wire upon their smoke stack to check the escape of sparks 
of fire. It shall be the duty of every engineer and fireman employed upon a 
locomotive to see that the appliance for the prevention of the escape of fire are 
in use and applied, as far as it can be reasonably and possibly done. 

NOT TO DEPOSIT ASHES, AND TO REPORT FIRES. 

27, No railroad company shall permit its employees to deposit fire, coals or 
ashes upon their track in the immediate vicinity of wood lands liable to be over- 
run by fire, and in all cases where any engineers, conductors, or trainmen, discover 
that fences along the right-of-way, on woodlands adjacent to the railroad, are 
burning, or in danger from fire, it shall be their duty to report the same at their 
next stopping place and the person in charge of such station shall take prompt 
measures for extinguishing such fires. 

RAILROAD COMPANIES. IN CASE OF FIRE. 

28. In season of drought, and especially during the first dry time in the 
spring after the snows have gone and before vegetation has revived, the railroad 
companies shall employ a sufficient additional number of trackmen for the prompt 
extinguishment of fire. And where a forest fire is raging near the line of their 
road, they shall concentrate such help and adopt such measures as shall most 
effectually arrest its progress. 



228 



RAILROAD COMPANIES. PENALTY FOR NEGLECT. 

29. Any railroad company violating the provisions or requirements of this 
Act shall be liable to a fine of one hundred dollars for each ofience. 

RULES OF COMMISSION TO BE POSTED. 

30. The forest commission shall, with as little delay as practicable, cause- 
rules for the prevention and suppression of forest fires to be printed for posting! 
in school-houses, inns, saw-mills and other wood- working establishments, lumber 
camps and other places in such portions of the State as they may deem necessary. 
Any person maliciously or wantonly defacing or destroying such notices, shall be 
liable to a fine of five dollars. It shall be the duty of forest-agents, supervisors,, 
and school-trustees, to cause these rules, when received by them, to be properly 
posted, and replaced when lost or destroyed. 

INCENDIARIES. PENALTIES. 

31. Any person who shall wilfully or negligently set fire to, or assist another 
to set fire to. any waste or forest land belonging to the State or to another 
person, whereby the the said forests are injured or endangered, or who suffers. 
any fire upon his own lands to escape or extend beyond the limits thereof, to the 
injury of the wood-lands of another, or of the State, shall be liable to a fine of not 
less than fifty dollars, nor more than five hundred dollars, or to imprisonment of 
not less than thirty days, nor more than six months. He shall also be liable in 
an action for all damages that may be caused by such fires ; such actions to be 
brought in any court of this State having jurisdiction thereon. 

APPROPRIATION. 

32. Fifteen thousand dollars is hereby appropriated out of any moneys in 
the treasury, not otherwise appropriated, for the purposes of this act. And no 
liabilities shall be incurred by said forest commissioners in excess of this appro- 
priation. 

83. This Act shall take effect immediately. 

CHAPTER 37. LAWS OF 1890. 

AN ACT TO AUTHORIZE THE PURCHASE OF LANDS LOCATED WITHIN SUCH 
COUNTIES AS INCLUDE THE FOREST PRESERVE. 

The people of the State of New York, represented in Senate and Assembly, 
do enact as follows : 

Section 1. The forest commission, with the approval and concurrence of the i 
commissioners of the land office, may purchase lands so located within such 
counties as include the forest preserve, as shall be available for the purposes of a 
State park, at a price not to exceed one dollar and fifty cents, such approval and 
concurrence to be endorsed on a copy of the resolution of the said forest : 
commission authorizing such purchase, and certified to by the clerk of said com- 
missioners of the land office. 



229 



2. The forest commission may have such lands appraised by one or more 
appraisers, not to exceed three in number, to be appointed by that commission. 
The expenses of such appraisal shall be a per diem allowance to the appraisers, 
not to exceed three dollars per day for the time actually employed and the 
necessary expenses incurred in each case, such expenses to be audited by the 
comptroller and paid out of the funds appropriated by the Legislature for the 
purposes of this act ; but no purchase of lands shall be made in excess of 
previous appropriations for that purpose. 

3. The sum of twenty-five thousand dollars or so much thereof as may be 
necessary, is hereby appropriated out of any moneys in the treasury, not other- 
wise appropriated, for the purpose of this Act ; and no liabilities shall be 
incurred by said forest commission in excess of this appropriation. 

4. .This Act shall take effect immediately. 

In returning the foregoing bill to the legislature with his signature, the 
governor filed therewith the following memorandum : 

STATE OF NEW YORK. 

Executive Chambers, Albany, March 11, 1890. 

Memorandum filed with Senate Bill No. 91, entitled : "an Act to authorize 
the purchase of lands located within such counties as include the forest preserve." 

Approved. There is no objection to this Act. The criticism which possibly 
may be urged against it is that it is good enough so far as it goes, but that it is 
wholly inadequate to meet the requirements of the situation. It is not a broad and 
comprehensive measure, providing for the establishment of an Adirondack park 
such as is imperatively demanded by the best interest of the State, but is simply a 
slight step in the right direction. The authority conferred is very inadequate, 
the amount appropriated is quite limited, the restrictions upon the prices to be 
paid are likely to produce unsatisfactory results, the provisions in regard to 
apportionment of lands are incomplete and somewhat unnecessary, and in many 
other respects the measure falls short of what it was hoped the legislature might 
enact. The bill must be regarded as a mere temporary expedient, and, as such, 
can do no harm ; and although it will not afford a proper and complete solution 
of the Adirondack Park question, it encourages the hope that in trie near future a 
more substantial and adequate measure may be passed to fully accomplish the 
object recommended in my recent message to the legislature relating to this 
subject. 

I cheerfully approve the bill, in the expectation that its enactment may lead 
ito such a result. 

DAVID B. HILL. 

CHAPTER 556. LAWS OF 1890. 

AN ACT FURTHER TO AMEND CHAPTER FOUR HUNDRED AND TWENTY-SEVEN OF 
THE LAWS OF EIGHTEEN HUNDRED AND FIFTY-FIVE, ENTITLED "AN ACT IN 
RELATION TO THE COLLECTION OF TAXES ON LAND OF NON-RESIDENTS, AND 
TO PROVIDE FOR THE SALE OF SUCH LAND FOR UNPAID TAXES." 

The peop.le of the State of New York, represented in Senate and Assembly, 
do enact as follows : 

Section 1. Section seventy-four of chapter four hundred and twenty-seven 
of the laws of eighteen hundred and fifty-five, entitled "An Act in relation to the 



230 



collection of taxes on the lands of non-residents and to provide for the sale of 
such lands for unpaid taxes," as amended by chapter four hundred and fifty- 
three of the laws of eighteen hundred and fifty, is hereby further amended so as- 1 
to read as follows : 

$ 74. The occupant of any such lot, or any other person, may, at any 
time before the service of said notice by the purchaser or the person naming 
under him, and within three years from the expiration of the two years allowed 
by law for the redemption thereof, redeem any land so occupied, by filing in the 
office of the comptroller satisfactory evidence of the occupancy required, and 
by paying to him the consideration money for which the land to be redeemed 
was sold, and thirty-seven and one-half per centum thereon, together with the 
sum paid for the deed, if any, and such amount as may have been paid to the 
State for subsequent taxes thereon, or for the redemption from subsequent tax sales 
thereof, and, in addition thereto, providing such lot has been legally exempt from 
taxation for one or more years subsequent to the sale in question, of a sum that 
would represent the gross amount of taxes and interest that would have been 
due thereon, provided it had been taxed during each of the years it may have 
been exempt, on its assessed valuation and at the rate per cent, of taxation 
thereon, lor the year when last returned to the comptroller's office. In all cases 
of tax sales heretofore made by the comptroller, where the land sold was in the 
actual occupancy of any person at the expiration of the two years allowed for 
the redemption thereof, and the purchaser or the persons naming under him shall 
have failed to serve notice of such sale upon the occupant or occupants thereof, and 
to file evidence of such service in the comptroller's, office as provided by section 
sixty-eight of this Act, and the occupant or any other person shall fail to file in 
the comptroller's office within one year after this Act shall take effect a written 
notice of such occupancy, together with an application for the redemption of such 
lands, and to furnish the comptroller with satisfactory evidence of the occupancy 
required, and make such redemption within two years after this Act shall take 
effect, then and in all such cases the said tax sales of such land, and the convey- 
ance thereof by the comptroller shall become absolute, and the occupant and 
occupants, and all other persons interested in the said land, shall be forever 
barred from all right and title thereto. 

2 All Acts and parts of Acts inconsistent with this Act are hereby 
repealed. 

3 This Act shall take effect immediately. 

FIREWARDENS. 

The organization of the force of firewardens in the State of New York has 
not been effected without considerable care and labor, it having involved the care- 
ful consideration of 281 separate appointments. 

The maintenance of this system entails also a large amount of office work in 
the way of correspondence and in forwarding to each firewarden the necessary 
packages of posters, rules, and other supplies. In addition to the 281 fire- 
wardens in the counties of the forest preserve, there are the 430 supervisors in 
the other counties who are firewardens ex officio, with each of whom a corres- 
pondence is maintained. 

No salary is attached to the position of firewarden ; still the commision has- 
succeeded in filling the places with good citizens, intelligent men who have shown 
themselves equal to the responsibilities devolving upon them, and have evinced a 



231 



zeal and efficiency which argues well for the future care and preservation of 
our forest lands. 

Each firewarden, when appointed, is furnished with a warrant bearing the 
signature and seal of the Department. 

This warrant reads as follows : 

STATE OF NEW YORK. 

THE FOREST COMMISSION, ALBANY, N. Y. 189 
Esq., 

Town of County of 

The Forest Commision hereby appoints you a firewarden in and for your 
town in accordance with the provisions of the "Act to establish a Forest Com- 
mission" etc., passed May 15, 1885. 

It will be your duty, as firewarden, whenever a forest fire occurs within the 
limits of your town, whether it be on State or other lands, to promptly notify a 
sufficient force to assist you ; to go to the place where the fire is burning, and to 
take charge of and to direct the work necessary for extinguishing it. All persons 
in the territory whom you may order to render you such assistance, are required 
by law to obey your order, and any person who may refuse to act in obedience 
to your order is, by statute liable, to a fine of not less than five nor more than 
twenty dollars. 

If a forest fire occurs in your vicinity, although it may be in the adjoining 
town, it will be as much your duty to go immediately to the place of such fire as 
if it were in your own town ; and, in the absence of the fire warden of the town 
within the limits of which such fire may be, to assume the same authority and to 
discharge the same duties that you are empowered to assume and discharge in 
your own town, until the arrival of the fire warden of that town, upon which 
yon will turn over all charges of the fire to him. 

The same diligence and exertion must be used for the extinction of forest 
fires on private lands as on lands of the State. The public welfare requires that 
all forests should be protected from fire, no matter to whom they may belong. 

After a forest fire has occurred in your town you must make a report of the 
same to the forest commission, stating the date and place of the fire, the number 
of acres burned over, the amount and nature of the damage, and the cause of the 
fire if known. 

Your attention is called to the provisions of the twentieth section of the 
Forest Commission Act, for dividing your town into fire districts. Action 
theron, is left to your own discretion ; but if taken, you should report it to the 
commission. 

It is essential that the rules and regulations of this commission, governing 
the methods of preventing and extinguishing forest fires, should be made fully 
known to the public. To that end you will be required to post, and keep posted, 
the cards containing the printed rules throughout your town, conformably to the 
provisions of section 30 of the before mentioned Forest Commission Act, and 
wherever you may judge it to be necessary in order to accomplish a complete 
public notification. Such posted card.*, as may, at any time, be missing should be 
replaced at once. The cards will be furnished to you, and you can always be 
supplied with them on application to the commission. 

A fire warden is required, by law, to be a resident of the town for which he 
is appointed. If you do not reside in the town, herein named, or if you should 
hereafter change your residence to another town, please notify this commission at 
once. 



232 



The office of a firewarden is distinct from that of a forester. Firewardens 
are not required to discharge any duties except those necessary for the preven- 
tion and extinction of forest fires, as before explained, and such other duties for a 
like purpose as may be, from time to time, assigned to them by this commission. 

It is provided, by statute, that the pay of a firewarden for his official services 
shall not exceed the sum of two dollars a day for the time that he may be actually 
employed ; and also, that the bills of firewardens shall be paid by their respective 
towns. You are to render all your bills for services to your town and if you 
have any difficulty in having such bills audited and paid you should notify the 
forest commission. , 

This appointment is tendered to you in reliance upon a recommendation in 
which this commission places confidence. Should you accept the appointment, 
you are expected to discharge the duties of your office zealously, faithfully, in 
full compliance with the letter and spirit of the forest commission Act, and of 
the rules of the commission (both of which you are asked to read carefully), and 
in a manner at once honourable to the forest commission and yourself. 

Be kind enough to inform the commission immediately, whether you accept 
or decline your appointment ; and in case that your acceptance is not forwarded 
within thirty days from date, you will be understood as declining. 

By order of the Forest Commission. 
(L.S.) Secretary. 

RULES AND REGULATIONS. 

These are printed on heavy cards 12x15 inches. Latterly they have been 
printed on white muslin as this material has proved more durable, the most of 
the placards being posted in the woods, or on fences, school-houses and mills, 
where they are exposed to the weather. Over 15,000 of these rules have been 
posted by the foresters and firewardens throughout the preserve counties, and 
the commission believes that much of the immunity from fire is due to their 
general distribution. They have been an important aid in warning the careless, 
and in educating the people in this particular. 

Much of the force and value of these regulations is lost because there is no 
penalty attached to their violation ; and the commission is not authorized to add 
any clause in this respect. 

RULES FOR THE PREVENTION AND SUPPRESSION OF FOREST FIRES AND FOR THE 

PROTECTION OF FOREST TREES. 

(Established by the Forest Commission.) 

1. All persons intending to light fires for the purposes of clearing or 
improvement, must give notice of their intention to the nearest firewarden before 
such fire is lighted, They must also give notice to all owners or occupants of 
adjoining lands, at least forty- eight hours before lighting such fires, which will 
be permitted only when the wind is favourable. 

2. No fires, of the character before specified will be permitted until the trees 
are in full leaf. After such fires are lighted competent persons must remain to 
guard them until the fire is completely extinguished. 

'). Fires will be permitted for the purpose of cooking, warmth, and insect 
smudges ; but before such fires are kindled, sufficient space around the spot where 
the fire is to be lighted must be cleared from all combustible material ; arid 
before the place is abandoned, fires so lighted must be thoroughly quenched. 

4. All fires other than those hereinbefore mentioned, are absolutely pro- 
hibited. 



233 



5. Hunters and smokers are cautioned against allowing fires to originate 
irom the use of firearms, cigars, and pipes ; and all persons are warned that they 
will be held responsible for any damage or injury to the forest which may result 
from their carelessness or neglect. 

6. Felling trees, and girdling or peeling bark from standing trees, are pro- 
hibited. Fallen timber only, may be used for firewood and camp construction. 

7. Foresters and firewardens are instructed, and all citizens are requested, to 
report to the forest commission immediately all cases of damage or injury to 

forest trees arising from a violation of these rules which may come to their know- 

i i * 

ledge. 

Beneath these rules, and on the same placard are printed sections 10, 
30 and 31 of the Forest Commission Act, and the following: 
Section 74 (as amended by chapter 256, Laws of 1889) : 
Every person who shall trespass on any lands belonging to the people in this 
State, or on any Indian lands, or who shall trespass upon any other lands within 
the bounds of the forest preserve, or which may hereafter be included in the 
forest preserve, by cutting or carrying away timber growing thereon, shall forfeit 
and pay the sum of twenty -five dollars for every tree that shall be cut or carried 
away by him or under his direction. 

FROM THE PENAL CODE. 

414. A person who, having been lawfully ordered to repair to the place of fire 
in the woods and assist in extinguishing it, omits, without lawful excuse, to comply 
with the order, is guilty of a misdemeanor, and shall forfeit the sum of fifty 
dollars and be liable to a fine and imprisonment. 

640. Malicious injury and destruction of property. A person who wilfully 
cuts down, destroys or injures any wood or timber standing or growing or which 
has been cut down and is on lands of another or of the people of the State ; or 
cuts down, girdles, or otherwise, injures a fruit, shade, or ornamental tree, 
standing on the lands of another or of the people of the State, is punishable by 
imprisonment not exceeding three months, or a fine not exceeding two hundred 
and fifty dollars, or both. 

REASONS FOR ESTABLISHING ADIRONDACK PARK. 

The following account of the reasons which induced the people and Legisla- 
ture of the State of New York to undertake the work of establishing a great 
Park among the Adirondack mountains, and of the means which have so far been 
adopted, is condensed from the reports of the New York Forest Commission for 
1890 and 1891 : 

In pursuance of a resolution of the Senate adopted January 20th, 1890, the 
committee on finance recommended the adoption of the following concurrent 
resolutions : 

Resolved, (if the Assembly concur) " That the forest commission be and 
hereby is, directed to take into consideration the message of the Governor, 
addressed to the legislature, calling attention to the subject of establishing a 
State park in and about the headwaters of the rivers having their sources in the 
Adirondack wilderness, and after thoroughly investigating the possibilities of 
such an undertaking, to report to the legislature its conclusion thereon and its 
recommendations as to the most effective methods to be employed to accomplish 
that end either by bill, or otherwise together with any pertinent facts within 
the knowledge of the commission relating to the general subject of forest 
preseivation or extension, and further to report the number of acres or square 



234 



miles of land essential to fulfilling the requirements of a suitable reservation or 
park, and the probable cost thereof, and to report also in regard to the other 
subjects referred to in said message of the Governor." 

The concurrent resolution reported by the committee was passed by the 
Senate, March 5th, 1890, and by the Assembly, April 4th, 1890. 

The commission of State Parks made a report in 1873, from which the following 
is an extract, " It has b^en shown that the forests protect and preserve the springs 
and streams among them ; and when we find individuals managing their 
property in a reckless and selfish manner, without regard to the vested rights of 
others, it becomes the duty of the State to interfere and to provide a remedy. 
Here, by ruthless destruction of the forest, thoughtless men are depriving the 
country of a water supply which has belonged to it from time immemorial and 
the public interests demand legislative protection. The canal interests of the 
State are very great, and are already suffering from this wrong. The water- 
supply of the Champlain canal is entirely obtained from the streams of this 
wilderness, and the Erie canal, from Rome to Albany, is almost entirely supplied 
from the same watershed. In the Hudson, near Troy and Albany, navigation at 
midsummer has become very difficult. The mill owners at Glen's Falls and at 
other points find that their water supply is failing ; and the farming lands 
throughout the State suffer from storms and droughts of increasing severity. It 
is of no consequence, that, through ignorance of the natural law governing rain 
and rivers, men have hitherto permitted without protest, the injustice which they 
felt but the cause of which they did not understand. The State must apply the 
remedy, and to protect their interests preserve the forest. The great Adirondack 
forest has a powerful influence on the general climatology of the State ; upon 
the rainfall, winds and temperature, moderating storms, and equalizing through- 
out the year the amount of moisture carried by the atmosphere, controlling and 
in a measure subduing the powerful northerly winds, modifying their coldness and 
equalizing the temperature of the whole State." 

The commissioners say, in concluding their report : 

" There is no need for any expenditures save possibly in the improvement of 
a few of the principal roads leading to the settlements. The forest is in itself a 
natural park, and it would be improper to think of enclosing and fencing it for 
it should be a common unto the people of the State. The question before your 
Commission is one of great importance to the State, and requires their further 
consideration. For the present we deem it advisable and recommend that the 
wild lands now owned and held by the State be retained until that question be 
decided." 

Under the resolution passed by the Legislature of 1890, the forest commission 
found itself confronted by four main topics for its examination and decision. 

First Is the establishment of a State park in the Adirondack wilderness 
feasible ? 

Second If it be, what shall be the area of the park ? 

Third What lands shall be embraced within the park ? 

Fourth How shall the lands that ought to be included within the park,, 
and not owned by the State, be acquired ? 

A survey of the actual condition of affairs showed that the region popularly 
known as the Adirondacks is diversely estimated at widely different areas. 
Taking the most reliable data, the gross area of the Adirondack wilderness 

O ' ?5 

proper is shown now to be about 5,600 square miles, or 3,600,000 acres This 
includes the area of water (lakes, ponds and rivers), overflowed lands, clearings, 
farms and some villages, or settlements. This area is by no means a compact 
tract, but lies in widely separated parcels, varying in extent from one-quarter of 



an acre to 70,000 acres, interspersed among tracts held by individuals and 
corporations (mostly lumbermen and paper manufacturers), an unknown number 
of clubs or other associations and persons who have established private preserves 
and parks in the woods for purposes of pleasure and recreation and of hotel sites. 
How to consolidate the lands necessary to form a park became a serious question. 
Ouly two methods were suggested. One that the State should condemn and take 
the land necessary to form the park by the exercise of its right of eminent 
domain ; the other that the State should acquire the land by purchase. 

A leading representative of the lumber interest, who has made the subject of 
forestry and timber supply and consumption a matter of study both in this 
country and in Europe, said to the commissioners : " It seems to me there is a 
practical side to this subject that should have some consideration. I have tried 
this, summer to make a sufficient study of the way they have been managing 
forests in general. I have studied the German system, and have become very much 
interested in it. If it is possible to raise the money there is no question but what 
it would be the better way if the State could buy the lands outright and own 
them, but it is a great question whether the sum of money required for this could 
be raised at once, and my hope is that some plan will be devised by which the 
land can be boughi at a low price, say about three dollars an acre, and allow the 
spruce to be taken out down to twelve or fourteen inches. If that was done the 
State would acquire the lands at a comparatively low price. The spruce below the 
twelve inch limit in a few years would grow up so that second cutting could be done, 
and within fifteen or twenty-five years I think the whole lands purchased by the 
State could be paid for with interest and cost the State nothing. The German 
forests that I have visited, paid last year some six or seven million dollars to the 
German government. I see no reason why our lands cannot be treated in the 
same way. The trouble with us is we are alwa}'s afraid of planning out for any- 
thing seventy-five years ahead. If you went to the legislature and said you 
wanted to spend several millions of dollars, and political questions came up, you 
would kill the whols thing. What I am afraid of is that the railways are bound to 
come in. The land is not owned by the State. Suppose you own the land, you are 
able to prevent any roads going through. It might be that if they went through 
they would increase the value of your land. If the land is not owned by the 
State the railroad cannot be stopped. There is no question but that railroading 
does hurt the Adirondacks. The only advantage of their going through is that it 
would bring the whole of the Adirondacks closer together. This would be for 
the advantage of the rich and the poor alike. It would give the poor clerks and 
poor people an opportunity to go up there and live at low rates. As it is now, 
they have got to have guides and go to a large expense. My hope is that some- 
thing will be done in the way of buying the land at low prices. There are 25,000 
people in the Adirondacks who are depending for their living upon the different 
operations in lumber and who are in favor of this park, and will work in the 
interest of this scheme if they think they will not lose their livelihood." 

The commissioners go on to say that a misunderstanding has prevailed to 
some extent with regard to the attitude of forestry to the lumber interests of 
private owners. It is, however, generally understood now that the true interests 
of the lumbermen are not incompatible with forest preservation, and it has been 
declared to be one of the objects of the forestry movement in this country " to 
harmonize the interests of the lumberman and the forester, and to devise for the 
lumbering interest such protection as is not given at the cost of the forests." 
Forestry is not opposed to having trees cut down in the proper way. They must 
be cut to supply the world with timber. Civilization could hardly exist without 



230 



it. It is from trees, and from trees only, that our needs for wood are supplied 
through the timber dealer and the lumberman. 

The phrase, " lumbered land," is a somewhat misleading one. It does not 
imply that such land is cleared, devastated, or even stripped of timber. The term 
is used localby to describe lands from which the "softwood" (spruce, hemlock, 
pine and tamarac, one or all) has been taken, leaving the hard wood (birch, cherry, 
maple, beech, etc.) standing. 

Generally, there is so much of this hardwood left on a " lumbered " tract that 
an inexperienced eye glancing over it would scarcely detect the work of the axe. 
The woodman expects to see such land covered with spruce again, large enough 
to be marketable, in about fifteen years. 

Even the denuded forest lands to which reference is made are usually 
sufficiently well covered with a light growth of poplar and shrubs of various kinds 
to play a serviceable part in the purposes of forestry, and they will largely, if 
preserved from fire, be reclaimed by the forest. 

The questions as to the area of the park and the lands that ought to be em- 
braced within its limits have received much consideration from the commission, 
and as in the case of other questions a decided difference of opinion has been 
found to exist upon them. 

The suggestion of the governor in his messsage of January, 1890, was that 
the area of the park should be " from fifty to seventy miles square." The smaller 
area mentioned would contain 2,500 square miles, or 1,600,000 acres, and the 
larger area 4,900 square miles, or 3,136,000 acres. The minimum area for the 
park that was suggested to the commission was 1,600 square miles, or about 
1,000,000 acres, while most have urged larger areas, ranging from 2,500,000 to 
4,000,000 acres. 

The objects to be gained by establishing the park are stated by its various 
advocates in varying language, although perhaps agreeing in substance. One of 
the purposes is alleged in general terms to be " the preservation of the forests." 
The benefits derivative from forest preservation are stated as the mainten- 
ance of our timber supplies, the conservation of the sources of our rivers by the 
protection of watersheds, the protection and preservation of fish and game, and 
the founding of a permanent public resort for those seeking pleasure and rest, 
and which shall also be a sanitarium for invalids. 

The commissioners reported that the loss to the State of New York which 
would be entailed by the destruction of the Adirondack forest, taking into 
account the manufacturing and canal interests involved, could only be counted by 
millions of dollars, and this, without taking into consideration the loss to the 
health of the citizens by the removal of the most valuable of ail sanitariums, and 
the destruction of the valuable game preserves of the Adirondacks, and they 
unanimously recommended that the legislature should enact the necessary and 
suitable laws for the establishment and management of a park in the Adirondack 
wilderness, for the reasons and upon the general basis set forth in their report. 

THE ADIRONDACK PARK ACT. 

The Act which was passed by the State Legislature, 20th May, 1892, 
respecting the Adirondack Park, is as follows : 

The people of the State of New York represented in Senate and Assembly 
do enact as follows : 

Section (1) There shall be a State park established within the Counties of 
Hamilton, Herkimer, St. Lawrence, Franklin, Essex and Warren, which shall be 
known as the Adirondack park, and which shall, subject to the provisions of this 



237 



Act, be forever reserved, maintained and cared for as ground open for the free 
use of all the people for their health or pleasure, and as forest lands necessary 
to the preservation of the headwaters of the chief rivers of the State, and a future 
timber supply. 

(2) For this purpose the forest commission shall have power, as herein pro- 
vided, to contract for the purchase of lands situated within the County of Hamil- 
ton, the Towns of Newconib, Minerva, Schroon, North Hudson, Keene, North 
Elba, St. Armand and Wilmington, in the county of Essex ; the Towns of 
Harrietstown, Santa Clara, Altamont, Waverly and Brighton, in the County of 
Franklin ; the Town of Wilmurt, in the County of Herkimer ; the Towns of Hop- 
kinton, Colton, Clifton and Fine in the County of St. Lawrence ; and the Towns of 
Johnsburgh, Stony Creek and Thurman, in the County of Warren. 

(3) In any case where lands are situated within the towns specified in 
section two, the purchase of which lands will in the opinion of the forest com- 
mission, be advantageous to the State, but which cannot as shall appear to the 
satisfaction of the forest commission, be bought on advantageous terms unless 
subject to leasesor restrictions, or to the right to remove certain timber as hereinafter 
mentioned, the forest commission may make a contract for the purchase of such 
lands, providing that the contract and the deed or deeds to be made in pursuance 
thereof, shall be subject to such leases, restrictions or right. But no lands shall 
be so purchased subject to any right to remove hard-wood timber, or any 
trees of soft-wood with a diameter of less than ten inches at the height of three feet 
from the ground, 01 subject to any rights, leases or restrictions, or the right to 
remove any timber after the period of ten years from the date of the convey- 
ance. 

(4) The forest commission shall have power, from time to time, due notice 
having been given, to contract to sell and convey any portion of the lands within 
so much of the forest preserve as is now, or hereafter may be situated within the 
Counties of Clinton, Fulton, Lewis, Oneida, Saratoga, Washington, St. Lawrence, 
Franklin (except the Town of Harrietstown), Herkimer (except the Town of 
Wilmurt), Essex (except the Towns of Newcomb and North Elba), the Town of 
Hope in the County of Hamilton, and the County of Warren (excepting, however, 
therefrom, all islands in Lake George, and all land upon the shore thereof), the 
ownership of which by the State is not, in the opinion of the forest commission, 
needed to promote the purpose sought by this Act, or by chapter two hundred 
and eighty-three of the laws of eighteen hundred and eighty-five. The proceeds 
of all such sales, as in this section provided, shall be paid to the treasurer of the 
State, and shall be held by him in a separate fund and as a special deposit, which 
shall at all times be available to the forest commission for the purpose of pur- 
chasing lands situated within the towns mentioned in section two of this Act at 
such price per acre as may be determined by the forest commission and approved 
by the commissioners of the land office as hereinafter provided. 

(5) All conveyances of lands belonging to the State which are to be delivered 
in pursuance of any contract authorized by section four, shall be executed by the 
comptroller and may contain such v restrictions, reservations or covenants as the 
forest commission shall deem to be promotive of the purposes sought by this Act, 
or by chapter two hundred and eighty-three, laws of eighteen hundred and 
eighty-five. No contract made in pursuance or under the authority of this 
Act shall take 'effect until the same shall have been approved by the commissioners 
of the land office, such approval to be appended to the copy of the resolution of 
the forest commission authorizing such contract and certified by the clerk of the 
commissioners of the land office. 



238 



(G) Every conveyance executed in pursuance of this Act shall be certified by 
the attorney-general to be in conformity with the contract, and shall otherwise 
be approved by him as to form before the acceptance or delivery thereof. Every 
conveyance to be received by the forest commission, and executed in pursuance 
or under the authority of this Act, shall be made to the people of the State of 
New York as grantee, and shall be recorded in the proper county or counties, and 
shall after such record, be delivered by the forest commission to the commissioners 
of the land office to be treated as part of their archives. 

(7) Payment for the purchase of land authorized by this Act, shall be made 
upon the certificate of the forest commission and the audit of the comptroller 
from moneys appropriated by this Act for the purchase of land or from moneys 
received from the sale of lands as provided in section four. Such expenses as 
may be necessarily incurred by the forest commission in the preliminary exami- 
nation of lands purchased or sold under the authority of this Act, or in the 
examination of title of lands purchased under this Act, and all other expenses 
incidental to the conveyances and purchases so made shall be paid by the forest 
commission from the appropriations made from time to time for the purpose of 
such purchases, or from the fund established from the proceeds of the sale of lands 
as provided in section four. 

(8) All lands now owned, or which may hereafter be acquired by the State 
within the towns mentioned in section two of this Act (except such lands in 
border towns as may be sold in accordance with the provisions of section four), 
shall constitute the Adirondack park. The forest commission shall have the 
care, custody, control, and superintendence of the same, and shall have within 
the same and with reference thereto and every part thereof, and with reference 
to any acts committed thereon and persons committing the same, all the control, 
powers, duties, rights of action, and remedies now belonging or which shall hereafter 
belong to the forest commission or the commissioners of the land office, within, or 
with reference to, the forest preserve or any part thereof, or with reference to 
any acts committed therein, or persons committing the same. The forest com- 
mission shall have power to prescribe and to enforce ordinances or regulations for 
the government and care for the Adirondack park, not inconsistent with the laws 
of the State of New York, or for the licensing or regulation of guides or other 
persons who shall be usually engaged in business thereon ; to lay out paths and 
roads in the manner prescribed by law ; to appoint the superintendent, inspectors, 
foresters and all other officers or employees who are to be engaged in the care 
or administration of the park and to fix their compensation, the same to be 
payable, however, only out of the appropriations made from time to time for the 
expenses of the forest commission. 

(9) The forest commission shall have power to lease from time to time, as it 
may determine, tracts of land within the limits of the Adirondack park, not 
exceeding five acres in any one parcel to any person for the erection of camps or 
cottages for the use and accommodation of campers, such leases to be general in 
form except as to the term and amount of rental, and the term not to exceed five 
years, and the leases to contain strict conditions as to the cutting and protection 
of timber, the prevention of fires, and a reservation of a right of passage over the 
same for travellers at all proper and reasonable times, and to contain a covenant 
on the part of the lessee or lessees to observe the ordinances or regulations of the 
forest commission, theretofore prescribed or thereafter to be prescribed, as the 
same may be from time to time. No exclusive fishing or hunting privilege shall 
be granted to any such lessees. 

(10) Except as in this act otherwise provided, the Adirondack park shall 
for all purposes, be deemed a part of the forest preserve. All laws for the pro- 



239 



tection of the forest preserve shall be applicable to the Adirondack park, 
except as in this act otherwise provided ; and the forest commission may con- 
duct the same prosecutions and institute and maintain the same proceedings, 
which it is, or shall be entitled to conduct, institute or maintain with refer- 
ence to any portion of the forest preserve ; and all acts forbidden upon the forest 
preserve are, and shall be deemed forbidden within the Adirondack park except 
as herein otherwise provided ; and all violations of law upon the Adirondack 
:pa,rk shall be subject to the same punishments and penalties as if such violation 
were committed upon any part of the forest preserve. 

(11) The foresters and other employees of the forest commission shall, when 
so directed by the forest commission act as game and fish protectors ; and as such 
they shall have all powers within the Adirondack park which game and fish pro- 
tectors have or shall have, under chapter five hundred and seventy-seven of the 
laws of eighteen hundred and eighty-eight, and any law hereafter to be enacted, 
and they shall from time to time make such report to the commissioners of fisher- 
ies as that board may require. Nothing in this act contained shall be construed 

1 -to permit any violation within the Adirondack park of the game and fish laws 
of the State heretofore or hereafter to be enacted, or to restrict or alter as to such 
park any of the prohibitions or penalties prescribed or hereafter to be prescribed 
by such fish and game laws. It shall be the duty of the forest commission with 
the concurrence and approval of the commissioners of fisheries, to provide for the 
enforcement within the Adirondack park of such fish and game laws by such 
means as the forest commission shall deem wise, in addition to such other means 
as are or shall be provided by law. 

(12) The forest commission shall include in its annual report an account of its 
proceeding with reference to the Adirondack park, and shall make such recom- 
mendations with reference thereto as it shall deem wise. The forest commission 
shall state also in its annual report the number of acres purchased and sold dur- 
ing the year under the provisions of this act, the locality of the same, the prices 
paid or received, and all other information of importance connected with sach 
transfers ; and shall state the amount of money required in the next fiscal year 
for the purchase of lands and for the expenses of the park. 

(13) Chapter four hundred and seventy -five of the laws of eighteen hundred 
and eighty-seven, and all acts and parts of acts inconsistent with this act are, so 
far as they are so inconsistent, hereby repealed. 

(14) This act shall take effect immediately. 

PUBLIC UTILITY OF THE PARK. 

The Commissioners in their report for 1891, go on to say: 
" At this late day, after all that has been written and said on the subject, we 
do not propose to discuss the necessity of forest preservation and the acquirement 
of the Adirondack wilderness by the people. Throughout the entire State 
there is a demand for this which is continuously urged by the newspapers, the 
local forestry associations, and by a general, widespread expression of public 
sentiment. Among all the demands and arguments in favour of this project, a 
dissenting voice has not yet been heard. If there have been such, they arose from 
questions of detail only. 

" The original idea called for forest preservation, with reference only to pro- 
tecting the head waters of our rivers, and providing a future economic and per- 
petual timber supply. But lately the acquisition of this territory has been 
urgently demanded by the public for the purposes of a health and pleasure 
resort, and the original movement has become largely subordinate to the latter 
one. 



24-0 



" It is immaterial whether it be called a park or a forest preserve, and its use- 
as a pleasure or sanitary resort need not interfere with its management for fores- 
try purposes. The friends of the forestry movement, therefore, view with pleasure 
the agitation in favour of the Adirondack park, and welcome the promoters of 
that enterprise as needed allies in the work of acquiring the necessary land. 

" Section three of the Act provides for the purchase of land on which 
there is a growth of merchantable soft wood. Such lands are, for the most part v 
owned by lumbermen who will not in fact, could not, part with such lands without 
abandoning their business. The State cannot acquire any tracts of this character 
except by the exercise of the right of eminent domain, an arbitrary measure which 
should not be resorted to until all other methods have failed. Moreover, there is no 
reason to believe that a bill authorizing the condemnation of the property of the 
lumbermen in noithern New York could be passed. But the lumbermen have, 
so far as we can learn, expressed a willingness to turn over their lands to the 
State at a low price, provided they could have the privilege of removing the 
small proportion of trees comprising the merchantable soft wood. Now, the 
lumbermen will certainly remove such timber from their lands, sooner or later, 
and the forest commission see no possible way of preventing it. The only ques- 
tion is : Shall we secure these lands now, subject to the removal of the soft wood, 
or wait until it is removed and then attempt to buy the land ? 

" After several years' observation and experience in this very matter, we 
believe the delay will only result in the State paying higher prices for these same 
lands, the soft wood having been removed in the meantime just the same. Six 
years ago prominent lumbermen called at the office of the forest commission and 
offered to organize a syndicate that would furnish the State half a million acres 
of Adirondack forest land for the nominal sum of one dollar (not one dollar per 
acre), provided that they could have the privilege of removing the soft wood and 
be relieved of the taxes. We are now willing to pay $750,000 for the same land 
which was offered to us then for one dollar, and pay it subject to the same con- 
ditions. Further delay in this matter will only result in the State paying higher 
prices and under more stringent conditions. It is the old story of the Sybilline 
books. There seems to be some misapprehension as to the result of the clause 
permitting the removal of the soft wood. The trees which would be removed 
under the sanction of section three of the proposed act would not exceed, on an 
average, eight trees to the acre. Their removal would not affect the general 
appearance of the forest, would not diminish the area of foliage, or lessen its value 
as a protection to the watershed of our rivers. The hard wood trees and young 
evergreens would still remain. There would be many lots on which scarcely a 
tree would have been removed under this clause ; although there might be, here 
and there, a few lots on which, by reason of the spruce growing in thick masses 
or so called " clumps " there would be a perceptible thinning. But even in the lat- 
ter case the young trees would in a few years attain a growth which would cover 
all traces of previous operations, and under a properly conducted forestry manage- 
ment, furnish future revenues to the State. 

' This commission does not consider it necessary to argue in favour of a policy 
which has already received the sanction of the best thought of the country. In 
1873 a commission, headed by the late Governor Horatio Seymour, made a report 
strongly urging the reservation of the Adirondack wilderness. 

" On January 22, 1890, Governor David B. Hill forwarded to the legislature a 
special report urging the establishment of an Adirondack park and the purchase 
of lands necessary to such purpose, his message outlining substantially the pro- 
visions adopted in the foregoing Act. In that message he urged that the limits, 
within which lands are to be obtained by the State for this purpose, should be 



241 



settled and defined ; and that all the lands outsiae these limits should be subject 
to sale. He recommended that the area of the park should be from fifty 

to seventy miles square, the mean area of 2,847,0 esponding with the 

amended boundaries now proposed by the com > He also recommended that 

the State give permission to persons desirous 'milding summer camps upon 
State lands ; and that small parcels should be suitable restrictions at 

a moderate rental for such purposes, arguing that occupants would have an. 

interest in preserving the forests in al ould be the best of 

firewardens or foresters; and that the wilde would thus afford a summer 

home to persons of moderate means as wei ; hy. 

" In the same year a committee of the State Senate re^ that there could 

be no dissent from any of these propositions ; and that is admitted that the 

creation of 31 park would he of incalculable benefit to the State and the 

whole country. The claims of the tourist and the summ ident for a great- 

public reservation, where the worker, the traveller and the lover of nature may 
find rest, recreation and recuperation, great as they are, sink into insignificance 
de the acknowledged fact that the preservation of the Adirondack forest, which 
-e accomplished by the liberal action of the State, promptly taken, is a 
sanitary necessity. Consideration for the invalid, who, according to eminent 
authority- f" 10 ^ nere a rei ' a ge of unsurpassed vah; _:ard for the public 

health and protection of v rcial and inanm istries depending 

upon the Adirondack forests for even and seasonable distribution of the rainfalls 
of that region, alike counsel action in this matter, immediate, liberal and coin- 
l /herisive.' 

" The report of this committee was signed by the Hons. George B. Sloan, 
Charles T. Saxton and J. S. Fassett. Further than this, the is forestry 

associations of the State of New York, and the boards of trade in various promi- 
nent cities, together with the entire press of the Stat 'e unanimously and 
persistently urged that the legislature no longer delay action in this matter, and 
that their action, when taken, should be comprehensive and proportionate to the 
magnitude of the interests involved. 

" Section 5 provides for the purchase of lands in the Catskill Mountains. The 
law of 1885, establishing the forest preserve, contemplated a reservation in the 
Catskill as well as in the Adirondacks, and not without good reason. 

" As one of the primary objects of forest preservation is the protection of the 

watersheds of our chief rivers, the wooded slopes <>!' Hu .watershed 

demand special C'mskk , The four comities of Greene. Ulster, Delaware and 

Sullivan contain mountains whose forests protect the head waters of important 

streams that flow to the Mohawk, the Hudson, and the Delaware. The Schoharie 

ek, which tak in the Catskill Mountains, is a large stream that flows 

northward and joins the Mohawk River at Tribes Hill, it- i-s flowing thence 

the Hudson. This stream is also utilized as an important feeder to the Erie 

Canal. The Esopus Creek a! is in the Catskill Mountains and flowing to 

north and east pours its waters into the Hudson at Saugerties. This stream is 

valuable for its water power, which is used to advantage by the manufactories 

situated near its mouth. The east and west branch* s d' the Neversink, and the 

t branch of the Delaware also rise here. The State has already about 50,000 

acres of forest land in these four counties, the bulk of which is situated on and 

near Slide Mountain, in Ulster County, the highest peak in the Catskills. 

<; But there are more important reasons for the establishment of a forest park 
in the Catskills. This portion of the preserve is in close proximity to the great 
cities of New York and Brooklyn, and the many cities alon-/ the Hudson. It is 
easily accessible to three-fourths of the population of the Slate, and receives 

16 (F.) 



242 



annually a far greater number of summer visitors than the famous Adirondack 
region. It is a favorite spot with the vast populations of New York and Brook- 
lyn on account of its accessibility, cheap railroad fare, and desirable accommoda- 
tions for people of moderate means. 

Si ill, aside from all such reasons, the acquisition of forest lands in the 
Catskill Mountains is necessary for forestry purposes, and for the preservation of 
an important watershed. ' 

FOREST FIRES. 

Under this heading the Commissioners in their report for 1891 say: 
" Forest fires in this State during the past year have done but little damage as 
compared with the destructive conflagrations which raged within the wooded 
districts several years ago, prior to the organization of the present firewarden 
system. That the succeeding reports show a greater number of fires than last 
year, is due to the fact that extra effort has been made this season to secure 
reports from every town in the State. A. large number of fires reported this year, 
it will be noticed, were checked soon after they started and before any serious 
damage was inflicted ; and the large number of such cases is encouraging evidence 
of the value and efficiency of the organization. In gathering these reports an effort 
was made to make the statistics on this matter perfect and complete. To this end 
a correspondence was maintained with the 900 firewardens, including the town 
supervisors who act as such within the towns outside the forest preserve, all of the 
woodlands thoughout the entire State, whether private or public, being under the 
charge of the forest commission in this respect. This correspondence was pushed 
until every town in the State had reported, the firewardens being directed to 
report the absence of fire as well as cases where they had occurred. It will be 
noted with interest that the principal causes of these fires were not the ones 
which had hitherto been claimed as such. In no case have thej' been reported 
as originating in lumbering operations, or in the " slash " lefo by log choppers. 
The most frequent source is found in petty farming operations, and the burning 
of fallows ; and, next the railroads and locomotives were a prolific cause. The 
campers and sportsmen seem to be responsible next, while the remaining instances 
were due to various and sometimes unknown causes. 

" In cases where the fire was discovered as soon as started, and a posse of men 
was promptly warned out, there was no difficulty in extinguishing it ; but where, 
by reason of delay, the fire got well started, it was impossible to put it out, and 
the efforts of the firewarden and his men were confined to checking any further 
spread, and to watching it until the rain could accomplish the work. The 
unfailing regularity with which the larger fires were followed by rain was a 
noticeable and interesting fact. The system and the work done under it, is 
however, far from perfect as yet, but each year has brought with it better 
methods and a more effective organization. The commission feels encouraged, 
and believes that the present system can be perfected and the laws enforced so 
that extensive forest fires in the State of New York will be a rare occurrence. 
" In one case a serious fire was started by an incendiary. This occurred 
May 14th, near Indian Lake, Hamilton County, and the person started his fire in 
the windfall of dead timber and tree tops left by the cyclone of 1888. As this 
fire was clearly of incendiary origin, the forest commission offered a reward of 
$300 for information which would lead to the conviction of the person or persons 
who set fire to* this slash. The printed hand-bills containing the announcement 
of this reward were conspicuously posted and freely distributed throughout the 



243 



country ; but the officers of the commission were unable to obtain any clue what 
ever to the perpetrator of the crime. 

" Another incendiary fire was started in Franklin County, near Loon Lake, 
May 2nd, a full report of which, made by tirewarden Chase, will be found on a 
subsequent page. 

" The miscreants who start these fire.*, have every opportunity for accomplish- 
ing their work without fear of detection. They enter the forest alone and 
unobserved, start a fire, and then, aided by their knowledge of the wilderness, 
emerge at some point many miles distant. These incendiary fires are the 
cowardly means resorted to in revenge for fancied wrongs ; and it is an unpleasant 
fact to contemplate that in certain localities the forest is at the mercy of any 
lawless man, who, brooding over imaginary grievances, or imflamed by ignorant 
passion or drink, seeks to gratify a revengeful spirit by this dire resort. One 
need not travel far in the Adirondacks before the ear will catch the discontented 
muttering and significant threats which leave no doubts as to the danger from 
this source. 

"From the table given it appears that of eighty-nine fires reported, the 
causes were : 

From clearing land 22 

From railroad locomotives , 10 

From railroad track hands 3 

From hunters and fishermen 9 

From mischievous boys 5 

From incendiaries 4 

From camp fires 3 

From mosquito smudge 1 

From tobacco smoking 3 

From sparks from saw-mill 1 

From causes not stated 14 

From causes unknown 14 

Total 89" 

SANITARY BENEFITS OF THE ADIRONDACKS. 

The advantages of the Adirondack Park as a health resort are becoming 
recognized. On this point the Commissioners in their report for 1891 have the 
following : 

" Information regarding the sanitary benefits of the great forest is so largely 
sought after that, at the risk of repetition, we quote from one of our previous 
reports : 

" The sanitary value of our forests cannot be over-estimated. In addition to 
their furnishing a summer resort for the over-crowded population of our towns 
and cities, a place where rest, recuperation and. vigour may be gained by our 
highly nervous and over-worked people, the healthful and purifying influence of 
coniferous forests has been thoroughly established. 

" The testimony, based on personal, careful and scientific investigation of such 
men as Dr. E. L. Trudeau, of Saranac, cannot be set aside. Himself an invalid 
restored to health by forest life, he has devoted himself to the question of 
environment, in its relation to tuberculosis, and by experiment on living 
animals, has demonstrated the value of the terebinthine forests of the Adirondack 
region as a factor in warding off pulmonary diseases. He says : 



244 



Twenty- !i\v int. of tin' patients senl to the Adirondacks suffering 

from inripknt consumption come back cured, a proportion only surpassed by th< 
-State of Colorado. As a sanitarium tor the State -mil City of New York alone. 
tin- . ;dn<- of this ivgiun is inestimable, and many professional men will be ;: 
loss w ; send their suffering mti.'iits who ar* mal>!<' to p;iy tli 

a trip to Colorado or California, unless steps be immediately taken ; 

State this heritage that should be preserved for the people. 

"Dr. Alfred L. Loomis, of New York, (an eminent authority) h 
valuable scientific testimony to the value of evergreen forests as U therapeutic 
airnt in lung ions. He writes : 

: Having long- since been convinced by my observations that evergreen 
forests hr. powerful purif\ ing effect upon the surrounding atmosphere, and 
that it is rendered antiseptic by the chemical combinations which are constantly 
,ig on in them, I invite attention to some conditions which may explain their 
therapeutic power. Such ambiguous terms .->s ; balsamic influence, ' health-giving 
emanations' and 'aromatized atmosphere,' must be regarded as empty phra 
and meaningless as scientific explanations. The clinical evidence, however, of 
the beneficial effects of pine forests, on phthisical subjects is unquestionable. 
The changes attributable to the persistent inhalation of air impregnated with 
the emanations of evergreen forests are such as to indicate that the atmosphere 
is not only aseptic, but antiseptic, made antiseptic by some element which is not 
alone fatal to germ life, but at the same time is stimulant and tonic to normal 
physiological processes within the lungs. We are led to the conclusion that this 
antiseptic element of evergreen forests, an element which is not found elsewhere 
is the product of the atmospheric oxidization of turpentine. It is evident that 
the local and constitutional effects of turpentine are those of a powerful germicide, 
as well as a stimulant. Its presence in the atmosphere of the pine forests cannot 
be questioned. Again, ozone I to be present in excess in the air of evergreen 

.-sts, aud the beneficial effects of such an air have been ascribed to this 
stance alone. But it seems evident that there is a close relation between an 
excess of ozone in the atmosphere and turpentine exalation. 

' Recent developments in the treatment of phthisis by gaseous injections, if 
they are found beneficial, are apparently due to the arrest of septic poisoning, and 
not to the destruction of the tubercle bacilli. It is my belief that the atmosphere 
of evergreen forests acts in a similar manner, and facts seem to prove that the 
antiseptic agent which so successfully arrests putrefactive processes, and septic 
poisoning, is the peroxide of hydrogen, formed by the atmospheric exudation of 
turpentine vapours. It is stated that wherever the pine, with its constant 
exhalation of turpentine vapour and its never failing foliage can be distributed 
in a proper proportion to the population, the atmosphere can be kept not only 
aseptic but antiseptic by nature's mm processes, independent of other influences, 
than a certain amount of sunshine and moisture. It is not possible for every 
one to take his weak lungs to an antiseptic air, but it is possible to render the 
air of most localities antiseptic. I would therefore, impress on the public the 
importance of preserving our ev rgreen forests, and of cultivating about our 
homes evergreen tr< 



245 



THE CUTTING OF TIMBER FOR PULP WOOD. 

The conditions which obtain in the area covered by the Adirondack Park 
of the State of New York, in so far as the forest itself is concerned, are analogous 
to those in the wooded parts of Ontario, and the following extracts from the re] 
of the New York Forest Commission for 1891, relating to the wood-pulp industry, 
the tendency to a natural regeneration of the forest under favorable circumstaii' 
etc , are interesting in view of what is going on in our own Provinc 

' The manufacture of paper from wood is a comparatively new industry in 
this country. Its rapid development and the consequent increase in the consump- 
tion of valuable forest products demands the attention of everyone interested in 
American forestry. The introduction of wood pulp was regarded with satisfaction 
by students of the forestry question, because they saw in it.- u^e a market for c 
tain small-sized timber, the sale of which is necessary to an econom' cry 

management. The successful pecuniary results obtained in the m,- ient of 

European forests are due largely to the fact that there is a market for everything 

t is left after cutting the large-sized timber ; and so the advent of I 
pulp industry encouraged our forestry people to believe that operations in i\\ 
lucatioii could now be carried on. as the sale of the thinnings would cover the 
expense. 

"But the consumption of timber by the pulp mills has rapidly 

to endanger, instead of promote, the welfare of our forests, hi the last ei. 
years the amount of timber used for this purpose has increased 500 per cent. 
In the year just passed, 1891, the timber cut for wood pulp in the Great IV 
of Northern New York, was equal to one-third the amount cut by the lumb 

"It is not the increased consumption of this forest product :hat is so noti 
e, but the fact that the entire amount consumed is taken from young tr 
Only a small amount" of pulp timber can be gathered from the limbs and tops 
by lumbering operations. Spruce and balsams furnish the main supp! 
owing to their excuri'ent o'rowth. only the tree trunks of these -varieties are 
available. 

"The pulp mills 011 the eastern side of the Great Forest use thnb 
diameter runs from fourteen down to six inches. On i st side, the mills on 

the Black River use woo-! with r as low as three inches. Fr 

-een that the introductioi d-pulp, while it might 1 

in economic forestry under p ement and restrictions, now < 

speedy extinction of the conifers. 

" The mills on the Upper Hudson use poplar to an /-rive 

cent, and spruce for the balance; but the proportion of po] 
less eacl. year. The mills on the Black liiyer use spr !.-;uu, poplar : 

some small second-growth pine, Hemlock is used to soi b, when 

with other kinds of wood. In making cliemkal libro, however, the sub .ills 

ean use one-third hemlock. Tamarac is also used in 5, but il 

a -^-.'he-coloured woo ! makes a d;irk, although strong paper. No - 

used, nor any hardwood. On the Hudson the pulp timber is cut in th 
length as logs, an 1 is fixated down tie -jtrei'.ns with the log drives. It is 
thirteen feet long, and is sent to thr mill wit;i the 1 >n. The most of the 

pulp timber for the Black River mills comes from St. Lawrence and Lewi- 
counties, where it is cut into four foot lengths, measured, ami sold by the c 
and shipped then over the Carthage and Adirondack Railroad. A lar ion 



of the pulp timber cut in Lewis and St. Lawrence Counties is peeled before it is 
taken from the forest, thereby obviating the use of barking machines at the 
mills. This supply of peeled timber is cut during the bark season, which lasts- 
from May twentieth to August fifteenth, before or after which time the bark will 
not peel. 

" In estimates of a general character, one cord of timber is said to make one 
ton of brown pulp, dry weight ; but the actual results indicate that a cord of 
wood will produce only 1,800 pounds. In the chemical process, two cords of wood 
are consumed in making a ton of dry pulp, or chemical fibre, as it is called. 

'Wood pulp, or cellulose, when first manufactured in this country, was used 
for paper only, and to a comparatively small extent. But the industry has 
developed with surprising rapidity, and now almost the entire bulk of newspaper 
stock is made from wood- Other uses for it have been discovered, and these new 
adaptations are multiplying each year. Under the name of indurated fibre, it is 
used to a large extent in making tubs, pails, barrels, kitchen-ware, coffins, carnage 
bodies, furniture, and building material. In this State, there are pulp mills at 
Oswego and Lockport which manufacture various wares of indurated fibre, but 
these mills do not obtain their timber supply from the Adirondack forest. Wood 
pulp is also used to some extent in the manufacture of gun-powder. 

' Prof. B. E. Fernow, of the Forestry Bureau, at Washington, says in his last 
annual report: 'While the use of timber has been superseded in ship 
building, the latest torpedo ram of the Austrian navy received a protective 
armour of cellulose, and our own new vessels are to be similarly provided. 
While this armour is to render the effect of shots less disastrous by stopping up 
leaks, on the other hand, bullets for rifle use are made from paper pulp. Of food 
products, sugar (glucose), and alcohol can be derived from it, and materials 
resembling leather, cloth, and silk, have been successfully manufactured from it. 
An entire hotel has been lately built in Hamburg, Germany, of material of which 
pulp forms the basis, and it also forms the basts of a superior lime mortar, fire 
and water proof for covering and finishing walls.' 

" The State of New York leads all other States in the manufacture of wood 
pulp, having* seventy-five mills engaged in the industry, out of the 237 mills in 
the United States. Wisconsin comes next, with twenty-six mills ; then comes 
Maine, with twenty-four ; and then New Hampshire and Vermont, with eighteen 
each. Canada has also a very large production of wood pulp from its thirty-three 
mills, besides supplying large ^quantities of timber to mills situated in the United 
States. 

"Of the seventy-five mills in the State of New York, sixty-four mills draw 
their entire supply from the Great Forest of Northern New York, or what is 
known as the Adirondack woods." (pp. 221-227). 



SPONTANEOUS RENEWAL OF THE FOREST. 

Where the efforts of nature are not thwarted by the ravages of fire, the 
tendency of the forest is to re-assert itself. The commissioners note that this is 
particularly the case where the previous cuttings have been conducted systemati- 
cally, as for instance in the operations of charcoal-burners. 

" After crossing the divide, the road runs for a few miles through State land 
some of which was burned over about twenty-five years ago, but which is now 
covered with anew growth of small trees, indicating that if this land is protected 



247 



from further damage by fire, it will in a short time completely reforest itself. " 
(p. 113). 

" From the Summit to Cedar River the appearance of the lands along the road 
is disappointing. There is too much open country, and too little of the forest 
scenery which one expects to see. The open country is due to unsuccessful efforts 
at farming, and the dwarfed condition of the trees to the disastrous fires which 
in some places have occurred repeatedly ; but from Cedar River to Blue Mountain 
Lake the road runs for ten miles through an unbroken forest which, to an 
unpractised eye, shows no diminution of its primeval beauty. Though the 
lumberman cut off, years ago, the merchantable spruce and pine, they took so few 
trees to the acre that little trace remains of their operations, especially as the 
smaller evergreens that were left ar.e fast takino- the place of those which were 
cut." (p. 115). 

" Part of the forest along this road was cut clean about twenty -five years ago 
by the charcoal burners, and persons interested in forestry matters will note with 
pleasure as they ride by, that the land has completely reforested itself, there 
being little in the present growth which would indicate to a casual observer that 
it differed from the original forest on the surrounding lands. There are large 
areas in this country which have been cleared by charcoal burners, but which are 
rapidly recovering their growth, their present condition affording an encouraging 
outlook for the future welfare of these forests." (p. 162). 

" Beyond and west of this place are some abandoned charcoal kilns, which are 
responsible for the peculiar condition of the tree growth on either side for quite a 
distance. The forest was cut here by the charcoal burners, and every tree, lai'ge 
and small, was removed ; but the land is now covered with a promising second 
growth. 

" Throughout the entire region the lands which were cleared for charcoal 
reforest themselves quicker, and with a much more valuable growth, than those 
which have been denuded by fire. Fortunately, the cutting for charcoal resem- 
bles somewhat the coppice system, which is one of the recognized methods of 
forest management ; and so, most of the stumps left by the charcoal axemen have 
sprouted persistently, and yielded a second growth exhibiting most of the origi- 
nal varieties, so far as the deciduous trees are concerned. But where the forest 
has been destroyed by successive burnings the soil and seeds are too badly 
scorched to reproduce the former trees, and so the land reforests itself with an 
inferior crop of small poplars and bird cherries. In driving through Essex 
County a good opportunity is offered for studying some of these phases of nat- 
ural reforestation." (pp. 169-170). 

" Before reaching Aiden Lair the road enters township 26, and for six miles 
passes through large tracts of State land, the most of this township having been 
acquired through defaulted taxes in 1877. Some of this land has been denuded 
by fire, but it was not burned so badly but that it is now reforesting itself. Of 
these burned tracts there is one, in particular, which offers an interesting study 
in reforestation, owing to a peculiarity in the process. The thick growth of 
small poplar and cherry which sprang up immediately after the fire is rapidly 
dying off and disappearing ; but it in turn is being succeeded by a promising 
vigorous growth of spruce and balsam. 

" In this vicinity there is another piece of second growth which is composed 
largely of white pine. The trees are strong and thrifty, and in a few years will 
be large enough for manufacturing purposes. This second growth white pine 
is inferior to the original. The trees are smaller, very knotty, and yield but little 
clear stuff. Still the knots are small, red and sound, and the lumber meets with 



248 



ale. The tune is near when the propagation of this variety of pine 
must enter largely into our forest management. 

ct of second growth white pine, just referred to, lies along the road 
that runs from Minerva, tlr the Hoffman Township, within and near the 

south -eastern boundary <>f the park. The land was once cleared and used for 
farming purposes ; but It wa> abandoned and it is now overgrown with a thrifty 
crop of conifers. Had these lands been denuded by fire, instead of farming, the 
ulting crop of trees would have been of a different kind. Poplars and pin 
cherries would probably have appeared in that case. The fire burns into the 
ground, and destroys every hidden seed. Other seeds, disti 1 by well 

known agencies are subsequently deposited on its arid surface, of which the 
poplar and bird cherry are the only ones that will germinate in the then un- 
oil." (pp. 197-8) 









249 



THE YELLOWSTONE NATIONAL PARK. 

The superintendent of the far-famed Yellowstone National Park, in his 
report for the year 1890, makes the following remarks : 

" That the dedication in 1872 of the Yellowstone National Park as a herit; 
wonders for the enjoyment of the people was a wise and timely act few will now 
question. 

" The Snake River Fork of the Columbia, and Green River Fork of the 
Colorado of the Gulf of California (Pacific waters), and nearly all the other great 
rivers of that portion of the continent, including the Jefferson, Madison, and 
Gallatin Forks, and the Yellowstone, Big Horn, and other branches of the 
'.ri-Missis-dppi Atlantic waters, to a great extent radiate from hot springs 
or spouting geysers within or adjacent to the great National Park, situated 
mainly in North-western Wyoming territory and also embracing portions of 
Idaho and Montana. There can V 'oubt that the modern sulphur basins, 

sal ses, hissing fumeroles. and spouting geysers are only dwind 1 mnants of 

the ancient volcanoes and vast and long continued eruptions of lava, which, in 
the region of ational Park, characterized the elevation of the Great Plains 

and Rocky Mountain Ranges from the oozy bed of a shallow ancient sea. 

" It is also evident that at some subsequent but remote period of time many 
of these mountain slopes were at an elevation of from 6,000 to 10,000 feet, 
covered with dense forests of timber, in size fairly rivalling those upon the 
Pacific coast, and that by some oscillation in the elevation of these regions, by 
era >hes, mud, and slime, like those which covered Pompeii and 

Herculaneum, or other all-powerful and long recurring agencies, forests have 
been crushed or covered, often many hundred feet deep, by conglomerate breccias 
or other volcanic material. 

" Here erosion of the elements, or the blast, or pick and shovel of the tourist, 
unearth this ancient timber, which is often petrified entire into a perfect tree or 
log of stone ; other timbers, while retaining their form, into opal or chalcedony, 
with amethyst or other crystalized cavities, matchless in shape, color and beauty, 
which, for cabinet specimens are unequalled elsewhere in nature and unrivalled by 
art. 

" Many hot springs and mineral streams now petrify timber or coat it with 
sparkling lime or silica, build geyser cones and many beautiful forms i cal- 

lization. but they are all clearly distinct, and mainly much inferior to those of 
the closing eruptive period. This wonderful region is really less one large park 
than a group of smaller ones, partially or wholly isolated, upon both sides of the 
continental divide, much lower in the park than the nearly unbroken surrounding 
mountain range-. Its average altitude probably exceeds that of Yellowstone 
Lake, which is some 8,000 feet or nearly a half mile higher than Mount 
Washington. Its few yawning, ever difficult, often impassabL n-approaches 

along foaming torrents. The superstitious awe inspired by the his-ung sprii 
sulphur basins, and spouting geysers ; and the infrequent visits of the surround- 
ing Pagan Indians have combined to singularly delay the exploration of this 
truly mystic land. 

" The animals of the region are the bison or mountain buffalo, elk, white- 
tailed deer, black-tailed deer, prong-horned antelope, big-horn sheep, bears, 
mountain lion or cougar, wolves, foxes, skunks, badger, rockdog, procupine, 
rabbits, rats, mice, burrowing moles, squirrels, chipmunks, beaver, otter, mink, 
muskrat, etc., birds, fishes, reptiles, and insects. 



250 



TIMBER OF THE PARK. 

"Black or bastard fir is far the largest variety of timber now growing in the 
park, and usually found scattered through forests of smaller timber near the 
Mammoth Hot Springs, Tower Falls, Upper Yellowstone, and other elevated 
terraces. It is often found from three to five feet in diameter, and one hundred 
and fifty feet in height, and is not unlike the eastern hemlock in the irregular 
form of it branched top as well as the coarse grained, shaky, and inferior quality 
of its timber. 

" Black spruce, growing on the moist, sheltered slopes of the mountains near 
the snow, though having a smaller trunk, is fully as tall as the black fir, and is 
a statelier tree and more valuable for timber or lumber. 

" Bed fir is the next in size (which nearly equals that of the Norway pine 
of Michigan), and the first in value of any tree in the park for hewn timber for 
building bridges, etc., for which purpose it is admirably adapted. It is abundant 
in all except the very elevated regions. 

" White pine, rivalling in symmetrical beauty the white pine of the east, but 
much inferior in size, and somewhat in quality, is the prevailing timber of most 
of the elevated terrace groves, and occasionally of the narrow valleys and canon 
passes of the mountains. It grows very densely, often rendering travelling 
among it on horseback exceedingly difficult when standing and utterly impossi- 
ble when burned and fallen, as it is over large areas of the park, proving one of 
the greatest impediments to exploring as well as to improvement by roads and 
bridle paths. It is the best material found in the park for lumber, shingles, 
small timber, rafters, fence poles, etc. 

' Balsam fir, somewhat different from that of the Alleghanies, is abundant and 
very beautiful, singly or in dense groves or isolated clumps scattered over the 
grassy slopes, just below the mountain snow-fields. 

" Cedar of a red or spotted variet} 1 ", growing low, and very branched, but with 
timber valuable for fence posts, is abundant. 

" Poplar or aspen is found in dense thickets among the sheltered foot-hills., 
dwarf-maple with leaves often scarlet with fungus, is sparingly found, and 
innumerable dense thickets of willow ; the main value of all these last named 
varieties being for the food use of beaver or for bait." 

ACT OF DEDICATION. 

The Act by which the Yellowstone Park was dedicated or set apart is as 
follows : 

An act to set apart a certain tract of land lying near the head waters of the 
Yellowstone River as a public park. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United 
States of America in Congress assembled, that the tract of land in the Territories 
of Montana and Wyoming lying near the head waters of the Yellowstone River,, 
and described as follows, to wit : Commencing at the junction of Gardiner' s- 
River with the Yellowstone River and running east to the meridian passing ten 
miles to the eastward of the most eastern point of Yellowstone Lake, thence 
south along the said meridian to the parallel of latitude passing ten miles south 
of the most southern point of Yellowstone Lake ; thence west along said parallel 
to the meridian passing fifteen miles west of the most western point of Madison 



251 



Lake ; thence north along said meridian to the latitude of the junction of the 
Yellowstone and Gardiner's Rivers ; thence east to the place of beginning, is 
hereby reserved and withdrawn from settlement, occupancy, or sale under the 
laws of the United States, and dedicated and set apart as a public park or 
pleasure ground for the benefit and enjoyment of the people ; and all persons 
who shall locate, settle, upon, or occupy the same or any part thereof, except as 
hereinafter provided, shall be considered trespassers and removed therefrom. 

Sec. 2. That said public park shall be under the exclusive control of the 
Secretary of the Interior, whose duty it shall be, as soon as practicable, to make 
and publish such rules and regulations as he may deem necessary or proper for 
the care and management of the same. Such regulations shall provide for the 
preservation from injury or spoliation of all timber, mineral deposits, natural 
curiosities, or wonders within said park, and their retention in their natural 
condition. 

The Secretary may, in his discretion grant leases for building purposes, for 
terms not exceeding ten years, of small parcels of ground, at such places in said 
park as shall require the erection of buildings for the accommodation of visitors ; 
all of the proceeds of said leases, and all other revenues that may be derived 
from any source connected with said park, to be expended under his direction in 
the management of the same, and the construction of roads and bridle-paths 
therein. He shall provide against the wanton destruction of the fish and game 
found within said park and against their capture or destruction for the purpose 
of merchandise or profit. He shall also cause all persons trepassing upon the 
same after the passage of this Act to be removed therefrom, and generally shall 
be authorized to take all such measures as shall be necessary or proper to fully 
carry out the objects and purposes of this Act. 

Approved, March 1st, 1872. 

NOTE. The boundaries of the park had not then been surveyed, but they 
are mainly crests of snow-capped basaltic mountains encircling the wonderland 
of cataracts, canons, fire-hole basins, geysers, salses, fumeroles, etc., unique and 
matchless, with an entire area from fifty to seventy-five miles square. 

RULES AND REGULATIONS. 

The rules and regulations governing the conduct of visitors to the Yellow- 
stone Park and the care of same generally, are the following : 

1st. All hunting, fishing, or trapping within the limits of the park, except 
for purposes of recreation, or to supply food for visitors or actual residents, is 
strictly prohibited ; and no sales of fish or game taken within the park shall be 
made outside of its boundaries. 

2nd. Persons residing within the park, or visiting it for any purpose what- 
ever, are required under severe penalties to extinguish all fires, which it may be 
necessary to make, before leaving them. No fires must be made within the park 
except for necessary purposes. 

3rd. No timber must be cut in the park without a written permit from the 
superintendent. 

4th. Breaking the siliceous or calcareous borders or deposits surrounding or 
in the vicinity of the springs or geysers for any purpose, and all removal, carrying 
away, or sale of specimens found within the park, without the consent of the 
superintendent, is strictly prohibited. 



252 



5th. N"o person will be permitted to reside permanently within the limits 

park without permission from the Department of the Interior, and any pei 
uo\v living \vithlr. the park shall vacate the premises occupied by him within 

thirt\ da; r having l:e<>n served Avith ;i written notice so to do l>y the super- 

intend. iiis deputy, said notice to be served upon him in person or left at his 

pla 

NDTK. The.-e rules ai ilation- ai dopted by the Hon. C. Delano, 

Secretary or,,al the dedication of thr park. 

Additional rules, sul nciy is-ned ai 

(1) The cutting or spoliation of timber within the. park is strictly forbid' 
by l;vw. Also the removing of mineral deposits, natural curiosities or wonder- 
the displacement of the same from their natural condition. 

('2} Permission to use the necessary timb..-r for purposes of fuel and such tem- 
porary buildings as may be required for shelter and like uses, and for the 
collection of ^uch specimens of natural curiosities as can be removed without 
injury to the natural features or beauty of the grounds, must be obtained from 
the superintendent, and must be subject at all times to his supervision and 
control. 

I-'!; i- :I-"N shall oni; '-.indie.} when actually > u-y, and shall be 

immediately extinguished when no longer required. Cnder no circumstances 
must they be left burning when the place where they have been kin,dled shall be 
vacated by the part} 7 requiring their use. 

(4) Hunting, trapping, and fishing, except for purposes of procuring food for 
visitors or actual residents, are prohibited by law , and no sales of game or fish 
taken inside the park shall he made for purposes of profit within its boundaries 
or elsewhere. 

(5) Xo pei -on will be permitted to reside permanently within the park 
without permission from the Department of the Interior : and any person residing 
therein except under lease, as provided in section 2,475 of the Revised Statute-, 
shall vacate the premises within thirty days after being notified in writing so to 
do by the person in charge ; notice to be served upon him in person or left at his 
place of residen; 

(6) Tin: sfdt (./ citing liquors is *tri<-fl>/ pr<>]> !liit!. 

(7) All persons trespassing within the domain of said park, or violating any 
the foregoing rules, will be summarily removed therefrom by the. superintendent 
and his authorized employees : who are, by direction of the Secretary of the 
Interior, specially designated to carry into effect, all necessary regulations for the ' 
protection and preservation of the park, as required by the Statute : which 
expressly provides that the same " shall be under the exclusive control of the 
Secretary of the Interior, Avho.se duty it shall be to make and publish such rules and 
regulations as he shall deem necessary or proper/' and Avho, "generally, shall be 
authorized to take all such measures as shall be necessary or proper to fully carry 
out the the objects and purposes of this Act," 

Resistance to the authority of the superintendent or repetition of any offence 
against the foregoing regulations, shall subject the outfits of such offenders 
and all prohibited articles to seizure, at the discretion of the superintendent or 
his assistant in charge. 

Approved, 

S. J. KIRKWOOD, T. W. XORRIS, 

secretary. Superintendent. 



258 



AX ACT TO SET APART A CERTAIN TRACT OF LAND IX TEE STATE 

OF CALIFORNIA AS A PUBLIC PARR. 

Whereas the rapid destruction of timber and ornamental trees in various 
parts of the United States, some of which trees are the wonders of the world 
on account of their size and the limited number growing, makes it a matter of 
importance that at least some of said forests should be preserved. Therefore, be 
it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of 
America in Congress assembled, that the tract of land in the State of California 
known and described as township number eighteen south, of range numbered thirty 
east ; also township eighteen, south range thirty-one east, and sections thirty -one, 
thirty-two, thirty-three, and thirty-four, township s >;ith range thirty 

east, all east of Mount Diablo meridian, is hereby reserved and withdrawn from 
settlement, occupancy, or sale under the laws of the United States, awl il'dica 
and set apart as a public park or pleasure ground, for the benefit and cn^ment 
of the people ; and all persons who shall locate or settle upon, or occupy the same 
or any part thereof, except as hereinafter provided, shall be considered trespa-s- 
and removed therefrom. 

Section 2. That said public park shall be under the exclusive control of the 
Secretary of the Interior, whose duty it shall be, as as practicable, to make 

and publish such rules and regulations as he may deem necessary or proper for 
the care and management of the same. Such regulations shall provide for the 
servation from injury of all timber, mineral deposits, natural curiosities, or 
wonders within said park, and their retention in their natural condition. The 
Secretary may, in his discretion, grant leases for building purposes for terms not 
-xceeding ten years of small parcels of ground not exceeding five acres, at such 
places in said park as shall require the erection of buildings For the accomr 
dation of visitors ; all of the proceeds of said leases and other revenues that may be 
derived from any source connected with the said park to be expended under his 
direction in the management of the same and the construction of roads an 1 paths 
therein. He shall provide against the wanton destruction of the fish an found 

within said park, and against their capture or destruction for the purp >ses of 
merchandise or profit. He shall also cause all persons trespassing up.m the s-ime 
after the pissage of this Act, to be removed therefrom, and -ally -hall be 

authorized to take all such measures as shall be necessary or proper to fully c u 
out ttie objects and purposes of this Act. 

Passed the House of Representatives, August 23rd, 1-SOO : approved 
25th, 1890. 



254 



ANCIENT FOREST LAWS. 

The evolution of law in its relation to forests, game, etc., from the earliest 
days to the present time, presents an interesting field of study, but one which 
cannot be elucidated here. The following notes have been compiled from Man- 
wood's woric and other sources, and may serve to throw some light on the reasons 
which at various times have moved men to restrain the cutting of timber, as well 
as on the means which they have from time to time adopted with the view of 
providing a sufficient store of what in all ages has been regarded as a prime 
necessity, and which was never more so than now : 

By a law of King Ina it was enacted, that if anyone set fire to a wood, he 
should be punished, besides paying a fine of three pounds (an immense sum in 
those days) ; and for those who clandestinely cut, of which the very sound of the 
axe was to be sufficient conviction, for every tree they were to be mulcted thirty 
shillings. For a tree so felled, under the shadow of which thirty hogs could stand 
the offender was to be mulcted three pounds. 

It was a law at Frankfort that every young farmer must produce a certificate 
of his having planted a certain number of trees (probably in proportion to his 
circumstances in life) before he was allowed to marry. In the Duke of Luxem- 
burg's dominions, no farmer was permitted to fell a tree, unless he could make 
it appear, that he had planted another. Louis the XIV. of France would permit 
no oak trees to be cut, to whomsoever they might belong, till his surveying officer 
had marked them out ; nor could they be felled beyond such a circuit .as was 
sufficiently fenced in by him who bought them ; and then no cattle were allowed 
to be put in till the seedlings which sprung out of the ground, were perfectly out 
-of danger. 

In Saxon times, all beasts and birds that were wild by nature, were wholly 
the property of the king on whosever land or grounds they were found, whether 
any part of the realm, as well those that were out of the forests, chases, and 
warrens, as those that remained within any of them ; so that it was not lawful 
for any man to kill, take, or hunt within his own ground ; and if anyone did so, 
he was liable to be punished for the same. This law continued till Canute the 
Dane came to the English crown, who it appears appointed certain forests and 
chases and fixed their limits the first year of his reign. For the preservation of 
his own forests he made particular laws at Winchester, from which the following 
extracts are translated : 

(1) " Let there be then four men of the higher class who shall have the 
right, according to the custom which the English call pegened, followed in each 
Province of my kingdom, of distributing justice and of inflicting punishment, and 
of all matters concerning the forest, before all my people, whether English or 
Danes, throughout all the kingdoms of England ; which four we order to be called 
primarii forestce, chiefs (or earls) of the forest. 

(2) Let there be under each of these, four of the middling class of men; 
(which the English call lespegend, but the Danes yoong men, and which would 
now be called yoemen, or perhaps, esquires) who shall undertake the care and 
custody as well of vert as of venison. 

(3) In administering justice, these (yoong men) shall not interfere in the 
least ; and such middling persons, after having had the care of the wild animals, 
shall be held always as gentlemen, which the Danes call ealdermen. 



255 



(4) Again, under each of these, let there be two of the lower class of men 
which the English call tinemen ; (or in modern phrase, grooms) : these shall take 
the night charge of vert and venison, and do the servile work. 

(5) If anyone of this lower class shall be a slave, so soon as he is placed in 
our forest, let him be free, and we therefore discharge him from bondage. 

(6, 7, 8) Relate to outfit. 

(9) Relates to exemption from all summons and popular pleas (hundred 
laghe) hundred courts, and from all summons to any other court, except that of 
the forest. 

(10) Let the causes of the middling and lower officers, and the correction of 
them, as well civil as criminal, be judged and decided by the provident reason 
and wisdom of the first class ; but the enormities of the first class, if any should 
happen, (lest any crime shonld go unpunished), we will punish ourselves in our 
royal anger. 

(28) Let no one cut any of our wood, or underwood, without leave of the 
chiefs of the forest ; which if anyone do, he shall be adjudged guilty of an 
infringement of the royal chase. 

(29) But if anyone shall cut down an oak (ilicen) or any tree that furnishes 
food for the beasts of the forest, beside infringement of the royal chase, he shall 
pa}'' to the king twenty shillings. 

(30) I will that eveiy free man shall have venison or vert at pleasure in his 
open grounds, (plana) on his own lands, but without chase (or the right of punish- 
ing intruders); and let all avoid mine (venison or vert), wherever I think proper 
to have it. 

(ol to 34) concern dogs and mad dogs. The term forest law is to be under- 
stood as applying to large tracts of enclosed land, where deer used to be kept. 
As the deer in those forests, and consequently the right of hunting them, were 
deemed to belong to the Crown, the forest themselves were brought under the 
same class of laws without reference to the deer ; and they remained in this state, 
though the trees should fail the laws being executed by the crown with the right 
of forest-age, and all. the privilege of royal forests." 

The laws of Canute were afterwards confirmed by divers succeeding kin->, 
though in practice they generally appear to have been little if anything more 
than the will of the Crown, and were so administered until the barons and 
others encamped in hostile array on Runningmede from Monday the fifteenth to 
Friday the nineteenth of June, 1215 ; during which time they were activdy 
employed in rough hewing the broad basis on which the bulwarks of our liberty 
are built, by forming the Magna Charta with King John. 

The Magna Charta of 9th Henry III., Chap. 21, was the Char/" Forestce of 

1 February 10, 1225. 

Many liberties were then granted, and customs defined, but the restriction on 
cuttino- of wood appears to have been considerably felt. 

The 13th of Edward the III., Chap. 1 and 2, gave considerable liberty for 
cutting and carrying wood, but it was to be done within view of the keepers of 

the forest. 

In the 17th and 25th of Henry VIII., there are several acts respecting the 
forests, but they are principally modifications of former acts. 

Iii the 35th of this rei^n was passed an Act for the preservation of wood, but 
principally respecting coal and billet wood. In Chap. 17, an Act for the preser- 
vation of" timber, we find: "The king, our sovereign, perceiving and right well 
knowino- the great decay of timber and wood universally within the realm of 
England, and that, unless a speedy remedy in that behalf be provided, there is a 
great and manifest likelihood of scarcity and lack, as well for building houses and 



256 



ships, . \\-ood ; It is enacted, that in copse of underwood felled at twenty - 

o\vth there shall In- left twelve standrells or store oaks, on each acre. 
many elm, asli .and that they be of suci 

ely trees I'd)- timber, and such as In en left at former t'el! ; 

ha\ e been any left before ; under pain of inri'i-iling 3s. 4d., for every such standard 

me h.-df to the crown, and the other to the party who may inform and 

sue for it in any court of record, which might be done as in an 

, action for debt. When cut under fourteen years' growth, ' nind bl 

enclosed or protected for four A proprietor or the lawful p< ir of 

the wood under pain for not enclosing for every rood so left unenclosed :Js. 4d.,for 

month it may remain so unenclosed. No calves are to ' in for two 

years after felling, and no other cattle for four years. When cut from four : : 
to i '-four years of age to be six years enclosed under the same penalty ; 

after twenty-four years twelve trees to be left under penalty of 6s. od., each tree, 
the moiet}' to the Crown, and the informer may recover as before. The ground 
to be kept enclosed for seven years under the penalty of Hs. -Id. per rood per 
month as before." In the County of Cornwall, within t\vo miles of the ees 

might be felled when dead on the top. 

Xo wood containing two or more acres, at the distance of two furlongs from 
the house of the owner was to be cut down under the pain of forfeiture of ten 
pounds for every acre of woodland so destroyed. Woods felled under fourteen 

were afterwards not to have colts or calves put into them till eight years 
after cutting and enclosing. Most of these acts of Henry, etc., were only tempor- 
ary till the loth of Elizabeth, Chap. 25, when the time of protection was enlarged 
and the whole made permanent. By the 7th of Edward VI., Chap. 7, the Act of 
the 35th of Henry VIII., Chap. 3, was confirmed, and a little modified. 

It was then enacted, that every fcaleshide (bundle of cleft wood) be four feet 
long beside the carfe; and if named one, to be marked one. and to be sixteen 
inches circumference within a foot of the middle ; if t TO, in two, and 

twenty-three inches girt; if three, marked as such, and to be i /tit inches 

girt ; if four, to girt thirty-three inches ; if five, to girt thirty-eight inches ; anil 
so on in proportion. Billet wood was to be three feet four inches in length, 
the single one, to be seventeen inches and a half in girt, and erery billet of one 
cast as they term the mark, to be ten ; ab ut ; and of two cas ;e four- 

teen inches girt, and t ) be marked within six inches of the middle, mil. the 

private use of the owner. Every bound iagot should be three set long, and i 
band twenty-four inches in circumference beside the knot. This Aet was prin- 
cipally for London, but the -iord of Elizabeth, Chap. 1-i, rendered the statute 
more general ; and ordered that the fagots should be every stick three feet in 
length except one to harden and wedge the binding of it. This was to prevent 
the abuse, then much practised, of filling the middle with short sticks. Th 
Acts were confirmed by the 9th of Anne, Chap. 15, and the 10th of the same 
reign, Chap. 6, dhects that the assize of billet shall not extend to beech, but that 
these shall not be sold in London or Westminster, unless the vendor make them 
of the same size as required by the Statutes for other wood. Chnp. 17 of the 
7th of K Iward VI.. is an Act for prevnting unlawful hunting in parks, places, 
forests, etc. ; and confirms the 38th of Henry VIII. 

The 2nd and 3rd of Philip and Mary, Chap. 2. confirms that of Henry 7th 
and of the 20th of Henry VIII. ; and in the 27th of Elizabeth, there is another 
Act to the same effect, nearly as that ot Henry VIII., which was then made per- 
manent; and to render it still more complete and effectual in promoting improve- 
ment, it further enacts, that timber of twenty-two years' growth shall be exempted 
from tithes. By the 1st of Elizabeth, timber shall not be felled for iron-workers 



257 



of the breadth of one foot at the stub, and growing within fourteen miles of the 
sea or of the River Thames, Severn, Wye, Humber; Dee, Tyne, Tees, Trent, or any 
other navigable river or creek, under pain of forfeiture of forty shillings for 
every tree, one moiety to the Crown and the other to the informer, recoverable as 
before. 

Second of Elizabeth, Chap., 19, is an Act for the preservation of timber iu 
the wolds of Kent, Surrey and Sussex. 

By the 43rd of Elizabeth, Chap., 7, it is enacted that if any idle person cut 
or spoil any wood or underwood, pales, or trees standing, and be convicted by the 
oath of one or more witnesses, if they cannot pay the satisfaction required, they 
shall be whipped. Receivers of wood so cut, knowing it to be so, to incur the 
same punishment. 

The 2nd. of James L, Chap., 22, is an Act respecting bark, as it relates to 
tanners, curriers, shoemakers, and others concerned in leather. By Sec. 19, it is 
enacted, that no person shall contract for oak bark to sell again. By Sec. 20, 
that no person shall fell or cause to be felled any oak tree meet to be barked, 
where the bark is worth two shillings a cartload over and above the charges of 
barking and peeling, timber to be employed in building and repairing houses and 
mills excepted. but between the first day of April and the last day of June, 
upon pain of forfeiture of every such oak tree, or double the value thereof. 
And by Sec. 21, for the better preservation of timber, (which by the takers is 
spoiled through the desire of gain from the top and lop, or bark of timber trees,) 
it is therefore enacted, that no taker, purveyor, etc., or their deputies, shall fell 
for the use of the Crown any oak trees meet to be barked, but in the balking 
season except for the purposes before mentioned ; or take or receive any profit, 
gain, or commodity, by any top, or lop, or bark, of any tree, to be taken or cut 
out of the barking season ; and then only those for the king's house or ships, 
under pain of forfeiture to the party aggrieved (or on whose ground the tree may 
be cut) for every tree so felled forty shillings ; and it shall be lawful for every 
party, of whom such tree shall be taken to retain all the bark, top and lop of the 
whole of such tree, notwithstanding any commission or other matter. 

The loth of Charles II., Chap. 2, is an Act to render the 43rd of Elizabeth 
more effective ;' and it enacts further punishment, on account that the destruction 
of wood tends to destroy the Commonwealth. It is therein declared that the 
officers of justice may apprehend even on suspicion of having carried, or in any- 
way conveyed any burden or bundle of wood of any kind, underwood, poles, 
young trees, bark, or bast of any tree, gate, stile, post, rail or hedge-row wood, 
broom or firs, etc. 

Chap. 3, of the 19th of Charles II., is an Act for the increase and preserva- 
tion of timber in the forest of Dean. Eleven thousand acres are directed to be 
enclosed. Commissioners may sell decayed trees, to make good and maintain 
the said enclosures. When and how much shall be laid open, and by what 
authority as much shall be enclosed and has been opened, is declared. Wood fit 
for sale must be viewed and marked by the justices. Cutting wood contrary to 
this Act subjects the party offending to the penalties mentioned in former Acts. 
The enclosed land to be all re-aflorested. All estates made out of it to any 
person whatever to be null and void. The king may retain game of deer, but 
not above eight hundred. 

Proviso, for owners, tenants, and occupiers : Former offences remitted ; pan- 
nage shall be re-enjoyed after Michaelmas, 1687 ; and when and in what manner all 
privileges to be enjoyed. Letters patent for certain woods and iron works saved. 
Coal mines and grindstone quarries may be leased. 

17 (F.) 



258 



The !Hh. and 10th of William III., Chap. 36, is an Act for the preservation 
of won,! in the New Forest, in the county of Southampton. Two hundred acres, 
purt of this forest, to be enclosed for the growth of timber, alter being set out 
by commissioners ; two hundred acres more to be enclosed yearly for twenty 
years : and to remain in possession of the Crown for ever. Wood is not to be 
(.at without sufficient authority. No coppice wood to be cut. Enclosures not to 
In- ploughed or sown. The foresters to be fined, if they browse or lop any oak 
or beech tree in the forest. Charcoal not to be made within one thousand paces 
of the enclosure. Persons breaking down fences may be committed as rogues 
and vagabonds. 

Ninth of Anne, Chap. 17, is for the preservation of white and other pine 
trees growing in Her Majesty's colonies of New Hampshire, Massachusetts Bay, 
and Province of Maine, Rhode Island, Providence plantation, and the new 
Narragansett country or king's province, and Connecticut in New England, New 
York, and New Jersey. No person within the said colonies shall presume to 
cut, sell or destroy, white or any other sort of pine tree fit for masts, not being 
the property of any private person, such trees being the growth of twenty-four 
inches and upwards at twelve inches from the ground, without the royal license 
for so doing, under the pain of forfeiting 100 for every such offence one moiety 
to the Crown and the other to the informer, who may recover the same in any 
court of record. The surveyor-general to mark the trees to be cut with the 
broad arrow; but no other person than he or his deputy to make any mark 
under the penalty of 5. 

In the 12th of Anne, we find, an Act Chap. 9, for encouraging the importa- 
tion of naval stores from America and Scotland for eleven years, and thence to 
the end of the next session. 

Sec. 26 observes, " Whereas there are in several parts of North Britain, 
called Scotland, pine and fir trees fit for masts, and for making pitch, tar, resin, 
and other naval stores, but the land and wood which may yield such naval stores 
are mostly in parts mountainous and remote from navigable rivers, therefore for 
the encouragement of the proprietor of such lands and woods in making roads 
and passages in rivers in those northern parts useful and commodious to the 
public, as well as for conveying such naval stores to the sea'ports in North 
Britain, to be brought by sea to England ; be it enacted, that there be given a 
premium for every ton of hemp, 6, of tar 4, of pitch 4, of resin 3, of masts 
20s., to be paid by the officers of the navy on a certificate from the custom house 
officer where the stores are landed." 

The first year of George I. presents us with an Act, Chap. 48, for the 
encouragement of planting and preserving woods. By it, maliciously setting fire 
to wood is made felony. 

Sec. 17 of Chap. 2, 5th of George I., directs particular examination into the 
quality of Scotch tar. 

The 6th of George I., Chap. 16, is another Act for the encouragement of 
planting and preserving wood. By it damage done to woods is made recoverable 
from the parish unless within a certain time it discovers and convicts the 
real offender. 

Sec. 3 of Chap. 12 of the 8th of the same king directs, that the inspecting 
officer shall grant no certificate, unless the articles, of which tar is particularly 
mentioned, are of good quality. In it, many sorts of timber are enumerated as 
being imported from America ; among them oak, wainscot, pine, etc. ; and in 
consequence of these being imported from foreign countries, at very advanced 
prices, particularly in time of war, it is enacted that due encouragement be given 



259 



to importation from the colonies. The law respecting the pine, is nearly the 
same as enacted by Anne, but the penalty is reduced. 

The 6th of George 111., Chap. 36, is an Act for the better preservation of 
timber and trees. It is enacted, that every person, not being the lawful owner, 
who shall lop or top, cut or spoil, split down, damage, or otherwise destroy any 
kind of wood, underwood, poles, stack of wood, green stubs, or young trees, or 
carry or convey away the same, or shall have in their custody any such and shall 
not be able to give a satisfactory account how they came by them, shall be 
convicted before a magistrate on the oath of one or more credible witnesses, and 
be fined for the first offence, any sum not exceeding 40s., with all costs ; for the 
second, not exceeding 5 ; and for the third offence be deemed an incorrigible 
rogue ; oak, beech, chestnut, walnut, ash, elm, cedar, fir, asp, lime, sycamore, and 
birch, to be considered as timber. 

This Act was confirmed by Chap. 33 of the 13th of George III., which 
further enacted, that poplars, alder, larch, maple, and hornbeam, should be 
deemed timber trees. 

48th George III., Chap. 72, was for the better preservation of wood in the 
forest of Dean, similar to that of the 19th of Charles II., Chap. 3, where 11,000 
acres are directed to be kept enclosed in the foiest, and this Act enjoins 6,000 
acres to be kept enclosed in the new forest, to be called nurseries for wood and 
timber. When the wood in such enclosures is past danger from the browsing 
of deer, etc., they may be laid open and other quantities enclosed. Every 
person who shall unlawfully destroy, or take away, or break any timber shall 
forfeit for the first offence 10, for the second 20, but the third offence is 
felony, and incurs a punishment of transportation beyond seas for seven years. 

In 50 George III., we have an Act to extend and amend that of the 39th 
and 40th of. the present reign for the preservation of timber in the New Forest, 
and to ascertain its boundaries ; and another, Chap. 218, for disforesting the 
forest of Bere in the County of Southampton. The waste land, it observes, had 
been of great value and utility from the timber and underwood thereon, which 
of late years, has been much injured, and in many parts totally destroyed. In 
Sec. 64, it is enacted that no sheep, lambs, etc., be kept for ten years in any of 
the enclosures of the forest of Bere, unless the owners protect their neighbors' 
fences from such sheep, etc. 

In 52nd George III., an Act was passed for making perpetual that of the 
12th for lowering the duty on bark, after it came to a certain price. 

The 10th of Charles I., Sec. 2, Chap. 23, referred to Ireland. By this it is 
enacted, that for cutting, peeling, barking, or otherwise destroying trees, the 
offenders shall be punished ; and if they be poor and unable to pay the fine, 
they shall be whipped. If the constable refuse to execute the order of the justice 
of the peace to whip the offender, he shall be imprisoned till he agrees to do so. 

10th William III., Chap. 12, enacted, among other things, that every person 
having an estate of freehold of 10 a year, and every tenant for years having a 
lease of eleven of those years unexpired, and paying .10 a year, shall plant or 
cause to be planted, at seasonable times, yearly, and every year during the term 
of thirty-one years, ten plants of four years' growth or more, of oak, fir, elm, ash, 
walnut, poplar, abele, or elder, in some ditch or elsewhere on the said lands, and 
preserve them from destruction. Every person or society having iron works 
shall plant or cause to be planted in ground sufficiently well enclosed for this 
purpose, five hundred trees of the aforesaid sorts on some of their ground yearly, 
and every year during such time or term as they shall keep or have the said iron 
works. Any person having 100 or more acres of land (plantation mtasure) or 
other tenants in common, shall, over and above the ten trees, within seven years, 



200 



enclose \vitli ;i good sufficient fence of stone, wall, ditch, hedge, pale, or rail, one- 
plantation acre thereof ; and within seven years aforesaid plant at the least of 
the height of one foot above the ground when planted, and the age and at times 
before mentioned, for every ten leet square contained in such acre, in such method 
as they shall think fit, and keep the same enclosed and fenced from cattle for 
twenty years. No sheep or cattle shall be allowed to graze in these enclosures 
for twenty years under the penalty of 2()s. for every such sheep, one moiety to the 
informer, and the other to the poor of the parish. 

Then followed several other Acts, the most important of which is 23 and 24, 
Geo. III., Chap. 39, being an Act to amend the laws for the encouragement of 
planting timber trees. 

It is worth while to notice the great encouragement which the legislatures of 
Scotland and England even in very ancient times held forth to the planting of 
trees. So far back as the year 1457, by a statute of James II, freeholders are 
enjoined to cause their tenants to plant woods, trees and hedges. This is followed 
by the Act of James IV., 1503, chap. 74 ; by the Act of James V., 1535, chap. 10; 
and by the Act of Charles II., 1661, chap. 41, which are all equally explicit. 

Transcripts of these enactments are made and they are very curious in them- 
selves, and were passed in time long before systematic forestry was thought of. 

(1) Statute, James II, 14th parliament, 6th March, 1457 : " Anent plantations 
of woodes and hedges, and sawing of broome ; the lords thinks speedful, that the 
king charge all his freeholders, baith spiritual and temporal, that, in the making 
of their Whitsundayis set, they statute and ordine, that all their tennents rjant 
woodes and trees, and make hedges, and saw broome, after the faculties of their 
mallinges, in places convenient therefor, under sik paine as law and unlaw of the 
barronne sail modifie." 

(2) Statute, James IV, 6th parliament, llth March, 1503, chap. 74, that 
hedges, parkes, and dowcottes and cunningares be made. " Item, it is statute and 
ordained, anent policie to be halden in the cuntrie, that everilk lord and laird, 
make them who have parkes with dears, stankes, cunningares, dowcottes, 
orchardes, hedges ; and plant at the least, ane aicker of woode quhair there is na 
greate woodes nor forestes." 

(3) Statutes, James V, 4th parliament, 7th June, 1535. 

10. For planting of woodes, forrests, and orchardes. "Item, for policie to be 
had within the realme, in planting of woodes, making of hedges, orchardes, 
zairdes, and sawing of broome. It is statute and ordained, be the king's grace and 
his three Estaites of Parliament, that the actes maid thereupon of before by 
King James the First, and uthers our Soveraine Lorde's progenitoures, be observed, 
keiped, and put to sharpe execution in all poyntes, with this addition : That everie 
man, spiritual and temporal, within this realme, havand ane hundredth pounde 
land of new extent be zeir, and may expend sameikle, quhair there is na woodes 
nor foirestes, plant wood and forrest, and make hedges, and having for himself, 
extending to three aickers of land, and abone or under, as his heritage is mair or 
less in places maist convenient ; and that they cause everie tennent of their landes, 
that has the same in tack or assedation, to plant upon their on-set, zeirly, for 
everie marke land, ane tree. Ilk laird of ane hundreth pound lande under the 
paine of ten pound, and lesse or mair, after the rate and quantity of their landes." 

Forest tires in those days were of frequent occurrence, and involved, as now, 
very grave consequences. The Statutes of rnuirburn prescribed a period of the 
year when the burning of muirs was expressly prohibited under a penalty. 

The first Scots Act for regulating muirburn is that of 1st James I, chap. 20, 
(Anno. 1424) In the following terms : " It is ordained, that na man mak muir- 



261 



burning after the moneth of Marche quhir all cornes be schorne, under the paine of 
fortie shillings, to be raised to the lord of the land of the burner, etc. 

Subsequent Acts were 10 James III, Chap. 75, Anno. 1477 ; 4th James IV, 
Chap. 48 ; 6th James IV. Chap. 71 ; 6th James VI, Chap. 84. 

There are also several British statutes regulating the time for making muir- 
burn. The 6th George III proceeds thus : "And whereas the laws now in force 
in that part of Great Britain called Scotland for preventing muir-burn in for- 
bidden time are found defective and insufficient, whereby not only the game, but 
also many valuable woods and plantations have been destroyed ; for remedy 
whereof, be it enacted, by the authority aforesaid, that no person or persons shall 
make muir-burn, or set fire to any heath or muir in that part of Great Britain 
called Scotland, from the last day of March to the first day of November in any 
year, under the penalty of 40s. lawful money of Great Britain, for the first 
offence," etc. This Act was amended by 13 George III, Chap. 54, sec. 3. 



262 



FOREST LANDS OF THE UNITED STATES. 

A bill to provide for the establishment, protection and administration of 
public forest reservations, and for other purposes, was introduced in the Senate 
of the 1 'nitrd States in June, 1892. It is unnecessary to set out the bill here, as 
it did not actually become law, but the report thereon which was submitted by 
Mr. Paddock, from the Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, contains matter 
of much value and importance as embodying an authoritative expression of 
opinion on the condition of the forest lands of the United States. It is given 
in full :- 

The Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, having had under consideration 
the bill (S. 3,235) to provide for the establishment, protection, and administration 
of public forest reservations and for other purposes, submit the following 
report : 

(1) The United States Government retains somewhat less than 70,000,000 
acres of public domain which is designated as timber or woodland, mostly 
situated on the slopes and crests of the western 'mountain ranges. 

So little regard to the character and condition of the public lands has been 
given that it is impossible without much labor to determine how much wood- 
land is comprised in them. An estimate was made in 1883, which places the 
woodlands at 73,000,000 acres, of which of course an unknown quantity has 
since been disposed of. There an; still some woodlands undisposed of in Minne- 
sota, Wisconsin, probably a small amount in Michigan, Louisiana, Mississippi, 
Alabama, and perhaps Florida, but the bulk lies on the Rocky Mountains, Pacific 
Coast, and Sierra Mountain ranges, mostly of coniferous growth (pines, spruces, 
firs, cedars, and redwoods) and mostly in subarid regions. 

(2) This property is at present left without adequate administration, nor 
is there in existence any practicable system of management by which the timber 
on it can be utilized without detriment to the future condition of the forest 
growth. 

The public lands are all held for the purpose of disposal to private holders, 
hence no further administration or management of the same beyond that incident 
to their disposal has ever been attempted. In the case of timber lands, however, 
it was recognized to a small extent that there was some additional value to them 
that needed consideration and special legislative measures. These measures have, 
however, been rather detrimental than otherwise to the future of this property, 
besides discriminating unjustly and imposing conditions which cannot practically 
be enforced. 

In California, Washington and Oregon the law permitted the purchase of 
160-acre tracts each by private citizens for their own use. The object of this 
law, which was evidently to encourage small holdings of timber lands in con- 
nection with agricultural lands and insure consequent protection and manage- 
ment of the same, has never been attained. It is alleged that millions of acres 
have been taken up under this act without intention to hold them for the use of 
the entryman, and immediately transferred to lumber companies, often foreigners, 
and immense tracts are being thus held for the same wasteful lumbering opera- 
tions that have exhausted the forests of the east. 

In the Rocky Mountain States timber lands could not be sold, but the 
citizens were authorized " to fell and remove timber on the public domain for 
mining and domestic purposes from mineral lands." In addition, railroad 



263 



companies are allowed to take timber for construction along their right of way. 
The impossibility of purchasing in a straightforward, honest way from the 
Government either timber or timber- bearing lands- 
has compelled the citizens of these nine States and Territories to become trespassers and 
criminals on account of taking the timber necessary to enable them to exist. 

Settlements upon timber lands in these States and Territories under the homestead and 
pre-emption laws are usually a mere pretense for getting the timber. Compliance with those 
laws in good faith where settlements are made on lands bearing timber of commercial value is 
well nigh impossible, as the lands in most cases possess no agricultural value, and hence a 
compliance with the law requiring cultivation is impracticable. As to cutting timber from 
mineral lands, perhaps not 1 acre in 5,000 in the States and Territories named is mineral, and 
perhaps not one in 5,000 of what may be mineral is known to be such. 

By the provisions of the law approved March 8, 1891, the Secretary of the 
Interior is empowered to further regulate and restrict this cutting of timber for 
domestic and railroad use, but in the absence of officers to control and enforce 
these regulations and restrictions they are practically meaningless, especially 
since it is almost impossible to obtain convictions where all are equally violators 
by necessity, arising from absence of adequate and equitable legislation. 

And even if it were possible to enforce the regulations, there could hardly 
be expected any method in the cutting performed by an unknown number of 
independent individuals, and such a system comes as near deserving the name of 
management as the pillaging of a city by a band of soldiers in war time deserves 
the name of municipal administration. To verify the general existence of these 
conditions the reports of the Secretaries of the Interior, the Commissioners of 
the Land Office for the last fifteen or twenty year's, and the report of a special 
commission laid down in a volume called " The Public Domain," published in 
1884 (House Ex. Doc. No. 47), may be consulted, or Bulletin n of the forestry 
division, Department of Agriculture, on the forest conditions of the Rocky 
Mountains. 

(3) In consequence of the absence of a well-developed system of admin- 
istration, the value of this forest property is annually decimated by fire and by 
illegal and wasteful cutting. 

It is not necessary to argue this point, for it is a necessary corollary of the 

preceding. 

The Senate Irrigation Committe, travelling two years ago in the western 
mountains, was for weeks precluded from any view by dense clouds of smoke from 
forest fires, and it is asserted that in that year more timber was burned than has 
been used legitimately since the settlement of that country.* 

* The acres burned over and values destroyed during the census year 1880 were reported as follows : 



States and Territories. 


Acres 
burned 
over. 


Value de- 
stroyed. 


States and Territories. 


Acres 
burned 
over. 


Value de- 
stroyed. 




356 895 


$440 750 


Utah 


42,865 


$1,042,800 




37 910 


713 200 


Colorado 


113,820 


935,500 


Oregon 


132,320 


593,850 


Arizona 


10,240 


56,000 








New JMexico 


64,034 


142,075 




KO7 n i f^ 


3S1 7/17 Qfifl 








Total Pacific slope 


DZf ,U-ID 


3>1, ( i i ,oUU 


Total Rocky IVtountains 


432 464 


$6,780,371 


AT 


QQ 090 


i IOQ 000 








Idaho . . . 


21,000 


202,000 


Grand total 


959,509 


$8,528,171 


\Vvomina 1 


83,780 


3,255,000 








Nevada 


8,710 


19,000 





















264 



Tin* worst damage of these fires is not so much to be sought in the destruction 
of the standing timber but in the destruction of the forest tioor, by which the 
chance for germinating of seeds and natural reforestation is annihilated, and the 
watrr regulating capacity of the forest is destroyed. 

As t<> the amount of depredations, the following table, prepared from reports 
of tlic Land Office, is instructive, not only in showing the enormous amounts thus 
lost to the public treasury, compared with which the cost of a well-organized 
administration would be a mere bagatelle, but also by corroborating the state- 
ment that the loss is rarely recovered in the courts. 

It should also be borne in mind that the cases reported do not by any means 
cover all cases of trespass, presumably only a small part, since the number of 
agents to ferret out the cases are ridiculously out of proportion to the area to be 
covered. 

DEPREDATIONS ON THE PUBLIC TIMBER DURING ELEVEN YEARS. 



Year. 


Estimated value of timber 
reported stolen. 


Amounts actually re- 
covered, partly by 
compromise. 


Appropriations for 
protection service. 


Agents e m p 1 o yed 
(number calculated 
on the basis of 
twelve month a each 
per annum). 


Market. 


Stumpage. 


1881 


9 

891,888 
2,044,278 
8,144,653 
7,289,854 
2,862,530 
9,339,679 
6,146,935 
8,397,500 
3,603,534 
3,067,152 
2,347,473 


$ 

225,472 
511,069 
1,709,824 
1,093,178 
489,255 
1,726,516 
1,138,320 
840,145 
1,182,987 
832,420 
849,441 


$ 

41,680 
77,365 
27,741 
52,108 
49,451 
101,086 
128,642 
128,522 
185,002 
100,942 
116,704 


$ 

40,000 
40,000 
75,000 
75,000 
75,000 
75,000 
75,000 
75,000 
75,000 
75,000 
100,000 


17 
31 
25 
26 
23 
21 
26 
25 
23 
29 
33 


1882 


1883 - 


1884 


1885 


1886 


1887 


1888 . 


1889 


1890 . . 


1891 


Total 


54,135,481 


10,098,627 


1,009,243 


780,000 


*25 





(4) It ^ a ivell-know fact, demonstrated by European experience and 
practice, that by a proper system of cutting not only can a forest be reproduced 
without the necessity of expensive replanting and kept continuously productive, 
but its yield per acre and year, in quantity and quality, can by proper manage- 
ment be increased considerably beyond that of the virgin forest left without 
management. 

The methods of management for natural reforestation, or " regeneration 
methods," are practiced, especially in France and Germany, in broad-leaved as 
well as coniferous forests. The cutting of the old timber is done with a view of 
giving chance for seeds of the desirable species to sprout and for the young 
growth to develop satisfactorily. These methods prevail especially in the 
mountain regions, where planting would be expensive and sometimes impractic- 
able. 

Since in the well-managed forests only such species as are valuable are 
allowed to grow, to the exclusion of the inferior kinds, which the forester treats 
as weeds, the composition of the forest is improved, the growth is kept at the 



* Average. 



265 



most favorable density for development, not only more individual trees but these 
of more servicable shape are growing, so that at the harvest the percentage of 
waste and useless material is reduced, and it is for these reasons that the yield, 
not only in quantity but also in quality, is increased. 

While in our virgin forests the percentage of useful saw material is estimated 
to rarely exceed 20 or 25 per cent, the percentage in the French Government 
forests is over 50, which in pine and spruce of 130 years of age in Germany may 
reach the high figure of 60 to even 70 per cent ; that is to say, the management 
of the crop is such that the firewood, branches, and waste material are kept down 
to from 30 to at most 50 per cent, of the total crop of wood. 

Most of the timber cut and sawed in the United States is from trees more 
than 200 years of age, while the rotation, i.e., the time during which the crop is 
allowed to grow in Germany, for most timber is not more than 100 years. 
Comparisons of absolute yield are therefore impossible to make. 

But if we allow the high estimate of 10,000 feet board measure per acre to 
be an average for the United States, we learn from the large statistical material 
on hand for the German forest administrations that the yield of the German 
forests is at least three times as large and that produced in a shorter time. We 
leave out of consideration, of course, the yield of the Pacific Slope forests, which 
is beyond any average computation. 

That it is judicious for the government to keep in view the question of 
timber supplies and to give, at least as far as it own holdings are concerned, 
timely attention to the future, if for nothing else than an example and object 
lesson, may be inferred from the following statement in regard to the outlook of 
available supplies and demand, which, while not claiming to present actual 
conditions, for which statistics are lacking, discusses possibilities or probabilities. 

The chief of the forestry division, in an address before the real estate 
congress at Nashville, Tenn., in 1892, says : 

The area of timber land in the United States, although changing daily by clearing of new farms 
and by relapsing of old ones into woodlands, may roughly be placed at 500,000,000 acres. Even if 
we were to class as timber land all the land not occupied by farms or known to be without tree 
growth, this figure can not be increased more than 60 per cent. ; that is, the utmost possibility 
of the area of natural woodlands in the United States must be within 800,000,000 acres. The 
former figure, however, conies probably much nearer the truth. How much of this area con- 
tains available merchantable timber it is impossible to tell, or even to guess at. We only know 
that supplies of certain kinds are wanting. For instance, the white pine of the North shows 
signs of exhaustion, the white ash has become scarce in many localities, the tulip poplar will not 
last long, and the black walnut has ceased to be abundant. All we can do is to estimate the 
range of possibilities. 

With the utmost stretch of imagination as to the capacity of wood crops per acre, if we allow 
even the entire area of half a billion acres to be fully timbered, and keep in mind the enormous 
yield of the Pacific Coast forests, 1,250 or 1,500 billion cubic feet of wood is all that could be 
crowded upon that area. This figure would far exceed the most highly-colored advertisement 
of a dealer in timber land, except on the Pacific Coast ; in fact he would be afraid to assert one- 
half as much, for it would make the average cut of timber per acre through the whole country 
10,00(J feet board measure. 

The above figure in cubic feet represents wood of every description, allowing as high as 33^ 
per cent, for saw timber. 

Since we consume between 20,000,000,000 and 25,000,000,000 cubic feet of wood of every 
description annually, fifty to sixty years would exhaust our supplies, even if they were as large 
as here assumed and if there were no additional growth to replace that cut and no additional 
increase of consumption. Regarding the latter it may be of interest to state that according to as 
careful an estimate as I have been able to make upon the basis of census figures and other means 
of information the increase in the rate of consumption of all kinds of forest products during three 
census years, expressed in money values, was from round $500,000,000 worth in 1860 to $700,- 
000,000 worth in 1870 and $900,000,000 in 1880, while for 1890 it may probably reach $1,200,- 
000,000, an increase of about 30 per cent, for every decade, or somewhat more than the increase 
of population, which may in part be explained by higher prices. 



266 



It will also ;iiil us in din (.(inception of the.situation to know that the saw mill capacity of the 
country in 1SS7 was round 200,000,000 feet (hoard measure) daily, which again may be figured 
equivalent io a prohable consumption of wood of all kinds to the amount of at least 20,000.000 
cuhic feet round. 

It remains to be seen what the chances are of supplying ourselves from the natural repro- 
duction of our present forest area. 

1 have shown else- where that, while under the careful management of the German forest 
administrations, the a\ entire yearly new growth i* computed at 50 cubic feet per acre, or 2.3 
cuhic feet for every li cubic feet standing timber, we can here, where there is no management 
at all, whore tire and cattle destroy not only young growth but also the fertility of the soil, in 
spite of the originally greater reproductive power, expect no such annual crop. 

From my observations I would not admit that more than one-half such annual growth is 
reali/.ed on the average over the whole arei of 500,000,000 acres, and the likelihood is that much 
less is reproduced per acre. 

Hence, while 500,000,000 acres reserved as forest at the very best would satisfy our annual 
consumption of '25,000,000,000 cubic feet we need some 5,000,000,000 feet to supply our annual 
conflagrations we are presumably cutting into our capital at the rate of at least 50 per cent, of 
our annual consumption ; that is to say, only one-haif the annual cut is represented in annual 
new growth. What do these figures mean with reference to the subject in question ? Simply 
this, that while as yet prices for timber lands, and still less the price of lumber, are by no means 
advancing in proportion to the constantly growing reduction of standing timber supplies, when the 
general truth of these figures is recognized, which cannot fail to occur soon, timber lands will 
appreciate rapidly in value, and lumbermen, especially in the South, will regret their folly of 
having marketed their best supplies at unprofitable and unsatisfactory margins. 

Nevertheless, it may be possible by a common-sense management and more 
rational methods of utilizing the timber, having some regard to the young growth, 
inaugurated now, to avoid the necessity of replanting at great cost and to main- 
tain the present forest resources of the United States in sufficient and ever 
increasing productiveness. 

(5) It is also established beyond controversy that the forest cover, and espe" 
dally the forest floor of leaves, twigs, decaying vegetable matter, underbrush, and 
root system, influence the regularity of the waierflotu in springs, brooks, and rivers, 
as well as the state of the ground water level, the presence or absence of an efficient 
forest cover determining the percentage of subterranean or superficial drainage. 
Whatever the theories or facts regarding the influence of forest areas upon meteoro- 
logical phenomena and climatic conditions and these are partly at least still in 
controversy there exists but little doubt, if any, among students and observers in 
regard to the influence ^vhich a forest cover exerts over the water drainage and 
soil conditions. 

Since it is in part upon the assumption of the existence of such an influence 
that the government is called upon to look to the preservation of forest conditions,, 
and since the ideas regarding such influence are still more or less confused, it may 
be proper to explain more at length the action of the forest in this direction. 

So far as formation of springs is concerned, no doubt, geological conditions 
and structure are of primary importance. This does not, however, exclude that the 
vegetable cover of the soil has at least a secondary influence upon the feeding and 
regular flow of springs. Even if we exclude any action of the forest upon the 
increase of precipitation, such as is claimed and partly sustained by observation, 
there are various ways in which the supply of springs is influenced by forest 
cover. 

The forest floor and the foliage breaking the force of the rain drops, prevent 
a compacting of the soil ; it remains porous and permits the water to percolate 
readily, changing a large amount of it from surface drainage into subterranean 
channels ; the root system, no doubt, works in the same direction. Forest floor 
and foliage also prevent rapid evaporation, and although the trees consume a/ 
large amount of water in their growth, evaporation is the worst dissipator of 



2G7 



moisture, and the balance, between the consumption and the saving of evaporation 
by forest growth, is largely in favor of this kind of vegetation as compared with 
any other vegetable cover or with naked ground, provided the forest floor of 
decayed leaves, twigs, etc., is not destroyed. Furthermore, the melting of snows 
is retarded under the forest cover, and finally the mechanical retardation of the 
surface water flow promotes subterranean drainage, insuring to springs a greater 
supply for a longer time. 

This observation, very generally made, used to be explained by popular 
writers as due to the sponge-like condition and action of the forest floor, being 
able to take up water and then gradually giving it up to the soil below. For- 
tunately, the forest floor is rarely like a sponge, for a sponge never gives up water 
below, but always by evaporation above after the supply has ceased. The simile 
was an unfortunate one. 

The open runs, i. e., brooks, rivulets and rivers, receive their supply mainly 
from springs, but also from the surface waters which flow without definite channels 
down the slopes. The more the supply is derived from springs the more even is 
the water flow of the river ; the greater the suppjy of the surface drainage the 
more dependent is the water flow on the changeful rains and on the melting of 
the snows, and the more changeful is the water flow. While, then, in the first 
place, the water flow in rivers is dependent upon the amount and frequency of 
rainfall and snow, the manner and time in which the water reaches the channels 
determines the greater or smaller extremes of water stages. 

The retardation of the melting of the snow, which in a well-covered moun- 
tain district may be prolonged for two or three weeks under a forest cover, is of 
great significance in reducing the spring floods. The main influence, however, lies 
in the mechanical impediment which the forest floor Opposes to the rapid surface 
drainage, promoting filtration to the soil and preventing the rapid filling of sur- 
face runs and lengthening the time during which the water is to run off. Obser- 
vations in one of the reforested parts of the French Alps showed this retardation 
to be in the ratio of 5 to 3. 

Thus, while in extreme cases, with excessive rainfalls or sudden rises of tem- 
perature in early spring, with steep declivities and impermeable rock formation, 
even a forest cover may have no practical effect in preventing a flood, it may be 
accepted as a generally true proposition that a forest cover has a tendency to 
lengthen the time to run off, and hence to reduce in -amount and frequency flood 
conditions and to maintain the water flow more even with fewer excessively low 
and high stages. 

Lastly, but of greater importance than has often been conceded to this influ- 
ence, the forest cover prevents erosion of the soil and formation of the so-called 
detritus of rocks, gravels, and sands which, carried into the rivers, increase the 
danger from floods, impede navigation, and if deposited on fertile lands may. as in 
France, destroy the soil value of whole districts. Along the coast and in the 
sandy plains the protection of the loose soil and dunes against the disturbing 
action of the winds, and in the mountains which are liable to avalanches and 
snow-slides, as in Switzerland, the protective value of a forest is also well estab- 
lished. If there were any doubts regarding the influence of forest cover upon 
water and soil conditions before they have been entirely dispelled by the extenT 
sive reforestation work undertaken by the forest department of France. 

There seventeen departments or counties had been impoverished and depopu- 
lated by the washing of the soil, torrential action of the rivers, and repeated 
floods, due to deforestation of the mountains, when the government adopted the 
policy of reclothing the denuded slopes with tree growth and sod. The popula- 



2i ;s 



in these counties had diminished from 10 to 20 per cent, within less than 20 
years, ;md lei-tile lidds had been covered up for more tlian 100 miles from the 
sourer .,!' the soil, with the debris brought from the mountains by the rushing 
torrents. 

The French Government has expended for reforestation of these mountains, 
during the l;ist thirty years, over $35,000,000 and expects to have to spend more 
than tlie same amount in addition before the damage is repaired. The result of 
this work, some of which is now long enough established to show effect, perfectly 
justifies the anticipations of its efficiency. In the " perimeters" which have been 
recuperated the waters are carried off more slowly and without damage. These 
works in their result must quiet all theoretical discussion of the efficiency of forest 
cover in this particular. They present ocular proof not only of the fact that de- 
forestation invites fioods, erosion, and untold damage, but that reforestation is the 
method of remedying the damage and proper attention in time to the forest cover 
the method of obviating it. 

Recognizing the value, then, which a forest may have in preserving proper 
water conditions and soil conditions, and perhaps, too, in some degree in climatic 
conditions, the conception in Europe of " protective forests" as distinguished from 
the " economic forest," that is, a forest which has value only from a material point 
of view, a policy has grown up in the higher developed nations of placing the 
first class of forests, which have a significance as a natural condition rather than 
as a source of material supply for the whole community, under government control, 
direct or indirect. 

(6) Aside, therefore, from ike undesirability of destroying or unnecessarily 
impairing a valuable resource of material, which can be continuously repro- 
duced on land otherwise useless, there is strong reason ^vhy, especially in regions 
dependent upon irrigation for their agricultural development, favorable forest 
conditions should be carefully maintained. 

Modern experience and scientific research have confirmed the experience of 
antiquity, namely, that plant production is primarily dependent upon water 
and that the management of water supplies is much more essential to the farmer 
even in the humid regions, than management of mineral constituents of the soil, 
for the latter can be supplied with ease, but the former can be regulated and sup- 
plied properly only with difficulty. If, then, water management becomes more 
and more important in all sections of our country, it is particularly so in those 
regions where, from natural causes, the supply is scanty. No artificial reservoirs 
can supply the more easily and cheaply maintained natural reservoir of the forest 
floor. 

In this connection it will be well to quote the following language from a 
memorial recently transmitted to the President of the United States by the Colo- 
rado State Forestry Association, to which the Secretary of State, State engineer, 
State treasurer, attorney-general, and other leading officers of the State, together 
with the chambers of commerce of Denver and Colorado Springs, and some 500 
leading citizens of the State have appended their signatures, recommending the 
reservation of all the timber lands in their State. 

To his Excellency the President of the United States: 

Your memorialist, the Colorado State Forestry Association, respectfully represents that the 
agriculture of this State, now rapidly increasing in magnitude and importance, is almost entirely 
dependent upon systems of irrigation. At least $13,000,000 are invested here in reservoirs, 
canals, ditches, and other works for the storage and distribution of water. No less than 13,000 
miles of irrigating canals and main ditches are in operation or in course of construction m the 
State. 



269 



The agricultural yield of Colorado (exclusive of live stock) for the year 1891 irnonnted to 
$53,900,000 ; the mineral output for the same period was $33,549,000 a large sum, but greatly 
inferior to the one tirst named. 

It will thus be seen how vitally important to the growth and continued prosperity ot this 
Commonwealth is an abundant supply of water for irrigation. In fact it may be said that hence- 
forth he agricultural yield of the State will be limited only by its water resources. 

The streams upon which the irrigation systems of Colorado depend are fed by the springs, 
rivulets, and melting snows of the mountains, which in turn are nourished and protected by 
the native forests. Where the forests have been destroyed and the mountain slopes laid bare 
most unfavorable conditions prevail. The springs and the rivulets have disappeared, the winter 
snows melt prematurely, and the flow of streams, hitherto equable and continuous, has become 
fitful and uncertain. Floods and drought alternating clearly indicate that the natural physical 
conditions of the region have been unduly disturbed. In winter and early spring, when heavy 
masses of snow have been accumulated on treeless precipitous slopes, snow and landslides fre- 
quently occur with disastrous results to life and property. Even thus early in the present season 
a considerable number of valuable lives have been sacrificed in this manner. 

The main Rocky Mountain range extends throughout the State, from north to south, and is 
flanked on either side by numerous spurs and minor ranges. The average or mean elevation of 
Colorado, 7,000 teet above the sea level, is greater than that ot any other portion of North 
America. The high and rugged interior region contains 140 peaks or more, exceeding 11,000 
feet elevation, and comprises about one-fourth of the area of the State. Small portions of this 
region are used for agriculture and grazing, but in the main it i< unsuited for such purposes. Its 
surface, below timber line, was originally quite generally covered with a coniferous forest growth, 
but has subsequently been marred and disfigured by fire and the axe. Vast areas have been 
thus desolated. Above timber line proper there are many gulches and sheltered places, in some 
of which exist a stunted growth of trees and shrubs, where the drifting snows find lodgment, 
melting only during the summer months. 

At certain of these greater elevations are found morasses, alpine lakes, and during portions 
of the year, ice fields of limited extent. The region is mainly one of cold and humidity for long 
periods of each recurring season. This is one of the principal, if not the chief, of the distribut- 
ing centres of the continental water system. It contains the sources of the North Platte (in part,) 
the South Platte, Arkansas, Rio Grande, Dolores, Gunnison, Grand, White, Yampa, and other 
powerful streams, the preservation of which is not only important to Colorado but to neighbor- 
ing States and Territories. New Mexico would be uninhabited were it not for the life-giving 
waters of the Rio Grande, which flow from the snow mountains of Colorado. 

In view of the above, and in consideration of many recognized evils which follow the reck- 
less and inconsiderate denudation of timbered areas, we respectfully ask that you will, under the 
act of March 3, 1891, cause to have withdrawn from disposal a'id constituted a forest reserve, 
all public lands along the crests of the mountain ranges and spurs in this State, as above men- 
tioned, and upon either side thereof for a distance of 6 miles, more or less, according to the 
width of the timber belts in different localities and as may be deemed advisable after due official 
examination of the same. 

We beg to represent further, that in our opinion the rights o : prospecting and mining and 
right of way for public roads within the territory in question should remain inviolate, and that 
the general government should inaugurate at the earliest practical period a careful and conser- 
vative administration of such public lands. We also believe that, under proper regulation, a 
prudent and economical use of the forest resources may be had without endangering the per- 
petuity of the forests. Forest conservation should promote, rather than retard, all legitimate 
industries. 

In this connection it is also worth while to quote the language of the chief 
of the forestr} r division from the annual report of the Secretary of Agriculture 
for 1891 :- 

WATER MANAGEMENT THE PROBLEM OF THE FUTURE. 

Before even attempting the control of precipitation, our studies, in the opinion of the writer, 
should be directed to secure better management of the water supplies as they are precipitated 
and become available by natural causes. How poorly we understand the use of these supplies 
is evidenced yearly by destructive freshets and floods, with the accompanying washing of soil, 
followed by droughts, low waters, and deterioration of agricultural lands. 

It may be thought heterodox, but it is nevertheless true, that the manner in which most of 
the water of the atmosphere becomes available for human use (namely, in the form of rain) is by 
no means the most satisfactory, not only on account of the irregularity in time and quantity, but 
also on account of its detrimental mechanical action in falling, for in the fall it compacts the 



270 



ground, impeding percolation. A large amount of what would be carried off by underground 
drainage is thus rimmed into surface-drainage waters. At the same time, by this compacting of 
tin- soil, capillary action is increased and evaporation thereby accelerated. These surface waters 
also loosen rocks and soil, carrying these in their descent into the river courses and valleys, thus 
increasing 'landers of high floods and destroying favorable cultural conditions. 

I Ic-re it is that water management and, in connection with it or as part of it, forest manage- 
ment should be studied ; for without Jorest management no rational ivater management is possible. 



(7) Experience in the United States has shown that under private owner- 
p, forest conditions are almost invariably destroyed or deteriorated, Jor the 
simple reason that the timber for present use is the only interest which private 
enterprize recognizes in the forest, not being concerned in tin future or in the 
consequences of mismanagement to adjoiners, who have to suffer. 

It is therefore undesirable to transfer the ownership of the public timber 
lands to individual owners in the expectation of having them managed with a 
view to the broader interests of the community. 

If there were need of other demonstration of this point beyond the history 
of the eastern forest lands, which have been for many years in the hands of 
private owners, we need only refer back to the working of the law in the Pacific 
Coast States, where such disposal to private holders has utterly failed in accom- 
plishing its object. There is neither the interest nor even the knowledge to be 
found among the many to let us anticipate forest management by small holders. 
Besides foresty thrives best on large consolidated areas, from financial as well as 
technical considerations. 

It will be necessary, in order to promote rational forest management, to do 
the same that all other nations have found necessary to do, namely, for the 
government to set the example and furnish the object lesson and opportunity for 
the others to follow. 

The fact that a tree crop takes from fifty to one hundred years and more to 
grow to usefulness requires a patience and stability of ownership which our 
people have not yet attained, and hence the government must furnish the con- 
servative elements where needed, as in our forest policy. 

(#) The cession of the public timber domain to the individual States with 
a view of having the States devise methods of conservative management, would 
fail in accomplishing the object for various reasons. Experience in the past 
with such cessions has not proved it practicable to place restrictions or conditions 
upon such cessions or to enforce them. 

Even if a cession, upon condition that the State provide efficient manage- 
ment, could be practically effected, lack of unity in the various systems and 
clashing of interests where watersheds are situated in more than one State, make 
retention of these lands in the general government desirable, or at least more 
promising of conservative results. 

Other reasons of expediency make such a wholesale cession of timber lands 
impracticable. Among these may be mentioned the difficulty of segregating the 
timber lands from public lands of other description or transferring obligations 
of the general government toward railroad companies, resting upon such lands. 

Nevertheless, co-operation with the State authorities in inaugurating a 
sound forest policy is most desirable, and should be made a prominent feature in 
whatever measures the general government may devise. 

(9) The present proposed legislation keeps in view the following principles : 
(a) That the retention of the public timber lands in the general government, 
and their administration as such, is the only proper policy for all wooded areas 
of the public domain ivhich do not stock on agricultural land. 



271 



(6) That only a fully developed and separate system of management and 
administration, carried on by competent men under expert advice, can accom- 
plish the objects of a rational forest policy. 

(c) That the object of the public forest reservations is twojold, namely, to 
maintain desirable forest conditions with regard to waterfiow, and, at the same 
time, to furnish material to the communities in their neighborhood. 

(d] That ivhile the service of protection of watersheds would warrant an 
expenditure out of other funds for such service it should, nevertheless, pay for 
itself by the sale of surplus forest material. 

It is only necessary to add a few words of explanation on this latter point, 
says the chief of the forestry division in discussing the practicability of a 
government forest administration : 

To meet any objections on the score of expense, a rough estimate of this question may be 
made as follows : 

Allowing 50,000,000 acres of timber land reserved, I find that a tolerably efficient adminis- 
tration may be provided for a round $2,500,000, or 5 cents per acre. It would be satisfactory 
of course if only this expense be covered by the revenue. While the annual growth of wood per 
acre on the reserved area would exceed in value the assumed cost of administration the local 
market and consumption is restricted. But when we consider that the present saw-mill capacity 
-of the region affected is over 3,000,000,000 feet B. M., and the resident population 3,000,000, 
requiring at least 50 cubic feet of wood material per capita, sufficient margin is assured even if 
only half of these amounts are furnished from the government reservations and the average 
charge for stumpage is taken at 10 cents. 

And in another place (see Annual Report, 1886) : 

(7) The cost of the total service depends of course on the number of districts to be formed. 
'Take Colorado al ne, which we will assume contains about 5,000,000 acres of public domain. For 
this we may require three hundred rangers and ten inspectors, and the expense may be placed in 
round figures at $300,000. This amount could be saved by preventing only one-third of the 
forest fires, which seem to destroy over $900,000 worth of public property in that State yearly, 
and the 50,000,000 cubic feet or so of timber, which may be cut to satisfy the needs of the 
country for its development, would certainly, without hardship to any one, yield enough to help 
pay the expenses of less favorable localities and of the central bureau. The expense of the latter, 
with the necessary staff of clerks, etc., could certainly be kept within the sum of $50,000. Even 
if the whole forest area were as thoroughly organized as proposed for Colorado, the expense of 
the service would not be more than 30 per cent, of the income which might be derived from this 
domain, or, which could be saved, by preventing one-half of the fires that yearly destroy about 
an equal amount. 

Referring to the operations of several European forest administrations we 
-find that their expenditures represent from 37 to 58 per cent, of their gross 
income, or from $1.33 to $5 per acre, the net revenue being 96 cents to $4.40 per 
acre. These are results under conditions of very extensive management and 
under highest economic development. Taking Prussia alone, with a round 
6,000,000 acres of forest and much poor and undeveloped country, the cut in 1890 
amounted to round 333,000,000 cubic feet of wood, of which 215,000,000 feet 
-went into cord- wood and 118,000,000 feet in saw-logs, or round 56 cubic feet of 
wood representing the annual growth per acre per year over the entire 6,000,000 
acres, with a proportion of 45.6 per cent, in saw timber and wood for manufac- 
tures. The price received for this material in the woods, butt cut, was at the 
average rate of $10.63 per M feet, board measure, and $3.69 per cord, or both 
together about 5 cents per cubic foot of wood, the total income from wood being 
$16,225,000, of which 62 per cent, came from saw timber. Other revenues of the 
fores o administration amounted to $17,632,810, or about $2.63 per acre, as against 
$10,888,893 in 1870. 



272 



The expenditures, amounting to 8,796,740, or, if special appropriations not 
recurring are deduced, to ss,."),s2,2<5s, represented 47.38 per cent, of the gross 
in< nine. It may U- of interest to indicate in what direction this large amount is 
expendt-d : 

There ;ire IL'L' oflicers in higher branches of administration, aggregating 

salaries t<> the amount of $154,350 

C.s ! district officers or managers 588,276 

'1,753 umlerforesters or guards 1,162,8(57 

114 (inaiK-ial agents 73,141 

Otlier temporary employes and personal expenses 1,073,587 



Total personalia . $3,052,221 

Cost of harvesting wooil crop (lumbering at a little less than 7 cents per 

cubic foot) $2,206,030 

Buildings 599,834 

Roads and water ways 410,102 

Surveys , 110,226 

Injurious insects 60,454 

Culture 1,230,882 

Sundries 280,073 



Total salaries and administration $8,009,822 



Forestry schools and scientific research * 48,130 

Purchase of lands 304,156 

Sundries.. 434,632 



Grand total $8,796,740 

Or $1.33 per acre, leaving a net revenue of $1.30 per acre, as against 97 cents in 1870,. 
when the expenditure per acre was 34 per cent. less. 

(10) The proposed legislation contemplates a segregation of the timber lan^s 
that are stocking on non-agricultural soil from the other public lands and the 
transfer of their administration from the Department of the Interior, where 
lands are held only for disposal, to the Department of Agriculture, which is 
designed to look after cultural matters and ivhere a bureau in charge of forestry 
matters already exists. 

To save expense in the beginning and to create as quickly as possible an 
efficient protective service, the army may well be employed for such duty. 
This service has been conferred upon the army in the Yellowstone and the 
California parks to the full satisfaction of both officers and men, with the antici- 
pated results as far as the protection of the forest property is concerned. 

Co-operation with State authorities, such as forest commissions or commis- 
sioners, is provided for with a view of enlisting the authorities of the States in 
the upholding of a rational forest policy. 

Since these forest reservations are not to be in the nature of parks, they are 
to remain open to public use and entrance for all purposes, excepting so far as 
restrictions appear necessary in order to protect the property from damage and 
depredation. Prospecting and mining are to be permitted under proper regulations. 

The main features of the legislation, however, are its provisions lor the 
cutting of timber under a system of licenses and the creation of the necessary 
force of officers to attend to the business of a regular forest administration pro- 



* We (i.e., United States) appropriate for a similar purpose, namely, the forestry division in the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, whose function it is to build up an interest in the subject and to supply informa- 
tion on forestry matters where none existed before, less than one-half of this amount. 



273 



perly. The attempts hitherto of regulating the cutting of timber have remained 
futile for the lack of an organized system, and of the necessary force to maintain 
a system. 

The license system here provided recognizes the various demands of settlers, 
prospectors, miners, and lumbermen as legitimate, and necessary to be provided 
for differently according to the nature of their business and in an equitable man- 
ner. 

When all needs of the population can be legitimately satisfied, with a suffi- 
cient force of officers to attend to the wants of the public in a business-like 
manner, there is no reason why the existing vandalism with which the public 
timber domain has been wasted should not cease, destructive fires be reduced to 
a minimum, a system of proper forest conservancy gradually be developed, and 
the American nation add to its civilization by a rational treatment of the forests 
of the public domain at least. 

In conclusion the fact is recalled that, as long ago as 1879 the writer of 
this report took occasion to refer to this subject before the Senate in the follow- 
ing language (see Congressional Record, February 10, 1879) : 

There is another subject, Mr. President, not strictly agricultural, and yet so closely allied 
to that interest as to demand consideration always when agricultural questions are under dis- 
cussion. I refer to the preservation of our forest lands from denudation. Those who have in- 
vestigated and given much thought to the matter declare that the wholesale destruction of the 
forests of a country, without providing for a new growth, not only seriously affects the material 
interests but impairs the health and comfort of all the inhabitants thereof. Bitter experience 
long ago taught the people of the Old World that they could not with safety wage indiscriminate 
war against their trees. Nature is, indeed, a kind mother to those who exercise an intelligent 
regard for her habits and her laws, but she is at times terrible in her wrath against those who 
blindly defy her decrees. The laying waste of the forests of a country rudely disturbs that har- 
mony between nature's forces which must be maintained if the earth is to be kept habitable 
for its teeming millions. 

We have ourselves heretofore sadly neglected these considerations, but our government can- 
not and must not much longer refuse to give to them its most serious attention. If we may not 
with propriety restrain the individual from injuring his own property, we can and should at 
least furnish information and devise plans through intelligent legislation, which shall incite him 
to cooperate with his neighbor to protect their common interests. Most European Governments 
have elaborated methods whereby they exercise a supervisory control over the forests of their 
dominions, and one day the public welfare will demand that our government shall follow their 
example. The subject is a practical one ; it is not a dream of the theorist ; it concerns the 
pockets of the people and their welfare in many ways. 

Considering the very great importance of this measure early passage of the 
bill is recommended. 



18 (F.) 



INDEX. 



A. PAGE. 

Accounts 143 

Acetate of lime 21 

Acetic acid 21 

Adirondacks 80, 220, 221 

Adirondack Park Act 236 

Adirondack Park 239, 243 

Administration 141 

Admiralty 127 

Afforestation 137 

Alabama 80 

Albumen 19 

Alder Shoots .19,20 



Alps 

Altitudes 

Ancient lorest laws. . . 

Annual yield 

Appenines 

Areas under forests . . . 
Artificial regeneration 
Artificial watering. . . . 

Ash 

Australia 

Austria-Hungary. . . . 



B. 



Baden 

Bagneris, sylviculture 

Bailey, Major F 

Bark 

Barking 

Barres 

Bavaria; 

Bavarian tables 

Bell, Dr., distribution of forest trees. 

Bilberry 

Birch bark 

Black forest 

Boards, paper 

Brandis, Sir Dietrich 

British Columbia 

Brushwood 

Buildings 

Burma 

Burning 



61, 



83 
113 
254 
69 
83 
13 
42 
55 
18 
49 
92 



66, 77 
75 

113 
19 
64 

149 
84 
45 
26 

116 
22 

64, 66 
24 

57,62 
47 
77 

128 
60 
72 



C. 



Cabbage radish 37 

California Park , 253 

Canada balsam 22 

Canada, production of timber (1890) 206 

Canada, timber regulations 180, 191 

Canada, timber resources 154 



PAGE. 

Capital employed 7,8 

Capital value 130 

Cattle food 22 

Cattle 132 

Cellulose 24 

Central offices 142 

Charcoal 20, 21 

Charcoal gas 20, 21 

Chrome tanning 19 

Cleghorn, Dr. H 57 

Climate in general 85, 116 

Climate of India 53, 54 

Climate of New York 80 

Coesalpinia , 19 

Collagen 19 

Collections 190 

Colonies 47 

Colophony 21 

Communal forests 103, 118 

Compartment system 42 

Coniferin 22 

Conolly, Mr 57 

Cooper's Hill 7, 59 

Conservators 44 

Consular Eeports United States 91 

Coppice 19, 70, 71, 120, 121 

Cork oak . 19 

Creosote 21 

Crown timber regulations 199 

Currency, European 92 

D. 

Dalhousie, Lord 57 

Damage by insects . '. 101 

Debra Doon 59 

Debris 169 

Deforestation in Russia 14 

Demarcation 120 

Denudation 80, 83, 137 

Deodorising agent 20 

Department staff 141 

Destruction of forests 108 

Divi-divi 19 

Dogwood 20 

Draining 140 

Dunes 140 

Duties in the forests 142 

E. 

Economies in timber trade 168 

Economy of woodlands 85 

European countries, woodlands in 81, 85, 113 



276 



PAGE. 

Evaporation 9, 55 

Kxpt-ndituro 129 

KxporUtion 172, 174, 175 

Exports 47 

European currency 92 

F. 

Felling, season for 19, 64, 69, 70 

Fernow, B. E 177 

Field crops 71, 74, 75 

Financial results 128 

Fire 60, 89, 90, 165, 226, 227 

Fire districts 209 

Fire ranging 210 

Fire-wardens 230 

Fish, fresh water 34 

Flocks 137 

Forest bureaus 93, 104 

Forest fires 89, 101, 135, 160, 162, 242 

Forest lands, United States 262 

Forest laws, ancient 254 

Forest, model 39 

Forest preservation 102 

Forest protection on water frontages 34 

Forest, pure 11 5 

Forest register 94 

Forest schools 59, 95, 107, 146, 149 

Forest trees, geographical distribution of . . 26 

Forests, administration of 43, 61 

areas under 13 

as a shelter 17, 36, 85 

bye-products 18 

capital of , 7 

destruction of 79, 108 

hygienic effects of 12, 243 

in the colonies 47 

in Germany 62 

in India 47 

industries of 43 

influence of, on springs 86, 

mechanical effect of 11, 55 

organization of 44, 93, 103 

ownership of, in Europe 14, 91 

produce of 18, 63, 125 

a protection against air currents 12 

protection of soil 12 

purify the water 35 

regeneration of 40, 246 

utility of 7 

utilization 63 

France 81, 113, 150 

Frosts 85 

Fuller's practical forestry 17 



G. 



Gas from wood 

Gelatin 

Geographical distribution of forest trees 
Georgia 



69 
19 
26 

80 



PAGE. 

Germany 62, 84 

Gibson, Dr 57 

Goats , 132 

Grazing 132, 139 

Great Britain 81 

Ground rent 183, 185 

Groups 39, 42 

Growing timber, increase in value of 166 

Guards . 44, 128 



H. 



Haddington, Earl of 16 

Hemlock extract 19, 24 

Herds 137 

High forest 75, 121 

Himalayas 53 

Hops and hop-poles 18 

Hornbeam 19 

Hough, Dr 21 

Hunting , 136 

Hygienic effects of forests 12, 243 

Hygroscopicity of humus 17 

I. 

India 48, 52, 53, 54 

revenue of state forests 60 

Industries of the forest 43 

Injuries 135 

Insects 100, 135 

Inspectors-general 45 

Inundations 83 

Irrigation 55 

Italy 83 



J. 



Jardinage 
Jourdier . 



68 
84 



K. 



Karts plateau 83, 84 

Kauri wood 48 



L. 



Labor in forestry 

Lake Huron, height of 

Landrath 

Larch bark 

Latex 

Leached ashes 

Leather 

Leaves 

composition of 

Legislation. . . .48, 50, 57, 58, 99, 131, 73, 77, 

212, 220, 223, 226, 228, 229, 236, 250, 253, 254 

Levels of the Ottawa 29 

Limesstone soil 116 

Lyell on torrents 80 

Lumber, demand for 88 



43 
33 
73 
19 
22 
23 
19 
22 
23 



277 



M. 



PAGE. 



Macgregor 

Management, systems of . . . 73, 198 

Maritime pine 

Market fluctuations 

Mattawa, levels of 

Measures, European 

Mechanical effect of forests 11, 55 

Methylic alcohol 21 

Michael, Major-General 57 

Military organization 145 

Mimosa bark 

Mineral lands 

Mixed forests 115 

Model forest 

Monsoon 54 

Mother trees . . 41 



N. 



Nancy, school 

Natural regeneration . . 
Needles, pine and fir . 
New growth after fire. 
New York, State of . . 

New Zealand 

Nipissing lake 

Norway .... 

Nova Scotia 

Nurse woods 



146 
40 

22 
165 
80 
48 
33 
81 
47 
77 



O. 



19 
134 

. 137 
22 

47, 198 

. 206 

194 



Oak bark 

Offences 

Officers 

Oil, illuminating . 

Ontario 

Ontario Fire Act 

Ontario Timber Act 

Organization of the personnel . 44, 59, 93, 104, 105, 
110, 141 

Osiers 

Ottawa city, wood goods 176 

Ottawa river, levels 30 

Ownership of forests in Europe 14 

P. 

Pasteboard 23 

Pasture 76, 132 

Peat soil 68 

Pigs . . 133 

Pine bark 19 

Pine needles 22 

Pitch 21, 22 

Pitch pine 21, 178 

Planting .42, 138, 140, 167 

Planting, a plea for. . . 16 

Poplar leaves 

Precipitations 

Prairies, planting of . . . . 162, 164 



19 (F.) 



PAGE 

Preventive measures 139 

Private woods of France 150 

Products from the fcrests 18, 63, 125 

Proprietor's works 139 

Protection duties 173 

Protection of fish 34 

Protection against air currents 12 

Protection of the soil 11 

Prussia 103 

Public institutions 118 

Pulp woood 7, 23, 245 

Pure forest 115 

B. 

Rainfall .' 9, 54, 49 

Rangers 44, 205 

Regeneration-of forests 40, 41, 66, 246 

Register 94 

Regulations 48, 49, 60, 77, 99, 131, 213, 251 

Renewal, spontaneous 246 

Reserved forests 60 

Resin 21 

Revenue 60, 107, 115, 128, 129 

Revolution 39 

Rhine Valley 70 

Rights of user 131 

Ringing 72 

Rivers and springs 11 

Roads 70, 128, 129 

Rocky Mountains Park 212, 213 

Rotation 6'.t, 76 

Rubber 22 

Russia. . 84 



S. 

Sales and export 

Sandy beaches 

Sanitary benefits of Adirondacks. 

Saprolegnea 

Sartage 

Saw-dust 

Saw-milling 

Saxon State forests 

Scandinavia 

Schlich, Dr.. 



126, 130 

37 

243 

25 

75 

. . 22, 23 

170 

7 

18 
.. 7,41 



Schools of forestry 59, 95, 107, 146, 149 

Scotch pine 

Scotch yield tables 

Second growth 

Seizure 

Seed 

Selection system 

Shade trees for fish 

Sheep 



.......... 21 

............. 8 

............... 90 

................. 189 

................. 41 

............. 42. (17 

................. 35 

.................. 132 

Shelter trees .......................... 17, 85 



Shipping interest 

Shooting 

Shoott and suckers 



183 



278 



Silver fir. 
Smoke. . . 
Snow. . . 

Soil, protection c( . 



' PAGE. 

64 
21 

.. 87 
11 



Sowing 42,175 

Spontaneous renewal *. 246 

Springs and rivprs 11,85 

Splitting 65 

Spruce 64, 66, 161, 177 

Square timber, waste in - 168, 169 

Staff 141,144 

State foresta 50, 105, 117, 118 

State" works 139 

Storms 135 

Strip system 42 

Styria, system in 74 

Sumach 19 

Survey 120 

Swamps 140 

Switzerland 109 

Sycamore 18 

Systems of culture 120 

Systematic forestry 39, 71, 110, 120, 162 

T. 

Tannin 19 

Tanning industry 74 

Tapping 66, 140 

Tar 21 

Telegraph poles 19 

Temperatures 17, 49 

Thinnings 64,76 

Timber Act Ontario 194 

Timber dues, collection 179 

Timber lands Ontario, management of 198 

Timber licenses 186, 189, 203 

Timber regulations, Canada 180, 191 

Timber regulations, Ontario 199 

Timber trade of Canada 154 

Timber slides 128 

Torrents 12 

Torrent beds 137 

Tramways 128 

Transport of produce 43, 101 

Treatment 76 

Trees for shelter 17 

Trieste 84 

Tree culture on water frontages 34, 36 



Turpentine . 



PAGE. 



21 



U. 



Underground Wood 69 

Uniform 137 

United States 79, 177, 262 

United States Consular Reports 91, 103, 110 

User, rights of 131 

Utility of forests 7 

Utilization 63 



V. 



Vanillin 

Victoria 

Village community. 

Vincent, Mr 

Volatile products. . . 
Volga, river 



22 
50 
78 
50 
21 
85 



W. 



War Department 128 

Waste lands. ... 140 

Waste in square timber 168,169,205 

Water frontages 34 

Wattles 19, 37 

Weights, European 92 

White pine 176, 178 

Wild animals 135, 137 

Willow .- 20,38 

Willow bark 19 

Wilmot, Mr. S 35 

Wolves ' 137 

Woodlands, European Countries 81, 85, 113 

Woods, consumption of 88, 89 

Woods, uses of 7, 88 

Wood pulp 7, 23,245 

Wood ranging 205 

Wood spirit ... 21 

Wood Vinegar 21 

Working plans 122, 143 



Y. 

Yellowstone National Park. 
Z. 



249 



Zones 114 

Zurich forest system 109, 110 



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